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The Spatiality of Urbanization: The Policy Challenges of Mega-Urban and Desakota Regions of Southeast Asia

UNU-IAS Working Paper No. 161
The Spatiality of Urbanization:
The Policy Challenges of Mega-Urban and
Desakota Regions of Southeast Asia
Terry McGee
Professor Emeritus
University of British Columbia
Vancouver, Canada
April 2009
“It would something of a truism to say that social life is fundamentally
scaled and issues of geographic scale are central to how social life is
structured and played out.”
Andrew Herold and Melissa Wright (2002)
Four inescapable facts will govern our thinking about the prospects for urbanization in the
21st century.
First, statistically for the first time in global history the world will have the majority of its
population living in urban places. 1
Secondly, most of the world growth of urban population will occur in Africa and Asia that
contain almost two thirds of the world’s population within which at present in most countries
the proportion of population living in urban places is well below 50 per cent. This has
significant demographic implications for it means that the volume of increase in urban
population will be unparalleled in human history. For example, in China alone it is estimated
that the increase in urban population will average between 12 and 20 million annually; more
than the size of most contemporary nations states in the world.
Thirdly, these new demographic realities together with the restructuring of economic, social
and political activities will necessitate the rethinking of historically embedded concepts or
urban and rural that have shaped the demographic, political, sociological and economic
understanding of what is “urban” and “rural’.
Fourthly, the increasing economic integration of the world that has been labeled globalization
is creating a greater potential for economic volatility and raising challenges for the
sustainability of existing urban forms.
Of these four issues it may argue the issue of the changing nature of rural and urban are the
most critical because this idea of the division between rural and urban is so embedded in the
institutional, political and social understanding of most contemporary nations. Thus a
rethinking of rural and urban is necessary because the location of rural and urban activities is
changing. Thus urban activities defined as non-agricultural activities are spreading into areas
that have previously been defined as rural. Technological advances in transportation and
communications have facilitated this process of regional, national and sub-national
integration producing a new form of “transactional space” characterized by “space-time”
collapse that facilitates spatial processes of decentralization and relocation in which the most
ubiquitous type is the spatial spread of urban areas. This is occurring in both market
economies and former socialist societies at various stages of the urban transition. 2
In the developed countries suburbanization, industrial and service decentralization and
urbanites demands for leisure space have dominated the process which also includes
previously rural villages being taken over by week-ending urbanites. This often occurs in
tandem with the development of the increasing diversification of specialized agricultural
production both along industrial lines (chicken batteries) and intensive household operations
growing many kinds of food.
In developing countries the spread of urban areas is much more regionally uneven and mixed
in character. This reflects the fact that in the period since 1945 as modernization and
development goals have been unevenly implemented between countries the intensity of
changes in transactional space has varied. In countries that have been more centrally
embedded into the post 1945 era of globalization such as the Asian NIC’s these new “forms
of transactional space” are well advanced while in others this process has been much slower.
But no matter the pace of this transactional change the outward spread of urban activities into
rural spaces is leading to a mixture of rural and urban activities. A final consequence of this
revolution in “transactional space” is that it is leading to a reconfiguring of urban settlement
systems in which large mega urban regions often form the nodes of large “urban corridors” of
which the Tokyo – Osaka conurbation is an example.
This does not mean that rural activities at a national level have disappeared. There is still a
spatial continuum from parts of the country that are dominantly rural to the urban cores in
which urban activities dominate but it is the space between these two poles made –up of
mixed rural and urban activities that is becoming increasingly important.
This paper analyzes these processes illustrated by a case study of the Southeast Asia region. 3
The paper is divided into five parts. Part one analyzes the forces that are driving the
contemporary urbanization process. Part two investigates the need to create new definitions
of rural and urban because of the changes introduced by new urbanization processes. The
third part looks at a case study of urbanization in Southeast Asia. This is divided into three
sections (a) Southeast Asia in a global context, (b) the emergence of mega-urban Regions in
Southeast Asia and (c) a discussion of the internal spatial formation of these mega-urban
regions. Part four deals with the growing importance of the desakota zones in Southeast Asia
urbanization and Part five focuses on the policy challenges of urban spread particularly in
large urban regions.
I would like to begin by engaging some theoretical issues that underlie discussions of
contemporary urbanization patterns both at the global level that have equal relevance to
Southeast Asia. Most important in my view is the current obsession of researchers with
globalization forces as the major causes of urbanization in the region. Contemporary policy
positions on urbanization in Southeast Asian countries are largely being driven by
assumptions that increased integration into the global economy is required necessity for
development. Therefore it is necessary to encourage the growth of urban places that facilitate
these processes thus creating urban trajectories that present wider challenges for the
environment, energy demand, food security, regional inequality and are the location of other
social and economic problems such as urban poverty.
Over the last thirty years, as a consequence of these beliefs, researchers and policy makers in
many developing countries have favored development strategies that have placed increased
emphasis on structural shifts in their national economies to industrial and service sector
activities and increased integration into the global economy. This has occurred despite an
ongoing rhetoric of many governments that supports rural development, food security and
concerns with persistent rural poverty. The reasons for this urban focus are numerous but
among them the conventional economic wisdom that investment in industry and services
creates higher returns than agriculture is a powerful mantra. There is also a strong belief that
urbanization is an inevitable part of the process of creating a modern state; indeed the
economies of scale, the creation of mass markets and the higher productivity that occur in
urban areas make cities, it is argued, absolutely crucial to the process of development
(Lampard 1955, Scott J 1998, Scott 2001). The consequences of this approach are only too
obvious in the developed East Asian countries such as Japan, Korea and Taiwan that have
been characterized by rapid urbanization, increased industrial production and the increasing
importance of the urban-based service sector. This structural change has occurred later in
Southeast Asian countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines and
Vietnam. However, Laos, Cambodia and Myanmar have barely embarked upon this trajectory
and Singapore and Brunei as “city states” have followed an even faster urbanization
trajectory. Of course, these developments have been heightened by the growing integration of
Southeast Asia into the global economy in which city-states such as Hong Kong and
Singapore continue to play an important role.4 The restructuring of the economies of the
economies of the developed world that is part of this much debated process of globalization is
also an important part of the process and a new international division of global production
systems has emerged. (Olds et al 1999. Mc Gee and Watters 1997,).
Another result of these urban-orientated development strategies in the more developed
economies of Asia has been the decline in the proportion of the employed population in
agriculture; the depopulation of rural areas, a sharp reduction in the number of family farms
and a restructuring of agriculture with growing emphasis on capital intensity, off-farm
employment, the employment of migrant farm labor and food imports and increased
agricultural productivity This has often involved an increase in rural-urban income disparities
that accentuates out-migration from the rural areas that takes various forms such as
international migration, rural to urban migration and circulatory migration (Rigg 2001 Hugo
2006The policies that have driven these trends are based upon development theories that
assume developing societies are passing through some kind of transition from
underdevelopment to development. The pace and change of this process may vary greatly
between countries and global sub-regions but it is a global trend. This idea is encapsulated
with the idea of transition from tradition to modernity; the demographic transition that argues
societies pass through stages of low population growth, high population growth into a phase
of slow population growth; the environmental transition that suggests that as societies
become more developed they become more sensitive to issues of sustainability in a situations
where environmental problems abound. Finally, there is the urbanization transition that
predicts an inevitable shift from low levels of urbanization to high levels of urbanization as
countries become more developed.
These theories of transition are based on three assumptions. First, the assumption that these
transitions, while they may vary between countries, are inevitable; countries must go through
these transitions to become developed. Secondly that they are linear and go through a series
of stages which although they may vary in their length between countries are necessary
prerequisites for development. Thirdly, that the rural and urban transition while linked in the
overall process of development can be separated for policy purposes. Basic to this
conception is the idea of division between rural and urban that is reflected in the spatial and
administrative structures of societies. Thus the transition theory assumes a spatial reordering
of countries is an important part of the process of development.
It is central to the argument of this paper that transition theory is flawed as a model to
investigate urbanization. This is because, following Marcotullio and Lee, I would argue that
the conditions of the transition are very different. First, because the pace of the transition that
is occurring at a very much faster rate than that of early transitions. Marcotullio and Lee have
argued with respect to the environmental transition that the “...unique feature of the present
era is the compression of the time frame in which the transitions are occurring” (Marcotullio
and Lee 2003:331.) This is well illustrated in Figure 1 that shows the changes in level of
urbanization between England and Wales, Mexico and China. As is clear from the figure
China will take only half the time to reach levels of urbanization that took one hundred years
for the other two and of course the number of people involved in this shift to higher urban
levels will be much larger. Marcotullio and Lee further argue that transitions are now
overlapping “in a telescoping of the transition process in a much shorter time-frame than
earlier.” (Ibid.331)
Figure 1: Telescoping transition. Increase in urbanization levels: England and Wales, Mexico
and China
Fundamental to the idea of telescoping transitions is the fact that they are being driven by
accelerated transactional flows of people, commodities, capital and information between, and
within, countries. The international components of this transactional revolution are generally
referred to as part of a new era of globalization in which foreign investment encouraged by
national states is an important component. The different character of the transactional
revolution places much more emphasis on the flows of people, commodities, information and
capital within national space economies. (See Figure 2)
Thus development is seen as occurring in a dynamic sense as a process of transformation of
national economic space in which interaction and linkage is a more accurate reflection of
reality than the idea that rural and urban areas are undergoing somehow spatially separated
transitions. In contemporary Asia a network of linkages that provides a dynamic spatial frame
of flows of people, commodities, information and capital fundamentally drives the rural-
urban transformation.
Figure 2: Globalization transactional space
This involves the recognition these “transcending networks” are restructuring urban space in
a way that emphasizes the emergence of intense transaction networks particularly focused on
mega-urban regions. This is leading to very rapid economic growth rates focused on these
mega-urban regions but at the same time is creating many environmental and social problems
and increasing disparities at the level of individual nations. In a number of publications Jones
and Douglass has argued that how the involvement of large urban regions in various circuits
of capital (local, national and international) have had a powerful influence on the morphology
of these urban regions. He relates these developments to the four key phases modes of a
capital formulation in the region. They are (1) a long period of commodity trade (primarily
focused on agriculture and resource extraction) which characterized the colonial period, (2) a
phase of industrial production (import substitution, export production 1970s and 1980s), (3) a
phase in which franchising and global retailing dominate the flows of capital as these large
urban regions increase their roles as consumption centres and finally (4) a phase of expansion
of global financial capital from the mid 1990s that was channeled primarily into mega
projects and land development. (Jones and Douglass 2008) These periods relate closely to the
discussion of the historical processes of Southeast Asian urbanization in Part 3.
One of the possible results of this “globalization perspective “ is that large cities are
represented less as an organic social entity embedded in its regional hinterland and more as a
node in the matrix of global flows of commodities, capital and information. Another view of
the urbanization process particularly as it plays out at the level of the large urban region,
suggest that urbanization is a complex process occurring at many scales including at the
spatial level at national, regional and local levels, in the social and economic and political
perspectives. This argument is captured neatly by Forbes who argues that these macro-
representations of globalization “… subsume the internal dynamics of urban development,
the subtleties of local politics, the resilience of urban patterns of life, the tensions embedded
in fractured social structures, the multiple strands of modernity and resistance to the
imposition to change.” (Forbes, 1997: 462) This is supported by the research by Leaf (1994,
1996) and Kusno (2000) that has argued that the growth of so-called “global spaces “ such as
the suburban developments in the fringe of Jabotabek and the creation of commercial
business districts within the inner core represent the modernity and development upon which
the legitimacy of the Soeharto New Order rested. So that “globalism” is embraced at the
national level but acted on at the local level, In this way the urbanization process is made up
the interaction between national scale, provincial scale, the urban scale and at the individual
scale of individuals and households of which they are part. (Kelly, 1997, 1998, 2000) It is
therefore important to stress that the urbanization process as it works its way out in the mega-
urban region is a complex array of social, economic and political processes that drive the
urbanization process. Rather than simply reflecting the imprint of global capital what we see
are processes of both “articulation” with global flows in certain urban spaces (and social
groups) and disarticulation” in others. Thus “global spaces” exist side by side with “local
spaces”. As the mega-urban regions of Southeast Asia have grown, urban space has been
reconfigured into articulated networks of interaction between middle and upper class dwellers
while excluding “much of the intervening or peripheral spaces from accessing networks,
because the networks pass through the spaces without allowing local access” (Graham
1997:112). This is not to ignore the fact that at the level of everyday practice most notably at
in the consumption practice there is a form of urban hybridity emerging. For example
researchers have written about the manner in which shopping malls become spaces in which
city populations of various socio-economic background use the mall space in different ways.
In the remainder of the paper we shall attempt to show how this multi-scalar approach creates
greater understanding of contemporary urbanization in Southeast Asia.
If this argument that the current forces that are driving urbanization are convincing then it is
clear that there needs to be a redefinition of the spatial patterns of these contemporary
urbanization processes. First, current definitions of rural and urban need to be reexamined
and redefined as urban activity spreads into rural areas. At a minimum this means that areas
previously defined as rural in which a majority of activities are urban need to be reclassified
Secondly, the architecture of the current urban settlement patterns countries that is
characterized by the emergence of large urban regions such as Beijing-Tianjin corridor, that
account for an increasing proportion of many nations’ urban populations needs to be revised.
Of course this phenomenon has been recognized for many years. Jean Gottman’s pioneer
study of Megalopolis in the corridor between Boston, New York and Washington published
in 1960 (Gottman 1960) and Ginsburg, Koppel and Mc Gee (1991) applied these ideas to the
formation of “Extended Metropolitan Regions” in Asia in the early 1990’s.
Since then a growing literature has emerged focusing on the large urban regions leading to
the introduction of new terms such as “global cities” (Sassen 1991) and “Mega-Urban
Regions” (MURS) (Mc Gee and Robinson 1995) In this paper I have used the term “ Mega-
Urban Region” interchangeably with “Extended Metropolitan Region”(EMRS). Thirdly, the
internal spatial patterning of the MURS needs to be carefully examined and new spatial
morphologies delineated. Not surprisingly the spread of urban regions has led to much
research on the new spatial patterns that in the Asian has indicated the emergence of three
major zones .A Core part of the mega-urban region that generally consists of the older core
city but may also include other cities that are linked into the E.M.R. They are the parts of the
urban region that are most linked globally, the foci of transportation linkages and undergoing
rapid structural transformation to higher-order services. Surrounding the core city(s) are Peri-
urban zones in which most of the activity is urban and the built environment is dominated by
urban buildings. This region may have previously been characterized by agriculture and the
early phases of labor intensive industrialization but these activities have now been largely
replaced by urban activities closely linked to the city core. Finally there is a region that can
be described as an outer zone, which in this paper is labeled Desakota.
These three zones are shown in generalized diagrams of hypothetical national and urban
region space in Figures 3 and 4.
Figure 3: Spatial Configuration of Hypothetical Asian State
Figure 4: Spatial configuration of Southeast Asian mega-urban region (circa 2000)
There is still much confusion over the use of these the correct terminology for these zones.
Often writers use peri-urban to include the areas of the urban fringe which include both the
areas of peri-urban and desakota in the diagrams. (Webster 2002, Webster, Cai, Muller Luo,
2003)) I would argue that while the contrast between the core and the fringe of cities
recognizes urban realities the emergence of the desakota zone is of such importance that it
has to be distinguished as different zone. In my earlier analysis of the urban fringe in the
EMR, s (Mc Gee 1991) I argued that the distinctive historical, cultural and economic features
of these urban fringe areas in Asia must be seen within the historical and ecological context
of particular Asian countries which influenced the which influenced the zonal divisions in the
urban First the countries that at time had already experienced a rapid transformation of the
spatial economy in terms of the levels of urbanization and the shift from rural to urban
activities the peri-urban zones of the urban fringe were more important although increasingly
specialized agriculture occurred in desakota zones. Examples at that time could be found in
Japanese, Korean and Taiwanese mega-urban regions. Secondly, EMRs in which the
desakota zones of the urban fringe that was most ubiquitous in the densely crowded
agricultural hinterlands of many of other mega-urban regions of Asia. These were labeled
“desakota” utilizing a coined word from the Indonesian words for village (desa) and kota
(town) .In the early 1990’s I argued it was important to distinguish between two types of
desakota determined by the stage of urbanization and structural transformations of the
economies of the mega-urban regions. First in those MURS such as the Hong Kong- Pearl
River Delta region, the Jakarta- Bandung, the Bangkok and Calcutta certain common
conditions and processes characterized what appeared to be diverse regions. First, all these
regions were characterized by densely populated, small- holder agriculture, most commonly
wet rice that involved careful water management and agronomic practices. Densities
frequently approached 1000 persons per square kilometre and there was considerable
underemployment, which provided surplus labor for non-agricultural activities as they
expanded in to the regions.
Secondly, in virtually all these rice bowl areas there were large cities or clusters of cities such
as Calcutta, Shanghai, Bangkok and Guangzhou Hong Kong that acted as the nodes for the
development of the regions. Thirdly these desakota regions were generally characterized by a
well-developed infrastructure of roads and canals that created a highly integrated “transactive
environment” that facilitated the movement of people and commodities. These special
features provided a major attraction to the growth of urban activities attracted by cheaper land
and labour and were facilitated by governments’ investment in infrastructure such as roads
and industrial estates that facilitated investment. In addition structural changes in the global
economy were leading to a shift of industrial activity from developed countries to developing
countries. However, the “governance” of these desakota areas was essentially still focused on
rural activity rather than urban activity and this created “invisible” or “grey zones” of
government administration. A major problem was created in the physical environments of
these desakota zones where the competition between rural and urban activities led to great
pressure on the resources as well as environmental deterioration, for example, of water and
atmosphere pollution.
In the fifteen years since the idea of “desakota” was put forward it has generated considerable
debate particularly in Asia. Neo-liberal critics essentially argue that the emergence of
desakota regions is a transitory phenomenon that will disappear as development occurs. They
see the co-existence of agriculture and non-agricultural activity as an inefficient use of land, a
hindrance to the development of well functioning land markets and the rational use of space
to create maximum economic returns. It is also a zone in which inadequate governance is
unable to prevent environmental, housing and social problems. These critics also argue that
the idea of “desakota” places too much emphasis upon “localized responses” and paid too
little attention to external forces such as globalization (Chan, 1993; Dick and Rimmer 1998;
Rimmer, 2002). Another group of commentators are more supportive. These commentators
who are more sympathetic to the concept find the concept useful to inform much there ideas
of urban sustainability. They begin from a starting point that sees the “desakota zone as
crucial part of the natural bio-system of the E.M.R. and argue that the preservation of the
natural resources of the zone, land, soil, water, vegetation and fauna are crucial to the
sustainability of the entire urban region which as economic growth occurs will place
increasing demands on the fragile environments of the “desakota” areas. The processes of
global climate change that affect the sustainability of what are largely “deltaic” environments
further exacerbate this condition. Recent global volatility in the global financial and energy
markets also cause concerns about the “fossil fuel” transportation that have facilitated the
spread of urban activities from the city’s core suggesting that other transportation mixes may
effect the spread of urban activity. They also suggest that “desakota” zones can offer the
possibility for increased urban food production at the local level and the development of
policies that are guided by principles of sustainability (Hebbert 1994; Yokohari, Takeuchi,
Watanabe and Yokota 2000).
a) Southeast Asian Urbanization in a Global Context 6
Long term United Nation’s projections estimate that the world’s population will grow from
6.06 billion in 2000 to 8.27 billion by 2030. The single aspect of these predictions that
attracts the most attention is that most of this increase will occur in urban areas that will grow
from 2.86 billion to 4.98 billion. Of equal importance is the fact that more than 90 per cent of
all urban increase will occur in less-developed countries.
From the point of view of this paper that is focused on urbanization trends in Southeast Asia
it is important to recognize that a major part of this urban increase will occur in Asia. Thus
between 2000 and 2030 58 per cent (1.3 billion) of all global urban population increase will
occur in this region most of it occurring in the population giants of China, India, Pakistan,
Indonesia and Bangladesh. Southeast Asia will account for only 16 per cent of the Asian
urban increase of which almost half will occur in its largest country, Indonesia. Therefore it is
important to take into account the overall influence of Indonesia when discussing
urbanization trends in the region.
The Southeast Asian region has long been recognized as a diverse region of many cultures,
political systems and different levels of economic development. Thus the countries of
Southeast Asia are on diverse urbanization trajectories. (Table 1)
Table 1. Southeast Asia Total Population,Urban Population, Percent Urban (2007)
Percent of Employed Population in Agriculture by Urbanization Trajectory
Type 1. Total Population Urban Population, Per Cent Urban, Per Cent Agriculture
Brunei .3 .2 72.2 1.0
Singapore 4.3 4.3 100.0 -
Type 2
Indonesia 226.0 112.0 48.1 44.0
Malaysia 25.7 16.0 67.3 15.0
Philippines 84.0 51.0 62.7 37.0
Thailand 63.0 20.0 31.1 43.0
Type 3.
Vietnam 85.0 22.0 25.0 58.0
Myanmar 52.0 18.0 30.7 63.0
Laos 5.6 4.1 20.6 85.0
Source: World Bank (2008) World Development Report 2007
Urbanization Trajectory defined as
Type 1 High Level of Urbanization > 70 per cent
Type 2 Medium Level of Urbanization 30- 69 per cent
Type 3. Low Level of Urbanization < 30 per cent
There are ongoing debates as to how this urban increase will be distributed between urban
places of different sizes. United Nations statistics show that in less-developed countries the
proportion of urban residents in urban settlements of below 500,000 will decline slightly from
51.2 per cent in 2000 to 49.0 per cent by 2015. At the same time the percentage of population
resident in urban settlements of above 5 million will grow from 14,5 to 16.8 per cent. The
estimates for Southeast Asia suggest that the proportion of urban population living in
settlements of below 500,000 will remain unchanged at 64 per cent while the urban
population living in centres of more than 5 million will increase from 16 to 20 percent. This
persistence of smaller urban places in the urban systems leads to perceptions that too much
policy attention is being paid to mega-urban regions at the expense of secondary urban places
and the advocacy of policies designed at big city decentralization. But the closer analysis of
the realities of the mega-urban region discussed in the next section suggests the population
living in them is substantially under-estimated in UN estimates and this suggests that the
policy challenges they pose are still important importance. In other research reports I have
published a detailed analysis of this reasons for this analysis suggesting that the term
extended metropolitan region might more accurately encompass the dimensions of the mega-
urban region. (Mc Gee 1991, 1995a)
Therefore in order to discuss the challenges of mega-urban regions/EMRs it is necessary to
define the major features of mega-urban regions.
The simplest definition is to define the formation of mega-urban regions in a much broader
fashion. Thus their definition means an increasing proportion of a country’s GDP and urban
population are concentrated are concentrated in these areas. The only statistical database that
enables the temporal measurement of these large urban regions is the UN Population
Division’s bi-yearly publication that provides data on urban areas of more than one million in
size. But this database is not adequate for measuring MURS because it relies upon
administrative definitions that are often limited to individual cities it does not always include
all cities that are part of a network of integrated cities in MURs in its estimates. (See
Montgomery 2004 and Champion and Hugo 2004)
A more satisfactory definition is based upon the measurement of functional integration in
MURS as measured by transport flows, economic linkages (industry, service and agriculture)
labor markets and population movements that make-up the “transactional space” of the MUR.
Because MURS usually have the most well developed “transactional space” within nations
and the main concentrations of human, social and economic capital as well as a developed
infrastructure they offer an environment that is attractive to both domestic and foreign capital
and in-migration.
A major feature of MURs is the ongoing spread of urbanization from the urban nodes of the
MURs that is the result of the improvement in transportation systems and economic growth.
For most of the countries (with the exception of Japan) transportation systems in urban areas
were dominated by automobile systems but now some of the more developed countries such
as Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore have adopted the Tokyo model of subway systems linked to
buses in the outer areas. This urban spread is also associated with a dispersion of industry
into the urban margins and a restructuring of the urban cores to service functions. Residential
decentralization is also important as the urban cores are restructured from industry to service
functions displacing inner city populations. This has created major urban corridors such as
those between Tokyo and Osaka, Seoul and Pusan and Taipei and Kaoshuing which are now
being duplicated in the Southeast Asia with the formation of the Jakarta-Bandung corridor in
the island of Java, and developments on a smaller scale along the arterial routes from city
cores to airports, industrial estates, ports and new residential areas in the MURs of Bangkok,
Kuala Lumpur, Manila and Ho Chi Minh and Hanoi cities. If Southeast Asia were to follow
this pattern of corridor development that has characterized the East Asian NICs it would not
be unlikely that urban development corridors might emerge between the Hanoi-Haiphong and
Ho Chi Minh MURs with a newly emerging Danang MUR as the central point. A potential
urban corridor could also emerge between Bangkok MUR and Singapore passing through the
Kuala Lumpur MUR.
At a global level there are also processes facilitating the emergence of mega-urban regions
which forces them to become increasingly competitive so as to attract more investment and
establish their branding image globally. While industrial investment has dominated much of
this process of global integration as the global service economy becomes more integrated
there is a need to attract part of these national and global transactions through the
development of financial services, tourism and conferences. While this competition for
“transactional capital” was initially led by individual cities it is increasingly being realized
that it is necessary to develop marketing campaigns that reflect the opportunities of the wider
Because of these processes MURs are becoming the “engines” of economic development of
their countries often contributing above 50 per cent of the national GDP. In part, because of
their very success, MURs present policy challenges that are focused on three main areas.
(1) Developing effective governance and management systems for mega-urban regions
(2) Making mega-urban regions sustainable in the face of environmental deterioration
and global economic competition
(3) Making MURs livable in terms of employment, services infrastructure and social
(4) Making MURs more socially inclusive so that the poor and disadvantaged have
access to employment and services such as health and education.
b) The Emergence of MUR’s in Southeast Asia7
In this section I want to focus the analysis on the growth of selected MUR’s in Southeast
Asia. But first it is necessary to give an overall view of the urbanization process in the region.
Historically it is important to stress that Southeast Asia has a rich urban tradition. (Askew and
Logan 1994) In the pre-western contact period there were extensive trading and cultural
interaction with other parts of the world particularly China and India. Two main types of
cities emerged; trading cities such as Malaka and Palembang based upon the rich inter-
regional trade that had been built-up by indigenous empires and trade with China and India.
The second type of city was the sacred city established as “a supreme symbol of the State
within the unifying cosmology that links together heaven and earth” The most notable
example was the Khmer city of Angkor Thom built during the twelfth century. It was,
however, the Western powers that were largely responsible for establishing the contemporary
urban network of the Southeast Asia. Initially between 1500-1800, they were generally
content to establish ports such as Malaka, Batavia and Manila that could serve as naval bases
and entrepots for their trading activities. From the end of the eighteenth century onwards the
industrial revolution in Europe resulting in the need for markets and raw materials led to the
control of land being as important as the control of the sea and the creation of a network of
settlements as they expanded the territory of their colonies. Generally it is true to say that the
dominant form of urban place that emerged were the large multi-functional port-towns such
as Singapore, Batavia, Manila, Rangoon, Saigon-Cholon which came to assume a large
proportion of the functions of the urban heirarchy. Bangkok assumed some of the same
functions despite avoiding becoming a colony of the Western powers. A second rank of
settlement quite diverse in character ranging from “royal cities” to mining, administrative and
small service centres emerged ton facilitate the networks of colonial control and exploitation.
Thus the colonial period after 1800 saw an emerging pattern of mega – urbanization.
Most of the largest cities possessed a large proportion of their colonies’s population and were
many times bigger than the next largest settlement. By the early 1840’s Rangoon was three
times as large as Mandalay and in Indo-China Saigon-Cholon was very much larger than
Hanoi. The characteristic urban hierarchy of this colonial period just before 1940 was
dominated by the large primate cities often more than a million in size dominated by trade
and combining administrative and defense functions. There was little industry other than
some processing of raw materials and the majority of the population was engaged in tertiary
activities in which immigrant communities such as the Chinese and Indians played an
important role.
In the post–war period after 1945 the urbanization patterns began to change radically with the
growth of nationalism and the creation of independent states (Table 2).
Table 2. Southeast Asia. Levels of Urbanization 1950 -2000
Country 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000
Brunei 43.4 42.8 44.0 49.7 n.a n.a
Singapore 98.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Indonesia 12.2 14.9 17.1 22.2 30.6 40.3
Malaysia 24.5 30.0 33.5 42.0 49.8 57.5
Philippines 19.8 21.4 33.3 37.5 48.8 59.0
Thailand 10.0 11.4 20.8 24.5 32.5 40.0
Vietnam n.a n.a 18.3 19.2 19.9 22.3
Myanmar 12.9 14.3 22.8 24.0 24.8 28.4
Source. Mc Gee 1967.1979 Jones 1999 and ESCAP 1992/
This period was characterized by the grafting on of national administrative functions to most
of the mega-urban cities. So the political icons of the new states, parliament buildings, statues
of nationalist political leaders were added to the urban landscape of these primate cities. The
only exception was Hanoi in Vietnam. By 1960 only two countries (Singapore and Brunei)
had reached levels of labeled city-states. Only Malays had experienced rapid urbanization
increasing from 24 to 30 per cent. During this decade the levels of urbanization in the rest of
Southeast Asia remained low as the rural populations continued to increase at a faster rate.
The economic structures of the cities changed little and the growing influx of rural migrants
placed pressures on the existing infrastructure of housing, roads water and power, may of the
migrants moved in to squatter settlements on the fringes or empty spaces of the inner cities
and crowded inner tenements. At the same time new housing for the emerging national elites
was being built in suburban estates such as Kenny Hill in Kuala Lumpur and Makati City in
the Philippines.
This pattern began to change radically in the period between 1960 and 1990. First as can be
seen from Table 2 the levels of urbanization began to vary sharply between countries where
the urbanization level remained at very low levels of urbanization (under 25 per cent),
Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam, and those increasing their levels of urbanization to
over 30 per cent. Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines Singapore and Brunei. There were three
main conditions that contributed to these developments. First the geo-political conditions of
Southeast Asia with the intensification of the Cold War established clear lines between the
socialist states of the region (Vietnam, Laos,) and the pariah states of Cambodia and
Myanmar and the remaining capitalist states. Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines,
Indonesia and Brunei. In the planned economies that had been devastated by war much of
their energies were spent on rebuilding their societies that were primarily rural and
urbanization levels remained low. In the capitalist countries state policies directed to
increasing agricultural productivity and import substitution-based industrial growth fueled by
international investment led to urbanization rates accelerating.
A second factor was the growth of foreign and investment as the developed economies began
to restructure their economies from the 1960’s. Singapore, Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand
and Indonesia became important sites for foreign investment in industrial activity either for
internal consumption or export. The process led to the creation of industrial estates, free-
export zones, air and container ports and other infrastructure facilities focused on the main
mega-urban regions of these countries. Thus, for example, by 1985 almost 60 per cent of non-
oil manufacturing was located in the Jabotabek mega-urban region. By 1989 industry had
exceeded the contribution of agriculture to the GDP of the six capitalist countries in the
A third factor was the growth of tourism in the region. At the beginning of the 1960’s most of
the mega-urban regions of the market capitalist countries of the region received less than
100,000 tourists a year but by the end of the 1980’s this exceeded one million. This was part
of a general increase in the higher level services such as finance that led to the transformation
of the cores of the mega-urban regions with the building of hotels and commercial buildings.
There was also a rapid emergence of a growing middle class and the growth of residential
housing to satisfy their demands for new housing. Struggling with their reconstruction and
the rebuilding of their political and economic systems the socialist states did not share in this
process at this time.
The consequence of these trends was to produce a fourfold pattern of urbanization in
Southeast Asia in the late 1980’s. First, Singapore emerged as the regional centre of the
region as the Singapore government embarked upon on an ambitious programme to make
their country the first post-industrial city in the region. Labour intensive industry was rapidly
restructured and moved off shoe to South Johor in Malaysia and Batam island in the Riau
province of Indonesia in a project designed to create a regional growth triangle utilizing the
factors of mixed factors of production (Macleod and Mc Gee 1996).
A second group of countries carried out urbanization in much more volatile political and
social conditions. In Malaysia the colonial legacy of a plural society of Malays, Chinese and
Indian existed within a framework where political power was largely in the hands of the
rural-based Malays while the economic power lay with the urban –based Chinese. Ethnic
riots in the main urban centres in 1969 that were fostered by Malay dissatisfaction led to the
creation of a New Economic policy that allowed Malay participation in the new industries
that were rapidly growing at the time leading to an increase of Malays in urban areas. In the
Philippines and Thailand persistent rural and urban inequality fueled a rapid movement of
rural migrants to the cities but industrial growth was slower leading to a persistence of urban
Thirdly in Indonesia another pattern of urbanization developed particularly on the island of
Java where the high population densities of rural populations encouraged patterns of
circulatory migration where migrants returned to their homes two or three times a month and
used income earned in the city to subsidise their rural households. Finally from the late 1970s
the socialist states of Laos and Vietnam began to slowly liberalise their economies and
urbanization began to increase particularly focused on the urban nodes of Hanoi, Ho Chi
Minh and Vientiane.
Thus by 1990 the processes of urbanization were beginning to move create the conditions for
an accelerated movement of many of the mega-urban regions of Southeast Asia towards
increasing global integration particularly reflected in the creation of new “globally –
orientated spaces. The urban centres began to see the emergence of tourist zones, export
zones, multiple commercial centres and middle class housing estates. These “spaces” were
increasingly linked by road systems of varying degrees of effectiveness. Thus these mega-
urban regions were becoming increasing auto-dependent as this fueled a rapid expansion into
the adjacent hinterlands.
Many of these processes that have been identified continued and intensified in the 1990s and
first decade of the 21st century.7 A major feature has been the accelerated incorporation of
capital flows into the region of the region primarily into equity markets, financial institutions,
manufacturing industries and property sectors focused on the mega-urban regions. At a policy
level this encouraged this encouraged efforts by national and city governments to market
their cities as sites for international investment. This also encouraged a major part of
infrastructure investment in the MURs resulting in public investment disproportionately
concentrated in the region. However, one of the more important consequences of this global
integration has been the exposure of Southeast Asian countries to volatility of global financial
and commodity markets. The 1997 collapse of equity markets slowed down many of these
trends particularly in the property market. Even by 2008 there are still some building
developments that have not restarted in Bangkok Secondly as the financial crisis deepened it
opened up long standing discontent with the existing governments among the poor, the
students and even the middle class. In Indonesia it created the conditions that led to the
collapse of the Soeharto government in 1998. Despite the recovery of the global economy in
after 2001 recent increases in the price of energy and foodstuffs and the prospects of the
increasing vulnerability of Southeast Asian mega cities to environmental change such as sea-
level rise and water supply have added even further elements of volatility.
c) The Spatial Patterning of Mega-Urban Regions in Southeast Asia8
In this next section I want to outline the major features of the spatial structure of some
selected mega-urban regions of Southeast Asia because in order to establish the importance
of MUR in the Southeast Asian context it is necessary to construct a longitudinal picture of
their demographic growth. This is not a straightforward task for the rapid population growth
and spatial spread of MURs since 1950 has often occurred in administrative divisions and
census districts that have been classified as rural and therefore not recorded as urban
population. Therefore there is substantial under-bounding of MUR’s in Southeast Asia.
In the analysis that follows I have used two data sets in an attempt to arrive at a more
accurate picture. My earlier attempts to delineate MURs were applied in an analysis for an
analysis presented in a book of essays on mega -urban regions in Southeast Asia published in
1995 using data provided by various population censuses between 1960 and 1990 (Mc Gee
and Robinson eds 1995). This data essentially adopts what may be described as a functional
definition that at time I called an extended metropolitan region (EMR) that assumes that the
boundaries of the EMR are defined by the intensity of flows of commodities, people,
information and capital that were occurring within an extended urban space essentially using
the concept of “transactional space” that is discussed in section 1 of this paper. Therefore this
data set generates a much larger EMR both in population and area than data using census
definitions. (see Tables1.2 and 1.3 in McGee (1995a; 12-13 and Mc Gee 1995b) This
formulation was adopted because there was increasing evidence from field studies that the
spread of urbanization outwards was associated with the growth of urban activity as
evidenced by the proportion of population engaged in non-agricultural activities, the loss of
agricultural land and the spread of industrial and residential estates. Using this data set does
mean that many rural households on the outer zones of the EMRs were included in the EMR,
but there was also ample evidence that many of these households were rapidly increasing the
proportion of their total household income from non-rural sources such as off-farm labour,
factory work and migration to cities. This first database also provides statistics for a much
longer period of three decades between 1960 and 1990 that enables the recognition of earlier
trends of outward urban expansion. This data provides data for four MURs of Jakarta,
Bangkok, Manila and Ho Chi Minh for the period 1960-1990 indicating that while the city
cores of all MUR (except Ho Chi Minh) grew in population their proportion of the total
population fell as the inner and outer rings grew rapidly. By 1990 Bangkok, Jakarta and
Manila all had a majority of their population living in the two outer rings. Ho Chi Minh
continued to increase its population in the core city reflecting the slow development of the
driving forces of urban expansion described earlier in the paper.
For the period 1990-2000 I have relied on a data set developed by Jones (See Jones 2002;
2006). In terms of the understanding of the spatial structure of the MUR the terms used by
Mc Gee in the 1995 mega urban analysis, City, Metropolitan and EMR rings can be roughly
equated with the terms core, inner zone and outer zone used by Jones. It should be stressed
again that the Mc Gee data set because it is functionally derived creates outer zones that are
much larger. Thus for example in 1990, the date at which the two data sets overlap the
population assigned to the outer ring by Mc Gee is substantially larger. For example, in the
Mc Gee data set the outer ring of Jakarta had a population of 4.8 million in 1990 compared to
the figure of 3.4 million in Jones. (2006) The figures for the core and inner zones are much
However, because Jones analysis is much more rigorously derived based on demographic
criteria such as population density and percent employment in agriculture I have used this
data for the decade of the 1990’s
The major findings listed by Jones (2006) are as follows:
1. All the selected MURs increased their populations in the decade of the 1990s to
make three of them among the largest urban agglomeration in the world With
the exception of Ho Chi Minh all have experienced a slowing of population
growth in the core areas but still retain very high population densities (Table 3)
Table 3. Basic data on Selected Southeast Asian MURS 1990-2000
Area(skm) Population (000s) Density (pskm)
1990 2000 1990 2000
Core 662 8,223 8,347 12,421 12,610
Inner Z 2,374 5,434 9,435 2,289 3,975
Outer Z 3,319 3,442 3,407 1,097 1,085
Total 6,175 17,098 21,190 2,769 3,432
Core 876 5,455 5,876 6,215 6,709
InnerZ 1,907 1,596 2,380 837 1.248
OuterZ 4,465 1,593 2,163 348 472
Total 7,248 8,634 10,419 1,172 1,414
Core 663 7,907 9,880 12,551 15,642
Inner Z 3,105 4,183 6,365 6,215 6,709
Outer Z 8,322 3,819 5,368 461 648
Total 12,061 15,909 21,613 1,324 1,641
Ho Chi Minh
Core 170 2,320 3,230 13,647 18,841
InnerZ 617 904 1,078 1,465 1,747
OuterZ 1,308 700 756 535 578
Total 2,095 3,924 5,037 1,873 2.404
Source. Jones 2006. Note Ho Chi Minh populations are for 1989 and 1999.
2. The MURs continued to increase their share of their country’s population (Table 4)
that as Jones comments is “contrary to the conclusions reached by some observers
who have used the population of the officially designated metropolitan area to
conclude that many mega-cities have passed their period of rapid growth and are
holding a declining share of national population” (Jones, 2006:262)
Table 4. Share of MURs in national population (%) 1990-2000
Jakarta Bangkok Manila Ho Chi Minh
1990 9.4 15.8 26.1 5.9
2000 10.0 16.6 28.6 6.4
Source Jones 2006
3. In general the rates of increase the outer zones (inner and outer zones) are greater
than the core. Higher rates are recorded in the inner zone which represents the peri-
urban zone and the extension of the built-up areas of the core cities. This is caused
by out movement of the core population, differential rates of natural increase and
the in- movement of migrants into outer zones from outside the MUR. (Table 5)
Table 5. Selected Southeast MURs. Proportion of population in outer zones; Contribution
to total MUR population growth.(%) 1990-2000
Jakarta Bangkok Manila Ho Chi Minh
1990 51.9 36.9 50.3 40.9
% total 97.9 75.9 65.4 20.7
2000 60.6 43.6 54.3 36.4
Source; Jones 2006
4. All the MURs populations have been growing at rates well above those of the
national population. (Table 6)
Table 6. Selected Southeast Asian Countries and MURs. Population Growth Rate
( av. Ann.) (%) 1990-2000
%av ann Jakarta Bangkok Manila Ho Chi Minh
2.1 1.9 3.1 2.8
Indonesia Thailand Philippines Vietnam
1.5 1.4 2.1 1.7
From the point of view of the central argument of this paper the most important findings are
shown in Table 5. These show the increasing importance of the outer zones in terms of urban
growth. This shows that non-core zones are increasing their share of the EMR population
although by 2000 only Jakarta and Manila had a majority of their EMR population living in
the outer zones. In the case of Bangkok this finding is attributable to the under-bounding of
the outer zone that had expanded greatly during the 1990s.
The most important finding of this analysis is that with the exception of Ho Chi Minh MUR
is that the outer zones (defined as those zones outside the urban core that fall within the
MUR) are growing in population. This trend is particularly marked in outer zones and will
certainly continue over the next decades. During this period the population of Southeast Asia
is predicted to increase by approximately 37 per cent while the urban population will more
than double (107 per cent) and the rural population will remains about the same in size. (UN
World Urbanization Prospects 2003) This will involve a shift in the urbanization level from
37 per cent in 2000 to 56 per cent in 2030. Thus, if the spatial trends driven by auto-
dependent transport technology of the last few decades were to continue most of the urban
growth will be occurring in the urban fringe of Southeast Asian urban areas accounting for an
estimated increase of 156 million (75 per cent of all projected urban increase) over the next
30 years. Of course this prediction will be affected by demographic trends in mortality,
fertility and migration that have been carefully analyzed by Hugo in a number of publications
(Hugo 2003, 2006) which suggest that fertility rates in large urban areas were much lower
than those of their countries in the early twenty-first century. There is also some evidence that
fertility rates are higher in the fringe areas because of a greater proportion of females in the
child-bearing cohorts. His analysis further suggests that migration and urban reclassification
may contribute up to 60 per cent of this urban increase during the first decade of the 21st
century. If our argument that much of the urban growth will occur in the outer zones of urban
areas in Southeast Asia is valid these demographic trends suggest that policy makers will
have to devote considerable attention to these areas. While a considerable proportion of that
increase will occur in Indonesia, countries such as Vietnam and the Philippines that will
reach over 100 million by 2030 will have to absorb a sizeable proportion of their urban
populations into outer zones.
The implications of the proceeding analysis suggest that the “desakota” zones of Southeast
Asian MUR’s will be a major focus of urban growth in the 21st century. Three points need to
be emphasized with respect to this argument. First placing emphasis on the desakota zone
does not mean that its interaction with the rest of the urban region should be ignored as
development occurs. Thus more precise definitions of the desakota zones as part of an
expanding urban fringe will have to be worked out in the case of each MUR. Secondly
implicit in this definition is the idea of rural-urban interaction within the eco-system of the
MUR. Thirdly, it is important to stress, that unlike administrative divisions, these spatial
zones are not frozen in geographic space. City cores are taking over the inner zones of their
MURs through boundary expansion and administrative reclassification, as is the case for
example with the expansion of the urban boundaries of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh in 2008.9
The outer zone is constantly being expanded outwards and the invasion of urban activities
often leapfrogs through the rural areas. Thus while the social and economic forces operating
in these MUR fringes have some similarities there are often sharp differences between the
MURs that reflect the level of economic development, political economy and culture of the
countries of which these MURs are part.
This suggests that “desakota” zones of Southeast Asia’s mega-urban regions should be a
focus of ongoing research that can be used as a basis for policy formulation. For, as we have
argued is this area where the environmental, jurisdictional, social and economic challenges
are most marked. It can be further argued that this repositioning of urban policy is made even
more urgent because of the vulnerability of many of these mega-urban regions to the effects
of global change and fluctuations in global energy, food prices, This emphasis on the
repositioning of urban policy needs to be based upon an understanding of the key components
of the urban transition in Southeast Asia over the fifty years.
First most MUR’s have expanded outwards very rapidly beyond the limits of the city core but
this is also a process that is occurring throughout the urban system at the level of secondary
Secondly the pace of development and features of the fringe areas show considerable
variation between MURs, which reflect the different eco-systems, land-use practices, and
urban and national policies of the various levels of government and the level and pace of
integration into the global system.
Thirdly, there are universal driving forces that are leading to the development of these urban
fringe zones. Perhaps most important is that this expansion has been driven by transport
systems that have encouraged the increasing use of auto-centered transport systems including
private motor cars, motor bikes and various forms of public transport such as buses and
minibuses. Barter, (1999) have all shown that while most Southeast Asian countries still have
lower vehicle/population ratios than the developed countries their ratios have been increasing
rapidly. Most countries have embarked on what may be labeled auto-dependent trajectories
that will lead to an increase in the number of motor vehicles over the next twenty years. This
development will be further reinforced by the growth of national road systems and ongoing
mega-urban based policies of freeway development. From the point of view of the earlier
argument concerning the forces that create urban regions these auto-centered trends
encourage the outward spread of urban activities (residential, work, leisure) in these mega-
urban regions. What distinguishes the automobile from most other types of consumer goods
is that it requires a great deal of space. These auto-centered activities include “an extensive
material infrastructure of roadways, service and repair facilities, storage spaces, and an
extensive social infrastructure of elaborate bureaucracies” (Freud and Martin 1999.) The
automobile dependent mega-urban region is also supported by a culture of “automobility”
that is encouraged by the automobile industry through advertising and the creating the desire
to own automobiles. The development strategy of the more rapidly industrializing countries
of Southeast Asia is also supporting this concept of automobility though the fostering of
growth of national automobile industries often in joint ventures with foreign companies
Another common feature of this expansion has involved these urban “hinterlands” acting as a
resource frontier providing, inputs such as water, food, building materials, labour which for
the urban core as well as land to be used for urban activities such as industry, commerce,
residential and recreational activities. Atkinson points out that this “functional analysis of
cities and their hinterlands focuses attention on resources which significant as a serious issue
in ecological sustainability” (Atkinson 1999).
Another common feature is that urban expansion is characterized by extensive land
conversion that in the Southeast Asian region ranges from state monopoly over the process
(Myanmar) to unregulated private sector conversion.” In between these two extremes are
situations in which the operation of the private sector is regulated and dual land markets
operate, as is the case in Vietnam. (World Bank 2007: 66, Geertman 2007, Leaf 2008) These
land conversion practices lead to rapid changes in land-use from agriculture to non-
agricultural activities. They may be described as most intense at the local level where the
urban landscapes become increasingly fragmented into a mosaic of different land uses.
Particularly in the context of urban expansion where there is an ongoing unregulated growth
of urban activity in the urban fringes a form of “invisible urbanization” (De Gregorio,
2003) or “ urbanization by stealth” is occurring.
This process of urban expansion has also involved an uneven allocation of both government
and private capital. The major part of government and private investment has been directed to
investments in infrastructure and built environment that is being constructed to facilitate the
growth of industry, residential complexes, new towns, freeways, international airports,
container ports that are directed to integrating the mega- urban region and making it more
attractive to global capital. Much of this investment (public and private) is focused on the
core cities and inner zones of the mega-urban regions thus causing contradictory processes of
greater involvement of the city cores with global transactions and at the same time separating
many parts of the urban fringe from this process.
Finally, in the Southeast Asia context this process of expansion varies greatly according to
the ecological features, history and political economy of the local region into which the urban
expansion is occurring. Broadly I would suggest in the Southeast Asia there are three types of
mega-urban region defined in terms of core- hinterland interaction.
1) Those mega-urban regions in which urban expansion has been primarily into high
density rice growing areas characterized by high rural densities such as Bangkok,
Manila, Jakarta and Hanoi
2) Those mega-urban regions that were expanding into areas where agriculture was
more mixed including the production of non-food crops where population densities
were much lower. Examples are Kuala Lumpur, Ho Chi Minh
3) Finally there is the example of the Sijori mega-urban region in which the
expansion of the core area has occurred over international boundaries into parts of
South Johor (Malaysia) and Batam and Bintang in the Riau Province of Indonesia
which ecologically has some similarities to type 2, but has involved international
collaboration. (Macleod and Mc Gee 1996)
Thus the processes of urban expansion are developing in diverse ways and the mix of policy
challenges that are occurring vary from country to country. However the desakota zones still
remain places of intense competition for resources and threats to eco systems. Thus these
outer zones become the very centre of the local global nexus and the rejigging of regional
urban space in which policy interventions are urgently needed.
This preceding discussion of the urban transformation in Southeast Asia raises many policy
challenges concerning the most effective way to manage urbanization Despite policy
positions that emphasize the importance of smaller urban places in the urban systems it can
be argued that the crucial areas for policy formation are the mega-urban regions because of
their economic importance and the challenges they pose to sustainability and livability. There
are three policy assumptions that underlie my discussion here. First there is a need to
recognize that the urban transformation process in the mega-urban regions Southeast Asia
poses serious challenges to the eco-systems of these countries and in particular mega-urban
regions. Secondly there is a need to accept the fact that urban development is occurring so
rapidly that existing management and governance systems are often unable to cope with the
problems because of fragmentation of responsibility and limited capacity. Thirdly there is a
need to break down prevailing beliefs in rural and urban differences particularly in the mega-
urban regions and rethink the spatial categories that they represent.
In the contemporary context of Southeast Asia it would be futile to ignore the fact that it is
the mega-urban regions that have become the most important cores of national space. But
governments have been slow to understand the nature of these mega-urban regions
particularly the new spatial zones of spreading urban activity that we have discussed in Part
Within Southeast Asia most of the mega-urban regions are located in coastal regions. Even
Hanoi and Kuala Lumpur some distance from the coast are linked with the ports that form
part of the extended metropolitan region. But in Southeast Asia as we have indicated the
historical, ecological and cultural differentiation between mega-urban regions is diverse. It is
important in developing policies for mega-urban regions that these takes account of this
diversity as well as spatial differentiation between the urban cores and the peri-urban and
fringe zones This is important, in part, because it is the margins of the mega-urban regions
that will be the focus of most urban-orientated growth absorbing up to 75 per cent of all
urban increase over the next decades; in part, because the restructuring of urban cores and
their increasing orientation to the global economy is creating fiscal imbalances between the
core cities and the margins. The policy solutions for such regions are not easy for unlike the
urban cores that are not generally in Southeast Asia governed by a single government the
margins are politically fragmented and there are sub-regional variations in the eco-systems
that create great difficulty for policy makers. These developments create a complex
managerial environment in which a myriad of decisions at the local level come into conflict
with the transformative elements of higher level government, business etc resulting in a
decisional congestion of management in these fringe areas. (See Figure 5).
Figure 5: Model of decision processes in outer zones of Southeast Asian MURs
Thus in Southeast Asia the rethinking of the governance policies that this division between
the urban margins and the urban cores of mega-urban regions raises is very challenging.
Some countries in Southeast Asia have already adopted administrative reorganization
strategies. These vary considerably ranging from the establishment of Metropolitan
governments with limited control over local political units as is the case in Manila, or
administrative expansion that involve the amalgamation of adjacent political units with
municipalities that has occurred in Hanoi and is proposed for Ho Chi Minh Municipality in
2008. Such measures enable more centralized urban governance and allow more
comprehensive planning and particularly infrastructure and urban development at a much
larger spatial level. The advantages of such regional responses can be listed as follows:
(1) Regional responses can enable a more rational allocation of resources.
(2) Regional management can lead to more efficient delivery of services and avoid costly
(3) Regional management must be developed at the level of the eco-system so as to
introduce policies of environmental sustainability and reduce environmental problems
that preserve the eco-system,
(4) Regional policies can deliver more effective infrastructure services such as water and
sewerage and increase the livability of the mega-urban region and
(5) Regional responses need to be devoted to the promotion and marketing of the region
so that it can be more attractive to investment and become more competitive.
The implementation of these policies involves a fourfold commitment. First at the level of the
MUR there must be a twofold interpretation of governance as incorporating the exercise of
political will and power within MURs as well as the involvement of civil society. It should be
emphasized that the implementation of policies at the level of the mega-urban region does not
necessarily involve the creation of new levels of government, as is the case when
municipalities are elevated to the status of provinces that has occurred in Vietnam or in the
case of Kuala Lumpur which became a Federal territory in 1972. In some cases such as
Metropolitan Manila Metropolitan Authority lower levels of urban government have not lost
political power, For large urban regions that encompass many political jurisdictions there are
various models based upon collaborative arrangements. These can be at the level of various
units of political administration (e.g. cities, regional authorities) and are designed to create
co-operation in planning to overcome policy challenges These institutional arrangements
need not always be made up of networks of cities but they could also involve sector co-
operation within a mega-urban region through regional transportation authorities, regional
environmental agencies etc. It also possible to develop policies that develop co-operation at a
more local level of two or three cities within a mega-urban region.
Secondly, the management of these mega-urban regions must be directed to ensuring
livability and sustainability as well as increasing the economic growth and competitive edge
of the region. This must be seen as part of a strategy that enhances the economic
attractiveness of the mega-urban region which can be carried out in a multi-layered manner
involving all levels of government. Such a vision does not exclude the possibility of city
region, public-private partnerships, and government-civil society coalitions being formed.
Central to this process will be the ability to develop systems of regional governance that are
based upon the collaboration of existing political units and the development of more inclusive
systems of governance.10 Indeed the administrative spread of Southeast Asian cities that we
have referred to earlier offers the institutional possibilities to be make flexible and innovative
management decisions. This, of course, requires the continuation of the regional visioning of
MUR space is beginning to slowly develop in the MURs of Southeast Asia. In this respect
Brenner’s carefully articulated review of metropolitan regionalism in the USA and Europe
has some relevance. He describes metropolitan regionalism as “including all strategies to
establish institutions, policies or governance mechanisms at a geographical scale which
approximates that of existing socio-economic interdependencies within an urban
agglomeration” (Brenner 1999).
Thirdly there must be a commitment to the preservation of the eco-systems of which these
EMRs are part. In this discussion I want to emphasize first that the local features of the eco
system must be taken into account particularly in Southeast Asia where the diversity of mega-
urban eco-systems demands locally- derived responses. The policy implications of regarding
the MURs as an integral part of national ecosystems does demand further clarification of the
concept. While there are many definitions of eco-systems the simplest is the idea of an eco
system that includes the dynamic interaction between people and the environment mediated
through institutional structures. In the simplest iteration of this idea the eco-system provides
the resources (water, food energy and land) that provide the necessities of livability. This
vision of ecosystems sees large urban regions as functioning as partial eco-systems that are
generally supported by biophysical processes from outside the peri-urban and core parts of
the urban region Generally these mega-urban regions because they are significant users of
energy, material transformation and consumption are more demanding of local and non-local
energy systems than non-urban places. These demands can often affect the quality of air, the
availability of air, the production of local food, waste disposal and other aspects of the
ambient environment and are well documented in the Southeast Asian context. (Greer and
Perry eds. 2003)
The crucial part of this approach is to recognize not only the importance of protecting eco-
systems as part of policy but to build the concept of “spatiality” into the policy process. In
1995 Mc Gee and Robinson had argued that the central imperative for the large mega-urban
regions of Southeast Asia was the need to create a response at a regional level that we
discussed earlier in this section. But in the decade since this argument was presented the idea
that regional planning can provide some rational response to the policy requirements of
MURs has become less popular as neo-liberal thinking of has developed an agenda of
deregulation, privatization and decentralization. These neo-liberal ideas have become part of
the policy agenda of developing Southeast Asian counties and often made the prerequisite of
loans by international agencies. In some cases these agendas clash with the top-down agendas
of the modernising states of Southeast Asia and there is a fragmentation of policy responses
particularly in the fringe areas of the mega-urban regions of Southeast Asia. Thus policy
solutions for the mega-urban regions of Southeast Asia will need some way to combine
regional vision that is needed to preserve the ecosystems, sub-regional intervention at the
level of the city core, inner and outer margins and contingent solutions at the local level.10
Fourthly, as various policies are introduced for mega-urban regions it is important to respond
to the issues of vulnerability that are being created by global warming, (De Sherbinen,
Schiller and Pulsiper (2007) and what seems likely to be long term increases in the prices of
fossil fuel and food prices. As we have already indicated the mega-urban regions of
Southeast Asia have been shaped by the ready access to fossil-fuel as the major source of
transportation and are becoming increasingly dependent on imported food. Many are also
located on low-lying coastal plains that could be vulnerable to projected sea-level rise that is
likely to affect the cores cities much more than the urban fringes. The effects of such
developments have been already begun to be seen in riots that occurred in Jakarta as a result
of increasing oil prices but they have the potential to create even greater social discontent and
as the competition for scarce resources increases. One policy response being advocated in
developed countries is to plan for higher density cores (compact cities) that that penalize the
use of the automobile and develop public transport systems (see Marcotullio 1991) but in the
Southeast Asian context many of the mega-urban regions already have high density cores that
are well in excess of western cities (where the idea has developed most traction) so that the
possibilities for this type of policy response are limited. Some spatial policies have also
advocated the development of poly-nucleated form of development in the urban fringes with
development of high-density cores in a number of urban nodes within MURs (Robinson
1995), which is also seen as attractive by many Southeast Asian governments such as
Malaysia and the Philippines. Another response which would involve efforts to preserve
existing eco-systems emphasize increases in the use of alternative energy sources, water
conservation and place a major priority on the development of public transportation.
Although orthodox planners do not regard it as a viable policy another policy may be to
increase the production of food for these mega-urban regions in the outer margins. At least in
the case of the densely populated rice growing hinterlands of Manila, Jakarta and Bangkok
this would be a return to a historical relationship between these cities and their hinterland that
had existed for centuries. But it would also involve a sustained investment in the margins of
the mega-urban regions that at present is in conflict with the priorities of creating
internationally competitive urban regions. Obviously these policies will have to be embedded
in the local context of each mega-urban region but they should contain the following
components: (1) effectiveness in contributing to economic growth (2) effectiveness in
contributing to local and global sustainability (3) effectiveness in promoting eco-systems
approach (4) effectiveness in contributing to social inclusion, increasing employment and
reducing urban poverty (5) effectiveness in producing a livable environment by increasing the
provision of services such as health, education, access to housing, care for the old age etc.11
In this paper I have tried to pose the major challenges that the current growth of mega-urban
regions in Southeast Asia present for the future sustainability for Southeast Asian societies. I
have been centrally concerned to emphasize the challenges that are posed by the historical
evolution of outer zones of these mega-urban regions, the importance of using a multi-scale
approach to investigate the processes that have created them and the need spatially
deconstruct the internal spatial features of MUR’s. In particular I have drawn attention to the
importance of the desakota zones in the future growth of these regions and their important
role in future urbanization. I have also chosen to downgrade the popular interpretation of
“globalization” as the prime determinant in the growth of these urban regions suggesting that
local actions at the national, regional and sub-regional scale are of more importance in the
formation of urban regions. Finally I have stressed the increasing vulnerability of mega-urban
regions to global trends such as global warming and increases in fossil fuel and energy and
food prices. The main policy challenges for Southeast Asian governments at all scales will be
how to develop locally derived adaptive strategies that create resilient urban regions in the
21st century. This may well lead to mega-urban regions that are internally decentralized and
place urban sustainability as major goal. This may also mean that urban spread may assume a
different form in which the desakota regions play an increasingly important role as the
preservation of the eco-system upon which the entire urban regions relies.
This also returns us to the assertion in the beginning of the paper that we need to rethink the
ideas of rural and urban in the 21st century and stress the importance of urban policy taking
into various urban scales. Governments and international agencies have policy agendas that
are driven by assumptions about rural and urban difference at a macro scale that does not take
enough account of the scaler differences between rural and urban, or the increasing inter-
mixture of rural and urban activities. For example an important aspect of state developmental
policy has been directed to reducing rural poverty. But as rural populations decline in size
urban poverty and the complicated dimensions of this phenomenon become more important
they will need to focus more on this challenge.10 Another example is the fact that many
environmental agendas are driven by the belief that activities in urban places are the major
cause of environmental problems which leads to a vigorous anti urbanism and a desire to
preserve the rural. A new realization that a new form of rural-urban relationship has
developed in the 21st century most implicitly in the desakota zones of Southeast Asia that is
central to the sustainability of the bio-systems of these mega-urban regions. This should
become a new ideology that replaces the ideas of rural and urban division in the century to
1. In fact in 2007 the United Nations estimated that by 2008 the world will reach “an invisible
but momentous milestone" For the first time in human history more than half its human
population, 3.3 billion people will be living in urban areas” UNFPA (2007): 1
2. See Champion and Hugo (2004) and Montgomery, Stren, Cohen and Reed (2003) for
valuable discussions of the breakdown of rural and urban divisions.
3. The Southeast Asian region is made-up of the following countries: Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia,
Thailand, Myanmar, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei, Philippines and Timor Leste.
4. The inclusion of Hong Kong and Southeast Asia is problematic since Hong Kong is now been
reincorporated into the PRC in 1997. But historically Hong Kong always played an important
role as one of the nodes of the overseas Chinese economic networks. These networks continue
until the present day.
5. This section is based on Mc Gee, 1967, 1991, 1997, 2002. Mc Gee and Robinson (1995) and
Mc Gee (2007)
6. The data used in this section is taken from United Nations 2002, 2003 and UNFPA 2007
7. This section is based on Kelly and Mc Gee 2003 and Mc Gee 1967,1991, 1997 and 2002
8. In this section I have concentrated on the demographic features of the spatial growth of
MURs of Southeast Asia. For an overview of the economic and social features of these
changing MURs see Jones and Douglass 2008 For more specific case studies see, Kelly
(2003) Spretzhofer (2002) Gainsborough (2003) Nakagawa (2004) Lysaga (2006) and Waibel
(2006) Leaf (2008)
9. We will have to await the results of the next census to find out how the extension of urban
boundaries in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh Metropolitan areas will affect the official levels of
urbanization in Vietnam but we do know that in Hanoi’s case the annexation of adjacent
provinces that was approved on April 1 tripled its land area and increased its population to an
estimated 5 million. The June 2008 request to the national government for expansion by Ho
Chi Minh City, if approved would incorporate several adjacent provinces and increase the
population to between 18-20 million, which would make it the third largest metropolitan
region in Southeast Asia. This will lead to a substantial increase in the official urbanization
level of Vietnam. Information provided by various Vietnam News Agency Reports in 2008.
See <>
10. For an excellent case study of the challenges of creating collaborative governance in mega-
urban regions see Maneepong and Webster (2008)
11. There is an increasing recognition of the need to adopt sustainability as one of the major goals
of urban management policy by international agencies. See Asian Development Bank (2008)
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... Studies on emerging urban transition and urbanization features in Southeast Asia have been conducted since the 1990s. Some researchers such as McGee (1991, 2000, 2009), Webster (2002, 2009, 2014, and Hsing (2010) have studied the urbanization process by widening the scope of urbanized territories using terms such as extended metropolitan regions (EMRs) or mega-urban regions (MURs). According to these studies, unlike European and North American experiences, urban expansion in some Southeast Asian countries has occurred in areas with high rural population densities. ...
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... The urbanization process in Vietnam has been led by diverse groups of state agencies, market actors, local citizens, and international investors (McGee 2009;Gross, Ye, and Legates 2014). In the early phases of urbanization, individual households and smallscale collective entrepreneurs were the main actors in urban space production. ...
... With over half of the global population resides in cities, peri-urban zones are increasingly becoming the main habitat for urban residents (Morelli et al., 2014;Yankson and Bertrand, 2012;Rauw and de Roo, 2011;McGee, 2009;Owusu, 2008). Across developing countries, particularly those in Africa, peri-urban areas have expanded and are growing rapidly not only in population, but also in spatial influence and scale of planning and management challenges (Anane and Cobbinah, 2022;Akaateba et al., 2018;Gough and Yankson, 2000). ...
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... A central element of integrating smallscale farmers into markets will involve adapting to this demographic transition by building and strengthening rural-urban linkages (e.g. through e-commerce). In Asia, a chain of large urban areas and smaller cities can be observed, described with the term "desakota" (McGee, 2009). This blurred division between rural and urban creates new opportunities for producers in rural areas to cater to the needs of the urban populations. ...
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This book will convince the reader to care about fruit and vegetables and to see that the small-scale production of these crops is fundamental to achieving sustainable development goals. In five chapters, the reader will learn about the challenges and rewards for producers, sellers, and consumers. Chapter 1: a working definition for fruit and vegetables, making the case for supporting small-scale farmers and value chains. Chapter 2: options for farm management to ensure that production is sustainable including genetic resources, seed systems, management of water, soil, nutrients, and control of pests and diseases. Chapter 3: options to integrate small-scale commercial fruit and vegetable farmers into socially inclusive value chains, including innovative post-harvest handling services, market linkages, and reducing food loss and waste. Chapter 4: options for practitioners and policymakers at different governmental, institutional and social levels to promote the sustainable production and consumption of safe, nutritious, and affordable fruit and vegetables. Chapter 5: key interventions and innovations to facilitate the sustainable production of fruit and vegetables in low- and middle-income countries across the world. This publication takes readers on a journey introducing them to a diverse array of fruit and vegetables through colorfully illustrated studies from around the world. It justifies the importance of these crops and it encourages readers to take an active role both in promoting fruit and vegetable production and in encouraging more people to eat them.
... It also fails to acknowledge the formation of megaregions comprising RUC settlements with a higher affinity towards urban. McGee points out that "the changing nature of rural and urban settlements in such megaregions are most critical as the idea of the division between rural and urban is so embedded in the institutional, political and social understanding of most contemporary nations" (Mcgee, 2009). In India, the rural and urban classification forms the basis of various decision support systems for governance, administration, infrastructure provisions, planning, and management. ...
Kerala State in India has a unique Rural-Urban Continuum (RUC) settlement pattern where it is difficult to distinguish between urban from rural. However, like all the Indian States, the RUC settlements of Kerala are also divided into rural and urban, and this dichotomous classification forms the basis of spatial planning, governance, and management. The current situation has resulted in the spread of urban characterized settlements towards the environmentally fragile areas of the state. Despite several discussions regarding the RUC nature of settlements, details about the spatial characteristics of Kerala are missing in the literature. Accordingly, the paper explores the RUC settlement pattern of Kerala in two parts. The first part assesses the RUC pattern based on the existing Indian census definition. The result reveals that the urban and rural definitions do not hold validity in Kerala. The second part explores the settlements based on the topographic distribution, followed by a detailed analysis of the spatiotemporal dynamics of the built areas in three levels of detailing. The study reveals a spread of built-up areas across diverse topography and variation among the built-up areas of different urban areas. While the lowland regions indicated a dominance and clustering of built-up patches, in the midlands and towards the highland study areas, the built-up areas are smaller and more fragmented with an affinity towards the transportation corridors. Therefore the study helped characterize the spread of reclassified settlements and the changes in built-up areas across diverse topography and emphasized the requirement to move away from dichotomous classification as followed in some developed countries. The study recommends an RUC code for Kerala and an Eco-sensitive Regional Planning approach for a better spatial planning process. A modified and refined planning framework is also proposed as a final output from the research.
... Along with the issue of mega cities in some Southeast Asian countries (McGee, 2009;Scott, 2001), the urban poverty rate is also increasing in parallel with the increase in rural-to-urban migration. A high poverty rate in Indonesia, which was in 2014, have reached 27.73 million people or 10.96% in average (BPS Nasional, 2016) has forced Indonesia to emphasize and prioritize economic development in the national planning system. ...
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Creative Industry-based tourism has been popular as several cities in Indonesia have also been declared as “Creative City”. In sustainability viewpoint, the integration of creative industry activities with other planning elements and efforts towards social and economic development is necessary. The inter-organizational collaboration is essential by integrating various disciplines in managing the complexity and the dynamics in tourism development. This research aims at developing an Integrated Planning Model of Creative Industry-based Tourism in Jayengan Surakarta. The study adopted a mixed-methods approach using detailed observations and interviews, as well as Focus Group Discussion (FGD) with the primary actors to understand the process. The study suggests that creative industry-based kampung tourism in Jayengan Surakarta, must be developed with integrated manner through interrelationships among tourism components, developing problem-solving model, promoting a conceptual system to guide the process and strengthening the inter-organizational collaboration. It is also understood that this concept might promote rural development since the potential sources of local industries and tourism are abundantly available in the rural areas.
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Настоящая публикация призвана убедить читателя в необходимости заботы о выращивании овощей и фруктов, а также в том, что мелкомасштабное производство данных культур имеет основополагающее значение для достижения целей устойчивого развития. В пяти главах читатель ознакомится с проблемами в сельском хозяйстве и узнает о выгодах для производителей, продавцов и потребителей. y Глава 1: рабочее определение для овощей и фруктов, обосновывающее необходимость поддержки мелких фермеров и производственно-сбытовых цепочек. y Глава 2: варианты управления хозяйством для обеспечения устойчивого производства, включая генетические ресурсы, системы семеноводства, управление водой, почвой, питательными веществами и защиту от вредителей и болезней.. y Глава 3: варианты интеграции мелких коммерческих фермеров, выращивающих овощи и фрукты в социально-инклюзивные цепочки добавленной стоимости, включая инновационные услуги по послуборочной обработке, рыночным связям и снижению продовольственных потерь и отходов. y Глава 4: варианты для практиков и политиков на различных правительсвенных, институциональных и социальных уровнях для продвижения устойчивого производства и потребления безопасных питательных и досупных овощей и фруктов. y Глава 5: основные мероприятия и инновации для содействия устойчивому производству овощей и фруктов в странах с низким и средним уровнем дохода повсеместно. Настоящая публикация отправляет читателей в путешествие, знакомя их с разнообразным ассортиментом овощей и фруктов через красочно иллюстрированные исследования со всего мира. Она обосновывает важность этих культур и призывает читателей принять активное участие как в развитии производства овощей и фруктов, так и в привлечении большего числа людей к их употреблению.
Environmental change and governance operate across multiple, interconnected scales. In Southeast Asia, there are calls to broaden the study of transboundary environmental governance to address the range of scales, actors, and flows in analysis. In response, we propose a framework to move beyond statist framings of ‘transboundary’ in the region by drawing on van Schendel's proposal for flow studies on the one hand, to overcome the ‘geographies of ignorance’ that stem from fixed studies of nation-states, and mobile political ecology on the other, to emphasise the role of resource users and their mobilities in environmental governance. We focus on transboundary sand and sediments in rivers, the rise in sand mining in the region, and its impacts on livelihoods and cross-border flows. Research was conducted from 2015 to 2019 along the transboundary Salween River in the Myanmar-Thai borderlands. This research shows that sand extraction not only impacts existing sand-based livelihoods, like riverbank gardening, but also intersects with migration patterns. Migration here is being exacerbated by sand mining alongside processes of environmental and political-economic change, but these intersections would be overlooked in a fixed or statist approach. We illustrate these complex changes by presenting two ‘sand stories’ that emerge from our research. This primary research combined with a novel conceptual framing expands our analysis of transboundary by revealing and highlighting the linkages between mobilities and transboundary resource flows. In doing so, our analysis brings people, livelihoods and mobilities to the centre of transboundary environment governance and opens scholarly and practice-based discussions to the range of actors, scales and resource regimes involved.
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Over the next 20 years, most low-income countries will, for the first time, become more urban than rural. Understanding demographic trends in the cities of the developing world is critical to those countries - their societies, economies, and environments. The benefits from urbanization cannot be overlooked, but the speed and sheer scale of this transformation presents many challenges. In this uniquely thorough and authoritative volume, 16 of the world“s leading scholars on urban population and development have worked together to produce the most comprehensive and detailed analysis of the changes taking place in cities and their implications and impacts. They focus on population dynamics, social and economic differentiation, fertility and reproductive health, mortality and morbidity, labor force, and urban governance. As many national governments decentralize and devolve their functions, the nature of urban management and governance is undergoing fundamental transformation, with programs in poverty alleviation, health, education, and public services increasingly being deposited in the hands of untested municipal and regional governments. Cities Transformed identifies a new class of policy maker emerging to take up the growing responsibilities. Drawing from a wide variety of data sources, many of them previously inaccessible, this essential text will become the benchmark for all involved in city-level research, policy, planning, and investment decisions. The National Research Council is a private, non-profit institution based in Washington, DC, providing services to the US government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The editors are members of the Council“s Panel on Urban Population Dynamics.
This study investigated recent changes in migration and population structure of the Greater Bangkok considering the impact of economic globalization. The spatial policy of the Thai government has lead newer investments for manufacturing to locate away from Bangkok Metropolis and thereby the industrial structure of Bangkok Metropolis has gradually turned into service-dominated, while the region surrounding Bangkok Metropolis has attracted factories mainly owned by foreign capital. Light industry and electronics industry are con-centrated in the adjacent provinces to Bangkok Metropolis and the heavy and petrochemical industry tends to be located in the outer zone of the surrounding region. The service sector and light industry as well as electronics industry prefer female workers and Bangkok met-ropolis and the adjoining provinces have become female-dominated population structure while male workers tend to gather in the outer zone attracted by heavy and petrochemical industry. It is possible to mention accordingly that the unbalanced spatial distribution of sex structure of population which might cause changes in the norm to the family formation in future is one of the consequences of economic globalization of Thailand, which the inves-tment promotion policy of the government did not assume.
This article argues that the urban environmental transition as experienced by rapidly developing Asian cities is significantly different from that experienced by the West. Urban environmental transition theory suggests that cities undergo a series of environmental challenges as they develop. At first, the priority environmental challenges are those relating to the 'brown' agenda, including water supply, sewage and sanitation issues. As cities industrialise they are confronted by 'grey' agenda challenges or those associated with industrial and auto-related pollution. Cities in post-industrial societies are battling 'green' agenda challenges such as greenhouse gas emissions, ozone-depleting substances, non-point-source pollution and increasing volumes of municipal waste. This shift in type of impact is accompanied by a shift in scale (from local to global), timing (from immediate impacts to those that are delayed), and character (from health-threatening to ecosystem-threatening). While cities of the West have experienced these impacts in a sequential order, with one set sometimes emerging from the 'solutions' to the previous set, cities in rapidly developing Asia are experiencing a different, compressed form of the transition. The authors compare the development of urban transportation systems with other challenges to demonstrate this difference. This compressed urban environmental transition, in which challenges must be met within shorter timescales, also presents the problem of overlapping or telescoped sets of transition challenges.
Since 1986, Vietnam has been embarked upon a series of measures designed to accelerate the growth of the market economy by allowing private enterprise and liberalising foreign investment. This paper analyses the likely urbanisation patterns of Vietnam based upon a scenario of the rapid development of a mixed economy, with a large private sector open to foreign investment, with a strong expansion of manufactured exports following the model of newly-industrialised countries such as Thailand and Indonesia. This paper suggests that most of the industrial and urban development will be concentrated in the two Extended Metropolitan Regions of Hanoi-Haiphong and Ho Chi Minh. This pattern of urban development will pose major challenges for urban policy making which will need to be incorporated into national development plans. -from Author