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Nishida and the Dynamic Nature of Knowledge Why Economists Should Take Nishida Seriously

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... Bordum (2002) suggests that Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) shift the focus from tacit knowing to tacit knowledge and that Nonaka and Takeuchi incorporate the two constructs into one: a Zen Buddhist approach. The writings of Nishida (1990) affirm this thinking (Graupe, 2008). Bordum spends little time expanding upon the nature of this shift or why he saw it as important. ...
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This dissertation outlines a design-based research study that takes place within two subsequent iterations of an online Masters’ course. This study examines the use and value of a learning archive, as perceived by students through their interactions with learning artefacts used during their course. Their course is held within an innovative and experimental social-networked learning environment. This study is based on key elements of organizational knowledge creation theory, in particular the process of knowledge creation and the concept of ba being the underlying context within which this knowledge is developed. This study documents the perceived impact that visible and persistent knowledge artefacts have on the process of learning. This study also shows that as artefacts are accessed and integrated into the overall learning process student engagement and efficacy are perceived to change in a positive way, and these changes impact both the learning environment and the learning process. This study produces two key outcomes. The first outcome is that the use of a socially networked online learning environment as a virtual classroom can offer a richness and an openness through its capacity to create, annotate, rate, and comment upon persistent artefacts. This use, coupled with permeable and flexible boundaries in the learning environment, offers richness to the learning experience. Learners within a social-networked space, as is used for this study, have complete control over their privacy settings and can make their contributions as open or as closed as desired. This type of environment encourages learning beyond the confines of the classroom and provides support for learner engagement and efficacy. The second key finding is that students in this study support the inclusion of a dynamic course archive containing artefacts from learners in prior iterations of the course. Given the structural limitations of many online learning environments, this study demonstrates that such an archive is likely best placed with a social-networked learning space and with appropriate search, tagging, and navigation tools. The study demonstrates that students will and have benefited from the archive’s use in support of their learning and will contribute to it in support of the learning of others.
The question as to who bridges barriers as well as the role of insider-scholars leads to the fourth axis of uncertainty, which revolves around actor knowledge, researchers and theories. All previous uncertainties or controversies relate to the issue of who is to speak for the parties involved. The last chapter in lieu of a conclusion ends this book by scrutinising what remains after playing: Knowledge through, for and of RPGs. What knowledge gain players by and for role-playing? Who decides what constitutes a role-playing game? How much involved are scholars of RPGs in the making of their object? The chapter wraps up with a summary of the ordering conflicts entangling the assemblage. It delivers a contingent sketch of the possibilities of role-playing games and the uncertainties revolving around their dynamics and ordering in Japan and beyond: The assemblage of role-playing is more than one and less than many.
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