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THE QUALITY OF PRIMARY EDUCATION IN SOUTH AFRICA Background Paper Prepared for UNESCO Education for All Global Monitoring Report

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... Various authors further hypothesise that the socioeconomic status of the community is a key component in determining learner literacy competency in South African schools ( Chisholm, 2004;Howie, 2003;Pretorius & Machet, 2004;Fiske & Ladd, 2006;Bush, Joubert, Kiggundu & Van Rooyen, 2010;Spaull, 2012). Pretorius and Machet (2004) hypothesise contend that, despite available resources in schools, learners' ability to learn to read and, consequently, achieve the required standard of performance, is also based on available resources and exposure to education-related activities at home. ...
... This partly elucidates why our understanding of learner performance in disadvantaged communities remains elusive and often beyond the capabilities of individual schools. Chisholm (2004) argues that the quality of education in poor schooling communities in South Africa remains problematic despite interventions by the Department of Education (DoE), due to the impact of povertyrelated factors that are often contextualised. Chisholm (2004), therefore, claims that understanding poverty-related dynamics could pave the way to deeper insight into the predicaments of learners in disadvantaged communities. ...
... Chisholm (2004) argues that the quality of education in poor schooling communities in South Africa remains problematic despite interventions by the Department of Education (DoE), due to the impact of povertyrelated factors that are often contextualised. Chisholm (2004), therefore, claims that understanding poverty-related dynamics could pave the way to deeper insight into the predicaments of learners in disadvantaged communities. This, in principle, explains why Van der Berg (2006) in interrogating the nature of learner performance in poor South African schools since 1994, found that circumstances in communities render the efficacy and legitimacy of school resources questionable. ...
Article
Attempts at addressing South Africa’s educational inequalities since 1994 through various initiatives have not produced the expected results with regard to learner performance, especially in disadvantaged communities. This renders existing efforts questionable and contentious, especially with the ever-deepening gap between input (resources) and learner performance. The study focused on three primary schools in an informal settlement in Cape Town using the Capability Approach as a lens to understand the nature of learner performance. A qualitative approach was followed, and a case study design was adopted. It involved 75 research participants, including 20 learners, four teachers and the principals of each participating school. The article argues that poor school communities either face challenges due to inadequate resources or lack the necessary capabilities to convert existing resources into learner outcomes. The paper considers school challenges to be varied based on context and, therefore, sees it essential to allocate resources based on individual needs and to consider schools’ existing capabilities to convert resources into learner outcomes. The paper suggests that monitoring and evaluation mechanisms be implemented to determine which schools are able or unable to convert available resources into learner outcomes for possible intervention.
... We are of the view that the confidence of qualified teachers might stem from the training they received at teacher-training institutions. Seemingly, there would be unintended outcomes that might affect the quality of both teaching and learning in the schools taught by the unqualified teachers (Chisholm, 2004). To address this situation, the Ministry of Education and Training deployed DRTs to provide school-based support and training to unqualified teachers in the areas of pedagogy, curriculum, and school management ). ...
... We are of the view that the confidence of qualified teachers might stem from the training they received at teacher-training institutions. Seemingly, there would be unintended outcomes that might affect the quality of both teaching and learning in the schools taught by the unqualified teachers (Chisholm, 2004). To address this situation, the Ministry of Education and Training deployed DRTs to provide school-based support and training to unqualified teachers in the areas of pedagogy, curriculum, and school management ). ...
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Factors such as ineffective teaching strategies, limited support from teachers and school environment, as well as limited exposure to English, are responsible for pronunciation errors in the learning of a second language (Ali, 2013). They create conditions which predispose learners to transfer sounds from their first language in to the pronunciation of second language morphemes. This chapter explores some of the common errors in the pronunciation of English sounds made by learners whose first language is Sesotho. The discussion in this chapter may be of benefit particularly to people who teach English as a second language to Sesotho speakers and those who are involved in formulating education policies and in the planning of English language education
... Although some of the South African government's objectives in the domain of education, such as access have been achieved (Modisaotsile, 2012), others such as finding a balance between enrolment and performance, and between input and outcomes, especially in poor schools, remains an on-going education crisis and debate (Spaull, 2013;Pretorius, 2014). In the view ofMaarman (2009), government efforts to improve education have been dampened by existing poverty imperatives, despite acknowledgements of great improvements in the South African education system (Crouch and Mabogoane, 2001;Chisholm, 2004;Van der Berg, 2006;Taylor, Fleisch and Shindler, 2008;Taylor, Van der Berg and Burger, 2012). The current impasse of Q-1 primary schools interrogates the efficacy of current policy approaches as there is evidence of persistent poor learner performance. ...
Article
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This paper focuses on the extent and consequences of learner progression in the form of ‘automatic promotion’ or grade promotion for reasons other than academic achievement, as propagated by the existing School Progression Policy (SPP) and how its implementation affects learner performance. The paper argues that, although the advantages and disadvantages of grade retention and automatic promotion, or the promotion of learners that do not possess the required content knowledge, are highly contentious, the SPP produces numerous complexities and unfreedoms on learners when examined through the lens of the Capabilities Approach (CA). Based on a study of three Quintile-1 (Q-1) primary schools in Cape Town, the paper argues that, although the SPP is ambitious and well intentioned, critical implementation and monitoring challenges negatively reconfigures the educational aspirations of primary school learners. The paper also reveals that the implementation of the SPP imposes many unfreedoms for both learners and teachers in high poverty level areas. The study revealed that the CA, despite its limitations in terms of conceptualisation, does provide a unique framework to investigate real freedoms and unfreedoms of the SPP.
... This has resulted in pressure to appoint the most 'affordable' teachers, who are often not (the best) qualified for the job. Furthermore, the lack of government involvement implies the absence of a structure that would enable the coordination of efforts to determine whether these centres meet particular quality criteria (Chisholm 2004). ...
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This study investigated how quality in early learning centres (preschools) in South Africa was experienced and perceived by mothers and teachers. A theoretical framework, based on a model of quality development by Woodhead (1996), informed the study. This framework that consists of input (structural), process and outcome quality indicators is a well-established model for quality development, which has been used in developing countries. The findings generated from a thematical analysis of interview data showed that aspects perceived by mothers and teachers as quality indicators in early learning centres were predominantly process indicators and hard to ‘measure’ in a quantitative way. For mothers and teachers, children’s social-emotional well-being, holistic development, a normative foundation for values and respect, effective infrastructure and accountable learning indicated quality. A quality school climate enhances emotional and social well-being, and the findings suggest that for mothers and teachers quality concerns were not about that which the early learning centres have provided in terms of facilities (input indicators), but rather about the process indicators where centres promote children’s holistic well-being. The only outcome indicator that was regarded as extremely important by mothers and important, but not to the same extent, by teachers, is whether children are happy and content and enjoying school.
... Although South Africa, a developing country, has set the goal of achieving universal primary education (Chisholm, 2004), studies have shown that despite high investment in education (Engelbrecht, 2006), there is low participation, high dropout rates and under-education of learners in many cases (Van Der Berg, 2007Ginsburg et al., 2011). These issues and resultant high dropout rates also impose serious constraints on national development as it undermines national human capital and community development efforts (Archambault et al., 2009;Tikly, 2011). ...
Conference Paper
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In this paper we put forward a basis for a debate on adequate and self-reflexive sensemaking in ICT4D social situations. To portray the idea (our value judgement) that everyone (researchers and research participants) needs development, self-reflexivity and practical immersion are discussed as concepts that should form part of ICT4D social inquiry. We build on Bourdieu’s critical views on ‘adequate sensemaking’ and ‘practical immersion’ in social situations, but also draw from work on hermeneutics, Phronetic social research, ethnography, critical reflexivity, and a view on social linguistics to firstly construct our argument for alternate methodological considerations that prioritizes virtuoso expertise that is aligned with the critical paradigm, above analytical scientific knowledge and technical knowledge or know-how. Secondly, we test these emerging ideas with self-reflexive and self-conscious conversations presented in the form of narratives (demonstrations of virtuoso expertise) about our involvement in a rural marginalized high school in a remote district in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. We focus specifically on the sensemaking context created by our presence in the community and we argue that for ICT4D social inquiry to truly matter (i.e., to be adequate), it should stop valuing attempts to try and mimic natural sciences and appeal for methodological accountability only. We further argue that adequate sensemaking and social inquiry cannot be divorced from seeking some form of experientially-based immersion on the part of the researcher. Based on the research, we recommend increased attention to local context, particularly community tensions; researcher use of conscious sensemaking through reflexivity; people-orientation along with experiential learning; all of which should be considered for future ICT4D work in developing environments.
... Nearly 21 years since the first democratic election, the South African school system unfortunately still suffers from some difficulties, partly due to the country's long legacy of apartheid. Despite government's substantial efforts over the years to improve access and quality in education, learner performance is still low (Chisholm, 2005). Shindler and Fleisch (2007) stated that access to education is lower than what most published sources suggest. ...
Article
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Learners living in challenging socio-economic circumstances face limited opportunities for further education and employment. In this context, formal career guidance which merely provides information about specific jobs and how to access them may be of little use. This article explores the usefulness of participatory visual strategies as a pedagogical tool for teachers to help learners think more critically, realistically and hopefully about their future life opportunities. Analysed through a resilience lens, findings indicated that the strategies inspired hope in learners; helped them identify assets and barriers in their social ecologies; develop a sense of agency and responsibility for deciding on their futures; and care more for other people, all of which will help them make more constructive choices for life after school. The findings might help teachers make their career education more relevant for children who live in contexts of adversity.
... Whether quality is measured in terms of inputs as measured by resources that go to schools; in terms of processes which focus on practices that relate to teaching and learning, or outcomes, in terms of average examination results and what skills, knowledge and values learners acquire , the district office plays a critical role. Despite the expectation that district offices support teaching and learning in schools, there is a body of evidence to show that quality in the majority of schools, especially primary schools, remains poor (Chisholm, 2004 andRoberts, 2012). A number of districts seem to be struggling with their matric results (DoE, 2007a, DoE 2007b, DoE, 2009, DoE, 2010aand DoE,2010b. ...
Article
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This study analysed the coordination and collaboration of teaching and learning support programmes in the Department of Education District offices. Support for teaching and learning is a universal practise and education local (district) offices including in South Africa, are tasked to support schools with the view of enhancing learner outcomes. However, there is no significant improvement on the quality of learner educational outcomes in the Eastern Cape. Five district officials (office and school based) were purposively selected in two Education Districts. These were Integrated Quality Management System (IQMS) Coordinators, Subject Advisors and Education Development Officers (EDOs) and School Management Team members and Principals. Qualitative research approach in which interviews and documentary analysis were used to collect data, served as a guide to this study. From the findings it emerged that district office based officials do not coordinate their teaching and learning support programmes. The data also revealed that EDOs’ Subject Advisors’ and IQMS Coordinators’ teaching and learning support programmes do not inform each other and in some instances these district officials send different signals to schools. This meant that different district offices apply different approaches when it comes to supporting teaching and learning in schools. The researcher recommends therefore that a coherent framework be developed where district officials coordinate jointly and centrally teaching and learning support programmes at district office level so as to avoid mixed messages sent to schools. © 2014, Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research. All rights reserved.
... The rationale for this research is twofold: on the one hand South Africa currently faces a crisis in mathematics education, which has seen it placed last 1 in the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (Howie 2001;Howie et al., 2000;Global competitiveness report 2013, Evan 2013. Despite improvements 2 in the Senior Certificate 3 results over the 19 year period since the first democratic elections, Chisholm (2004) indicates that the quality of primary education remains poor in South Africa, especially in under-resourced schools, where grade 6 students, for example, perform 3 years below grade level (Taylor, Muller and Vinjevold 2003). Recent research (Evans, 2013) indicates that South Africa is ranked second last in the world in terms of mathematics and science proficiency. ...
Article
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In this study the impact of computer immersion on performance of school leavers Senior Certificate mathematics scores was investigated across 31 schools in the EMDC East education district of Cape Town, South Africa by comparing performance between two groups: a control and an experimental group. The experimental group (14 high schools) had access to computers since 2001 while the control schools received computers between 2006 and early 2007. That is, the experimental schools could be expected to be more immersed in computer technology than the control schools. Findings indicated that there was no significant difference between the final Senior Certificate mathematics results of the schools with the computers and those without; no significant change in the results after the Khanya labs were installed; no significant change in the percentage of pupils that passed Senior Certificate Mathematics; and no significant change in Higher Grade Maths enrolment rates. This finding points to the need for caution in the implementation of ICT's into schools as a potential panacea for mathematical failure in our context. Recommendations for further qualitative work to provide a more nuanced picture of computer usage should be made.
... The Spanish-and Portuguese-speaking countries in South America have developed new standardized assessments of student learning at the national levels and also new regional assessments (Valdés Veloz, Treviño, Castro, Costilla, & Acevedo, 2009). But the limited amount of research on classroom practice finds that most teachers still use traditional assessment approaches (Chisholm, 2004;Nenty, Adedoyin, Odili, & Major, 2007;Otiato Ojiambo, 2008;Prieto & Contreras, 2008;Saldanha & Talim, 2007;Vandeyar & Killen, 2007;Zamora Hernández & Moreno Olivos, 2009). ...
Chapter
Through initiatives like Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills (ATC21S ) Intel® has been collaborating with governments and policy-makers to create new national standards and national assessments. But Intel’s professional development programs help teachers use assessment for learning as part of a 21st century learning environment. In this paper, we highlight the research on six assessment strategies that should be part of a 21st century learning environment and encourage ministries to consider how these strategies may play a role in their own reform efforts: 1) Rubrics, 2) Performance-based assessments (PBAs), 3) Portfolios, 4) Student self-assessment, 5) Peer-assessment, 6) Student response systems (SRS).
... Following South Africa's transition to democracy in 1994, there have been a number of changes to the schooling system in an attempt to overcome the legacy of apartheid. These changes were introduced to improve access, equity and quality (Chisholm, 2004). Currently school learners in South Africa learn in the context of the Revised National Curriculum Statement (RCNS) for Grades R to 9, which was published in 2002, and the National Curriculum Statement (NCS) for Grades 10 to 12, published in 2003. ...
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Schooling in South Africa is structured according to the Revised National Curriculum Statement (RNCS) for Grades R to 9 and the National Curriculum Statement (NCS) for Grades 10 to 12. The National Curriculum outlines the skills and abilities that learners should achieve in order to exhibit the prescribed outcomes for each Learning Area and grade, but it does not prescribe the subject content or tools to be used to teach these skills and abilities. This paper reflects on the journey of three researchers involved in a study that aims to develop context-relevant teaching tools using indigenous and local knowledges in collaboration with local teachers and community members, to be utilised in seven schools, in Cofimvaba in the Eastern Cape. (C) 2013 The Authors Published by Elsevier Ltd.
... Bernstein et al (2004, p. 6) report that within South Africa, education experts, practitioners, parents and learners contend that " maths [and science] is the component of the education system that needs to be reformed most urgently " . According to Chisholm (2004) there is a body of evidence suggesting a poor standard of primary school education in the majority of schools. Although many reasons can be sighted for the poor state of affairs in primary education, an important one is teachers with poor knowledge of both content and subject pedagogy (DoE, 2007; NPC, 2011). ...
Article
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Not much is known officially about the ways in which mathematics teachers experience their relationship with the curriculum advisor. This descriptive study investigated, by survey, the views and experiences of a convenient sample of intermediate and senior phase mathematics (grades 4-9) teachers with respect to the curriculum advisory services at schools in the Western Cape, South Africa. The results indicate that these teachers considered the role and job description of the curriculum advisor to be mainly centred on their immediate teaching needs. Consequently, they were unsure about mathematics curriculum-related expectations. Results also indicate a distant relationship with the curriculum advisor with minimal interaction and communication. The majority of teachers reported never having had experiences of their lessons being observed by the mathematics CA, though many respondents still expressed a desire for receiving specialised support from the CA. The findings of this study may be used proactively to inform the planning and design of any future curriculum advisory provision directorates or inspectorates. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n15p424
... Many of the Spanish-and Portuguesespeaking countries in South America have developed new standardized assessments of student learning at the national levels and also new regional assessments [19,20]. But the limited amount of research on classroom practice finds that most teachers in less developed countries still use traditional assessment approaches [15,[21][22][23][24][25][26][27]]. ...
Article
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Global policymakers are increasingly promoting the improvement of standardized examinations in developing countries, but the role of teacher-made classroom-based assessments is often ignored. Our research experience with the Intel® Teach professional development programs and other programs suggests that such approaches have great potential to provide students and teachers with feedback to guide and deepen learning. In this paper, we review the existing literature on assessment for learning in developing countries and propose that policy makers consider supporting research and development in five strategies: rubrics, performance-based assessments, portfolios, student self-assessment, and peer-assessment.
... Following this transition there has been a number of changes to the schooling system. Chisholm (2004) reasons that these were attempts to overcome the legacy of apartheid; they were introduced in order to improve educational access, equity and quality. Following these changes, school learners have had to learn in the context of the Revised National Curriculum Statement (RCNS) from Grades R to 9, published in 2002; and the National Curriculum Statement (NCS) from Grades 10 to 12, published in 2003. ...
Article
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Masihambisane is an Nguni word, loosely meaning "let us walk the path together". The symbolic act of walking together is conceptually at the heart of a funded1 research project conducted in rural schools of Cofimvaba in the Eastern Cape. The project focuses on promoting the direct participation of teachers in planning, researching, and developing learning and teaching materials (LTSMs), with a view to aligning these materials with indigenous and local knowledge. In this paper we make explicit our learning, and the manner in which we carried out the collaborated research activities, using the Reflect process.
... A high percentage of South African children have access to basic education today (Social Surveys, 2010). However, serious deficiencies in the quality of primary, secondary and tertiary education still exist in many educational institutions in South Africa today (Chisholm, 2004). Opportunities should be sought by private sector organisations to overcome the constraints and problems currently preventing access to first-class education for all and to become actively involved in the development of their future human resources. ...
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This study was driven by a need to empower the Human Resource function to rationally and purposefully monitor and manage the determinants of turnover intention, and through that, the intention to quit of talented employees. A partial talent-management structural model was developed, mapping line-manager talent-management competencies on the outcomes of job satisfaction, affective commitment and intention to quit. The partial talent-management structural model was tested using LISREL. Reasonable to good model fit was indicated for the structural model. Ten of the 24 stated hypotheses were corroborated. The study provides unique insight into the manner in which the talent-management competencies are causally related amongst themselves, and provides support for studies which link affective commitment and intention to quit, as well as job satisfaction and intention to quit. Suggestions for the expansion and elaboration of the existing model are made.
Preprint
Inequalities in Education.
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The overall performances in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) and Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) of South African learners have been dismal to say the least and the Annual National Assessment test results of grade 3, 6 and 9 learners related to general literacy and mathematics have left a lot to be desired. Clearly this suggests that something has to be done to address this. At the same time, South African education is still suffering as a result of the legacy of apartheid and the great majority of schools are lacking basic resources such as libraries, infrastructure and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) resources, including internet connectivity. General learner literacy and ICT literacy development and usage for learning are high on the government’s agenda, as is scientific literacy. However, there seems to be a dearth of ‘how to’ implement ICT related activities to develop reading, talking, listening and writing within a science classroom learning context with special reference to promoting scientific literacy in its fundamental sense. The theoretical and practical outline that follows attempts to assist filling the void related to the above by introducing an ICT based scientific literacy heuristic that is infused by the ICT based ‘Extended Cyberhunt Approach’ of Du Plessis (2010) and Du Plessis and Webb (2011, 2012, in press) and the off-line Scientific Literacy model of Webb and Villanueva (2008); Webb and Mayaba (2010) and Webb (2010). The focus of the heuristic is to develop scientific reading, talking, listening and writing, as well as to establish a different classroom learning space and experience. In addition, it adds emphasis on on-going feedback from the teacher to the learners as well as focusing on reflection and journal writing to inform teacher planning and subsequent interactions in the science classroom. The additional potential of the heuristic is not only that it offers ICT literacy skills development and the development of skills within a curriculum related science context, but also that ICT skills can be developed even without internet connectivity through using Microsoft Word and/or PowerPoint for writing development and presentation or adding Web 2.0 tools such as a Wiki to complement Microsoft Word and/or PowerPoint if connectivity is available. Research suggests that various skills such as planning, searching and researching, presentation, assessment as well as various cognitive skills can be developed when ICT is used as a cognitive tool in a ‘Learning-as-Design’ context, i.e. when learners (students) become the designers and composers of artefacts related to topics that are curriculum based. This paper also then forms the base for an intervention in two primary schools in the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa that has received ICT resources for the first time ever, including internet connectivity, in September 2013. Hence, the anticipated research within these two schools will explore whether this heuristic has the potential to assist with and improve scientific reading, talking, listening and writing, as well as whether this approach improves motivation and interest related to science learning and ICT literacy development, including the potential to develop planning, searching and researching, presentation, assessment as well as various associated cognitive skills. Key words: cognitive tools, heuristic, ICT, PowerPoint, Internet, scientific literacy.
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THIS STUDY REPORTS ON A learner-support intervention aimed at the development of perceptual-motor skills of kindergarten learners from disadvantaged environments. A quantitative research method was followed which consisted of a three-group, pre-test/post-test design. Three Grade R (kindergarten) schools were selected by means of a convenience sample. Two schools were selected from disadvantaged communities (Quintile 1 schools)—C1 (n = 30) and E (n = 25)—and one from a more advantaged community (Quintile 3 school)—C2 (n = 22). A two-level perceptual-motor intervention was implemented in school E for nine months. All participants were tested before and after the intervention by means of a school-readiness test. Results were analysed using an analysis of variance (ANOVA), dependent t-tests and an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to determine differences among and within groups. A significant relationship was found between school readiness and perceptual-motor development. Results also suggested that a perceptual-motor intervention could aid learners from disadvantaged environments in overcoming factors which impede school readiness.
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The focus of this paper is on an instrument known as the Facilitative Orientation to Reading Teaching, or FORT, an instrument that was designed to capture how teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) can influence literacy acquisition at Foundation level. The FORT can capture the what and how often of classroom practice and, when combined with qualitative data, it can provide the why and also ascertain whether what teachers say they do when they teach is in accordance with their actual classroom practice. The effectiveness of the instrument will be explained via specific findings from a multiple case-study undertaken between 2015 and 2017 at two schools in the Midlands area of KwaZulu-Natal with Grade 3 and 4 learners. The investigation involved a total of 8 teachers and their classes, while the researchers recorded a total of 34 lessons, most of which were taught in English and some in isiZulu, with class sizes ranging between 35 and 45 learners. The lessons were initially captured on the FORT, simultaneously video recorded and then analyzed to ascertain how many times an activity, interaction or event took place within 5-minute segments over a maximum period of 20 minutes. Resulting data were captured, graphically represented and then combined with information from semi-structured teacher interviews and visual observations of classroom lessons to create a holistic picture of classroom teaching practice. Findings indicate that additional training alone may be insufficient to change embedded top-down and teacher-led teaching styles and that teachers may benefit more from on-going support and mentoring such as coaching. Keywords: Literacy; Reading Teaching; Pedagogy; Foundation Phase; Intermediate Phase; PCK
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A qualitative based study was undertaken to explore the impact of teacher professional conduct on learner experiences and performance in three poor primary schools in a disadvantaged community in Cape Town, South Africa. Data was gathered through individual and focus group interviews, observations and document reviews. The paper uses the capabilities approach to show how teacher professional conduct impact on the aspirations of primary school learners. The paper highlights the silent role limited learning resources, contextual challenges, learner backgrounds, dysfunctional school management systems and policy play in exacerbating teacher unprofessionalism and learner unfreedoms in high-poverty-level areas. It also stresses the critical role the education system has to play in normalising teacher professional conduct by reassessing the impact of these constraints in the classroom. Teachers as part of the change process have to be accountable for their own actions and also voluntarily change their attitudes when dealing with learners.
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The impact of neo-liberal curriculum reform policies is explored in the narratives of primary school teachers in South Africa. The central canons of critical theory and cognitive dissonance theory frame this study. The findings unveil ‘small’ stories that teachers tell about their experiences and negotiations with curriculum reform shifts from 1997 to 2012. Globalisation of neo-liberal educational policies has had a negative impact on education systems worldwide and the findings illumine the incongruities teachers encounter between policy and practice and the effect this has on their emotionality and identity. The necessary and crucial role of teachers as guardians of knowledge-power is highlighted amidst their inextricable relationships with globalisation, neo-liberalism, educational reforms and teacher work ‘glocally’.
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This paper focuses on the extent and consequences of learner progression in the form of ‘automatic promotion’ or grade promotion for reasons other than academic achievement, as propagated by the existing School Progression Policy (SPP) and how its implementation affects learner performance. The paper argues that, although the advantages and disadvantages of grade retention and automatic promotion, or the promotion of learners that do not possess the required content knowledge, are highly contentious, the SPP produces numerous complexities and unfreedoms on learners when examined through the lens of the Capabilities Approach (CA). Based on a study of three Quintile-1 (Q-1) primary schools in Cape Town, the paper argues that, although the SPP is ambitious and well intentioned, critical implementation and monitoring challenges negatively reconfigures the educational aspirations of primary school learners. The paper also reveals that the implementation of the SPP imposes many unfreedoms for both learners and teachers in high poverty level areas. The study revealed that the CA, despite its limitations in terms of conceptualisation, does provide a unique framework to investigate real freedoms and unfreedoms of the SPP.
Chapter
This publication contains original research targeting scientific specialists in the field of education. Not only is the disposition of its research endeavours grounded on a philosophical basis, it is also embedded in the empirical. The research methodology of each chapter emanates from applicable philosophical assumptions in the form of an applicable theoretical and conceptual framework. The latter forms a firm basis for the application of sound empiricism. Both qualitative and quantitative empirical approaches were alternatively applied in the various chapters. The content of each chapter was meticulously analysed before being finally accepted. In response to the call for chapters, 26 abstracts were received. After evaluation of these abstracts, 24 authors were granted the opportunity of submitting full manuscripts for evaluation. Subsequently the latter were submitted to a rigorous double-blind peer review process. These manuscripts were submitted to at least two or three specialist reviewers in their particular fields of specialisation. All of these review reports are preserved and kept for enquiry and assessment. The content of the current book was chosen from a selection for a 2014 publication which did not obtain a subsidy from the DHET, titled Nuances of Teaching Learning and Research, published by AndCork Publishers. After careful re-evaluation, a much smaller number of chapters was selected, substantially reworked and considerably extended, after which the chapters were again submitted to a double-blind peer review process. Ultimately, of the 26 abstracts originally received only 10 were finally accepted as suitable for publication in the current volume. Finally, in terms of the requirements set by clause 6.12 of the Department of Higher Education and Training policy on reworked publications, this book now contains more than 50% original content not published before. The content of this book adds to the body of scholarly knowledge in education. In his evaluation of the book, Acting Executive Dean, Faculty of Education and Training, Professor Akpovire Oduaran, made the following remarks: To a large extent, the ideas put together in this book have come from data generated not just from literature found in books and journals but actual interactions with educators and the learning environment. So then, what the reader is offered in this volume is the articulation of ideas that have been interrogated, structured and presented in surprisingly simplistic and yet incisive and academically enriching content that can match the standards of scholarship that is available in the Western World. Yet, what makes this book so welcome, relevant and timely, is the fact that it is built around Afrocentric theories and practices such as one may find in imported literature. About the Volume editor: M. A. Mokoena No biography available at this time. About the Volume editor: Izak Oosthuizen No biography available at this time.
Chapter
Full-text available
This publication contains original research targeting scientific specialists in the field of education. Not only is the disposition of its research endeavours grounded on a philosophical basis, it is also embedded in the empirical. The research methodology of each chapter emanates from applicable philosophical assumptions in the form of an applicable theoretical and conceptual framework. The latter forms a firm basis for the application of sound empiricism. Both qualitative and quantitative empirical approaches were alternatively applied in the various chapters. The content of each chapter was meticulously analysed before being finally accepted. In response to the call for chapters, 26 abstracts were received. After evaluation of these abstracts, 24 authors were granted the opportunity of submitting full manuscripts for evaluation. Subsequently the latter were submitted to a rigorous double-blind peer review process. These manuscripts were submitted to at least two or three specialist reviewers in their particular fields of specialisation. All of these review reports are preserved and kept for enquiry and assessment. The content of the current book was chosen from a selection for a 2014 publication which did not obtain a subsidy from the DHET, titled Nuances of Teaching Learning and Research, published by AndCork Publishers. After careful re-evaluation, a much smaller number of chapters was selected, substantially reworked and considerably extended, after which the chapters were again submitted to a double-blind peer review process. Ultimately, of the 26 abstracts originally received only 10 were finally accepted as suitable for publication in the current volume. Finally, in terms of the requirements set by clause 6.12 of the Department of Higher Education and Training policy on reworked publications, this book now contains more than 50% original content not published before. The content of this book adds to the body of scholarly knowledge in education. In his evaluation of the book, Acting Executive Dean, Faculty of Education and Training, Professor Akpovire Oduaran, made the following remarks: To a large extent, the ideas put together in this book have come from data generated not just from literature found in books and journals but actual interactions with educators and the learning environment. So then, what the reader is offered in this volume is the articulation of ideas that have been interrogated, structured and presented in surprisingly simplistic and yet incisive and academically enriching content that can match the standards of scholarship that is available in the Western World. Yet, what makes this book so welcome, relevant and timely, is the fact that it is built around Afrocentric theories and practices such as one may find in imported literature. About the Volume editor: M. A. Mokoena No biography available at this time. About the Volume editor: Izak Oosthuizen No biography available at this time.
Chapter
This publication contains original research targeting scientific specialists in the field of education. Not only is the disposition of its research endeavours grounded on a philosophical basis, it is also embedded in the empirical. The research methodology of each chapter emanates from applicable philosophical assumptions in the form of an applicable theoretical and conceptual framework. The latter forms a firm basis for the application of sound empiricism. Both qualitative and quantitative empirical approaches were alternatively applied in the various chapters. The content of each chapter was meticulously analysed before being finally accepted. In response to the call for chapters, 26 abstracts were received. After evaluation of these abstracts, 24 authors were granted the opportunity of submitting full manuscripts for evaluation. Subsequently the latter were submitted to a rigorous double-blind peer review process. These manuscripts were submitted to at least two or three specialist reviewers in their particular fields of specialisation. All of these review reports are preserved and kept for enquiry and assessment. The content of the current book was chosen from a selection for a 2014 publication which did not obtain a subsidy from the DHET, titled Nuances of Teaching Learning and Research, published by AndCork Publishers. After careful re-evaluation, a much smaller number of chapters was selected, substantially reworked and considerably extended, after which the chapters were again submitted to a double-blind peer review process. Ultimately, of the 26 abstracts originally received only 10 were finally accepted as suitable for publication in the current volume. Finally, in terms of the requirements set by clause 6.12 of the Department of Higher Education and Training policy on reworked publications, this book now contains more than 50% original content not published before. The content of this book adds to the body of scholarly knowledge in education. In his evaluation of the book, Acting Executive Dean, Faculty of Education and Training, Professor Akpovire Oduaran, made the following remarks: To a large extent, the ideas put together in this book have come from data generated not just from literature found in books and journals but actual interactions with educators and the learning environment. So then, what the reader is offered in this volume is the articulation of ideas that have been interrogated, structured and presented in surprisingly simplistic and yet incisive and academically enriching content that can match the standards of scholarship that is available in the Western World. Yet, what makes this book so welcome, relevant and timely, is the fact that it is built around Afrocentric theories and practices such as one may find in imported literature. About the Volume editor: M. A. Mokoena No biography available at this time. About the Volume editor: Izak Oosthuizen No biography available at this time.
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There is a vast body of knowledge supporting the critical role of principal for school improvement and improved students’ learning outcomes. While, there is increasing evidence addressing the lack of interest in the principalship, training and preparation has been identified as a potential enhancer for principalship interest. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyse the relation between teacher’s interest in assuming a principalship and leadership preparation using a quantitative approach. A sample of 220 school teachers with no formal leadership responsibilities responded an online survey and their answers were analysed with descriptive, Pearson correlation and analysis of variance statistics. The findings indicated that age, professional training and opportunities to exercise leadership were relevant variables in understanding the level of interest of teachers. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
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The aim of the chapter is to provide a review and assess how sociologists in South Africa (SA) have studied racial and ethnic inequalities in education from 1980 to 2010. There is at present no documented review on research carried out on race, ethnicity, and educational inequality in South Africa. The sociopolitical nature of education in the country has generated a plethora of empirical and policy studies on race and educational inequality, although research from a sociological perspective is limited.
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Based on a graphical and statistical analysis of the National Income Dynamic Study (NIDS), this paper provides a comprehensive picture of the educational context in South Africa. The main question under consideration is whether quantitative and qualitative educational attainment differs significantly along racial lines. The data shows that the government has been largely successful in reducing the race-based educational gap in terms of school enrolment and years of education successfully completed. Matriculation results and numeracy test scores unfortunately suggest that higher levels of educational attainment do not necessarily reflect positively on educational outcomes. This implies that the South African educational system is still characterized by large differentials in the quality of education.
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Given South Africa's divided past, it is imperative to improve educational outcomes to overcome labour market inequalities. Historically white and Indian schools still outperform black and coloured schools in examinations, and intraclass correlation coefficients (rho) reflect far greater between-school variance than for other countries.SACMEQ's rich data sets provide new possibilities for investigating relationships between educational outcomes, socio-economic status (SES), pupil and teacher characteristics, and school resources and processes. As a different data generating process applied in affluent historically white schools (test scores showed bimodal distributions), part of the analysis excluded such schools, sharply reducing rho. Test scores were regressed on various SES measures and school inputs for the full and reduced sample, using survey regression and hierarchical (multilevel or HLM) models. This shows that poor schools were least able to systematically overcome inherited socio-economic disadvantage. Schools diverged in their ability to convert inputs into outcomes, with large random effects in the HLM models. Outside of the richest schools, SES had only a mild impact on test scores, which were quite low in SACMEQ context.
Education for All (Assessment)(Pretoria) Department of Education (2000b) A South African Curriculum for the Twenty First Century: Report of the Review Committee on Curriculum
  • Department
  • Education
Department of Education (2000b) Education for All (Assessment)(Pretoria) Department of Education (2000b) A South African Curriculum for the Twenty First Century: Report of the Review Committee on Curriculum 2005 (Presented to the Minister of Education, Prof Kader Asmal, Pretoria, 31 May 2000) Department of Education (2001) Report on the School Register of Needs 2000 Survey. (Pretoria)