A field study of 12 districts of arid zones of Rajasthan was undertaken to evaluate the occurrence of three selected endangered medicinal plant species (Leptadenia reticulata, Mitragyna parvifolia, Withania coagulans), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) associations with them. Five genera were identified in the rhizosphere of these selected plant species. A high diversity of AMF was observed which varied between different host plant species. Among the five genera, Glomus occurred most frequently, with ten species, Acaulospora and Scutellospora were found with three species, respectively, while Gigaspora and Paraglomus were detected with one species each. Glomus constrictum, Glomus fasciculatum, Glomus geosporum, Glomus intraradices, Glomus mosseae and Glomus rubiforme were the most dominant species. The AMF spore density was not clearly affected by the host plant suggesting that biotic factors may be relatively less important than abiotic/edaphic factors for establishing population pattern. The spore density of AMF had a strong positive correlation with soil pH and organic carbon content and a negative correlation with Olsen's P content of the soil. The association with AMF of these plant species native to the harsh environmental conditions of the Indian Thar Desert may play a significant role in the re-establishment and conservation of these multipurpose endangered medicinal plants.
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"The other studies reported that it has antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, antihistaminic, antibacterial, hypoglycemic, diuretic, urolith expulsion, expectorant property and found useful in gout and rheumatism (Aquino et al., 1996; Abd El- Ghani & Amer, 2003; Cioffi et al., 2006; Panwara & Tarafdarb, 2006; Jain et al., 2007). Some studies reported phytochmical constituents of the plant without mentioning their antimicrobial activity (Noor et al., 1993; Abd EL-Ghani & Amer, 2003; El- Hassan et al., 2003; Cioffi et al., 2006; Heneidak et al., 2006; Panwara & Tarafdarb, 2006; Moustafa et al., 2007; Moustafa et al., 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The In vitro antibacterial activity of Leptadenia pyrotechnica roots and fruits extracts was investigated against Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. aureus by using agar-well diffusion assay. Plant samples were collected from Thal desert of Pakistan and eight different solvents viz. n-hexane, chloroform, acetone, ethylacetate, butanol, methanol, ethanol and water were used for the preparation of extracts. S. aureus was found highly susceptible and inhibited by all solvent extracts. Both plant parts effectively inhibited the growth of both the pathogens; however, root extracts showed a little more supremacy in this respect. Methanolic extract of both parts generated the best results by inhibiting growth of both pathogens. The activity was strongly affected by variation in solvents and concentrations of extracts. The antibacterial activity of L. pyrotechnica is reported for the first time.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Pakistan Journal of Botany
"Earlier studies on the occurrence of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in medicinal plants mostly concentrate on rhizomes (Taber and Trappe 1982; Selvaraj et al. 1986). Later, Nasim (1990), Udea et al. (1992), Gautam and Sharma (1996), Rani and Bhaduria (2001), Selvaraj et al. (2001), Muthukumar et al. (2001), and Panwar and Tarafdar (2006) reported the occurrence of medicinal plants from India. The Western Ghats, a valuable repository for biodiversity after the Himalayas, is one of the 34 mega diversity hot spots of the world. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thirty-six medicinal plant species belonging to 25 families were surveyed to study Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal diversity
from different localities of North and South Goa of Western Ghats, Goa region, India. A total of 30 medicinal plant species
were found to be mycorrhizal and six plant species showed absence of AM fungal colonization. Forty two AM fungal species belonging
to five genera viz., Glomus, Acaulospora, Scutellospora, Gigaspora and Ambispora were recovered from the rhizosphere soil. Glomus was found to be the most dominant genera in the study sites, and Glomus fasciculatum the most dominant AM fungal species. Negative significant correlation was observed between percent colonization and spore
density. Simpson’s and Shannon Weiner diversity index studies carried out in North and South Goa exhibited less variation
in both the sites, indicating a stable and a diverse plant community.
KeywordsArbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-
-medicinal plants-Western Ghats-Shannon Weiner diversity index-spore density
Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Journal of Forestry Research
"Among the twenty-three known species of Withania, only two, W. somnifera and W. coagulans, are economically significant and widely cultivated   . W. somnifera, commonly known as Ashwagandha, is an important medicinal plant used in Ayurvedic and indigenous medicine for over 3000 years . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inoculation of leaf sections of Withania coagulans with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58C1 (pRiA4) induced transformed roots with the capacity to produce the most important bioactive compounds of Withania species, withanolide A and withaferin A. The hairy roots obtained showed two morphologies: callus-like roots (CR) with a high capacity to produce withanolides and typical hairy roots (HR) with faster growth capacity and lower withanolide accumulation. The aux1 gene of pRiA4 was detected by PCR analyses in all roots showing callus-like morphology. However, this gene was only detected in 12.5% of the roots showing typical hairy root morphology. This fact suggests a significant role of aux genes in the morphology of transformed roots. Time course studies of withanolide production showed that withanolide A accumulated during the first part of the culture whereas the maximum accumulation of withaferin A occurred at the end of the culture period. Some transformed root lines, such as HR112 and CR26, showed considerable potential to produce withanolides in a scaled up bioreactor system, especially the important pharmaceutical compound withanolide A.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2009 · Engineering in Life Sciences