Article

20 Incorporating Ecosystem Objectives into Management of Sustainable Marine Fisheries, Including 'Best Practice' Reference Points and Use of Marine Protected Areas

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Abstract

The broadening of fisheries management to include ecosystem-related objectives raises a potentially confusing range of possible issues for consideration in management decisions, in reporting and in assess- ing management performance. However, there are methods available and approaches to addressing the issues that are practical, accessible to stakeholder participation and scientifically assessable. Three broad and interrelated elements are described that allow ecosystem objectives to be practically and operationally incorporated into marine fisheries management systems. Reporting and a$sessment of the whole management system against sustainability objectives Three major points are developed and emphasized: 1. Indicators and reference points -and consequently performance measures -must relate explicitly to the high-level objectives of management. 2. The structure and focus of reports on sustainability must be derived transparently from the high-level objectives. A methodology for this is described that can be used in meetings with stakeholders to elucidate the issues, indicators and reference points, management response and the justification for decisions. It can include risk-based methods to help identify the relative importance of different issues. 3. Performance assessment must be of the management system as a whole, rather than solely on the merits of particular parts in isolation. An established methodology (management strategy evaluation) is described that can be used to test quantitatively the likely performance of different management strategies inachiev- ing ecosystem objectives. A management strategy in this context is a combination of monitoring, use of the monitoring data for assessment against reference points, identification of appropriate management measures and implementation of these measures. This methodology can be used to test any aspect of the - strategy in the' common currency' of the management objectives, and to identify the circumstances in which particular strategies are likely to perform well or fail. It has already been used in fisheries in relation to target species, important by-catch species, predator-prey dependencies and seabed habitats. Indicators, reference points and performance measures for fisheries ecosystem objectives There are many options available, and some recent summaries are identified. A set of target and limit reference points for fisheries ecosystem objectives are provided. These are based broadly on experience to

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... The role of indicators (of both the stock and the ecosystem) is central to a decision framework in the ecosystem approach (Link, 2005), as they permit assessment of the status of a system and because they can form the basis for developing or testing both empirical and theoretical reference and/or limit values (e.g. Sainsbury and Sumaila, 2001). The challenge is to establish ecosystem control rules that prescribe particular management actions if the indicator-based thresholds are exceeded (Sainsbury and Sumaila, 2001). ...
... Sainsbury and Sumaila, 2001). The challenge is to establish ecosystem control rules that prescribe particular management actions if the indicator-based thresholds are exceeded (Sainsbury and Sumaila, 2001). CCAMLR has already developed stock reference and limit values, and a set of CEMP indices, but has no clarity about whether CEMP indices provide robust indicators for management, or how they might react as krill catches approach the CCAMLR reference points. ...
... Finally, some key management data are not currently available for South Georgia but are vital for continued precautionary management; developing a broad scope for a fisheries risk assessment (e.g. Sainsbury and Sumaila, 2001) should help identify key missing data that will enhance sustainable management. ...
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Article
The objective of the ecosystem approach to fisheries management is to sustain healthy marine ecosystems and the fisheries they support. One of the earliest implementations was in the Southern Ocean, where decision rules and stock reference points were developed for managing the Antarctic krill fishery, together with an ecosystem-monitoring programme intended to aid management decisions. This latter component has not been incorporated directly into management, so here, we consider variability in the krill fishery at South Georgia, relating it to physical and biological monitoring indices, finding sea surface temperature to be a key correlate with both annual catch and long-term biological indices. Some indices from krill predators showed significant positive relationships with krill harvesting in the preceding winter, presumably indicative of the importance of winter foraging conditions. We explore how ecological structure affects results, examining two monitoring sites 100 km apart. Results suggest different biological conditions at the two sites, probably reflecting different scales of ecosystem operation, emphasizing that an appreciation of scale will enhance krill fishery management. Finally, in reviewing different drivers of ecological change, we identify important additional monitoring that would help better reflect ecosystem status, improve the utility of CEMP, providing information necessary for the ecosystem approach at South Georgia.
... The statistics-based performance measures usually associated with MPA management and monitoring are different from the performance measures typically employed in fisheries management (Sainsbury & Rashid Sumaila 2003). In the latter case, the temporal trend in stock abundance or biomass is usually related to a target reference point, which is the level at which management would like to see the stock maintained, and a trigger reference point, which is a lower limit that will trigger management action when reached (Sainsbury & Rashid Sumaila 2003). ...
... The statistics-based performance measures usually associated with MPA management and monitoring are different from the performance measures typically employed in fisheries management (Sainsbury & Rashid Sumaila 2003). In the latter case, the temporal trend in stock abundance or biomass is usually related to a target reference point, which is the level at which management would like to see the stock maintained, and a trigger reference point, which is a lower limit that will trigger management action when reached (Sainsbury & Rashid Sumaila 2003). This type of approach has been recommended for broader monitoring and reporting on ecosystem objectives (Sainsbury & Rashid Sumaila 2003, link 2005 and has been used in a few cases of marine spatial monitoring that were not strictly related to MPAs but rather to monitoring the ecological integrity of the ecosystem (e.g., Sweatman & Wachenfeld 2003). ...
... In the latter case, the temporal trend in stock abundance or biomass is usually related to a target reference point, which is the level at which management would like to see the stock maintained, and a trigger reference point, which is a lower limit that will trigger management action when reached (Sainsbury & Rashid Sumaila 2003). This type of approach has been recommended for broader monitoring and reporting on ecosystem objectives (Sainsbury & Rashid Sumaila 2003, link 2005 and has been used in a few cases of marine spatial monitoring that were not strictly related to MPAs but rather to monitoring the ecological integrity of the ecosystem (e.g., Sweatman & Wachenfeld 2003). This monitoring is designed to detect environmental or anthropogenic perturbations to the ecosystem. ...
Chapter
Management within a spatial context is progressively becoming more common in marine systems as part of a global movement towards ecologically sustainable development and ecosystem-based management. To understand the implications of spatial management fully, there need to be clear ecological, social and economic management objectives and a system in place allowing measurement of the performance of spatial management in relation to these objectives. Although fisheries management is becoming increasingly spatially explicit, it lags developments in marine conservation, in which marine protected areas (MPAs) have been used extensively. This chapter reviews monitoring for achievement of ecological objectives of spatial management of marine systems and associated performance measures in a range of countries where long-term monitoring of MPAs has been established. The review summarizes spatial management objectives, performance measures, monitoring methodology and primary outcomes and provides a summary of the metrics (variables) and performance measures used worldwide. Reviewed studies aimed to monitor within-reserve effects (e.g., biomass accumulation) and outside-reserve effects (e.g., export of accumulated biomass or propagules across the reserve boundary, i.e., spillover). The review highlights that the objectives of spatial management were often very general and poorly defined. Objectives need to be framed in a way that management performance can be assessed through monitoring. A suite of appropriate metrics is available for this monitoring; however, planning for performance assessment must begin at the time of initial planning for the spatial management, rather than relying on ad hoc studies once the management regime is in place. In framing management objectives, many agencies have considered a relatively small spatial scale, associated with individual MPAs and adjacent areas. In the future, management objectives should be set at a regional scale so that the overall performance of the system can be determined, including assessing how the cessation of certain activities within MPAs displaces pressures on the environment. There needs to be a strong commitment to continued performance assessment; for example, many of the effects of MPAs are not evident for at least a decade. Investment in spatial management is likely to increase considerably in the coming years, broadening in scope from the current concentration on MPA management, particularly in response to the increasing focus on spatially explicit fisheries management and the ecological effects of fishing, and on environmental perturbations such as pollution and climate change. Performance measures for this type of monitoring need to be based as much as possible on sound ecological knowledge of responses to perturbations, rather than the arbitrary setting of limits with little ecological basis. © 2012 by R.N. Gibson, R.J.A. Atkinson, J.D.M. Gordon, R.N. Hughes, D.J. Hughes, and I.P. SmithCRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business.
... From a policy perspective, the move towards an ecosystem approach has been rapid and is consistent with wider commitments to sustainable development. Indeed, while many commentators are still asking for fishing impacts to be considered in environmental policy, the requirements to protect ecosystems from the wider impacts of fishing, and to adopt an ecosystem approach, have already been written into most of the key policy documents relating to marine environmental management (Sainsbury & Sumaila 2003, Rice 2004. The ecosystem approach, as described in existing policy documents (e.g. ...
... The broad purpose of the EAF is to plan, develop and manage fisheries in a manner that addresses the multiple needs and desires of societies, without jeopardising the options for future generations to benefit from the full range of goods and services (including, of course, non fisheries benefits) provided by marine ecosystems (FAO 2003). The success of an ecosystem approach will depend on whether these high level and somewhat abstract commitments can be turned into specific, tractable and effective management actions (Sainsbury et al. 2000, Sainsbury & Sumaila 2003. ...
... From an ecological perspective, the ecosystem approach recognises, and aims to remedy, the unwanted impacts of fishing on non-target species, habitats and ecological interactions. The approach recognises that ecosystems provide goods and services other than fish and may change the burden of proof if existing management is not precautionary (Sainsbury & Sumaila 2003). However, in the broadest directional terms, scientific advice is consistent from both single-species and ecosystem perspectives: significant capacity reductions are needed. ...
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Article
Ecosystem management means different things to different authors. I present here my vision of the key elements of such an approach. The emphasis on institutions and the evolution of current single species management approaches is consistent with many others, but differs greatly from the 'revolutionary' change called for in response to the perceived failure of single species management. I see the failures of fisheries management as being due to a failure to recognize the importance of people and people management, not due to single species management. I support the view of ecosystem management that recognizes the institutional dynamics between harvesters, managers and scientists, and stops the race-for-fish and overcapitalization through incentives rather than stopping overfishing through centralized top-down control. I share with the papers of the Litany a common vision of the world's fisheries that have smaller fishing fleets, higher stock biomasses and significant areas protected from fishing. However, I see a very different way to achieve these goals. In my vision incentives are key, fishermen are involved in all aspects of management, and they also pay for the annual costs of fisheries management.
... The statistics-based performance measures usually associated with MPA management and monitoring are different from the performance measures typically employed in fisheries management (Sainsbury & Rashid Sumaila 2003). In the latter case, the temporal trend in stock abundance or biomass is usually related to a target reference point, which is the level at which management would like to see the stock maintained, and a trigger reference point, which is a lower limit that will trigger management action when reached (Sainsbury & Rashid Sumaila 2003). ...
... The statistics-based performance measures usually associated with MPA management and monitoring are different from the performance measures typically employed in fisheries management (Sainsbury & Rashid Sumaila 2003). In the latter case, the temporal trend in stock abundance or biomass is usually related to a target reference point, which is the level at which management would like to see the stock maintained, and a trigger reference point, which is a lower limit that will trigger management action when reached (Sainsbury & Rashid Sumaila 2003). This type of approach has been recommended for broader monitoring and reporting on ecosystem objectives (Sainsbury & Rashid Sumaila 2003, link 2005 and has been used in a few cases of marine spatial monitoring that were not strictly related to MPAs but rather to monitoring the ecological integrity of the ecosystem (e.g., Sweatman & Wachenfeld 2003). ...
... In the latter case, the temporal trend in stock abundance or biomass is usually related to a target reference point, which is the level at which management would like to see the stock maintained, and a trigger reference point, which is a lower limit that will trigger management action when reached (Sainsbury & Rashid Sumaila 2003). This type of approach has been recommended for broader monitoring and reporting on ecosystem objectives (Sainsbury & Rashid Sumaila 2003, link 2005 and has been used in a few cases of marine spatial monitoring that were not strictly related to MPAs but rather to monitoring the ecological integrity of the ecosystem (e.g., Sweatman & Wachenfeld 2003). This monitoring is designed to detect environmental or anthropogenic perturbations to the ecosystem. ...
... This has been termed Management Strategy Evaluation (e.g. Sainsbury et al. 2000, Sainsbury andSumalia 2003) or Operational Management Procedures (Butterworth and Punt 2003). Both of these approaches use the concepts of Adaptive Management (e.g. ...
... A further application of empirical reference points that has been frequently suggested is the use of fished and unfished reference sites to provide a direct measure or indicator of the impact of fishing. Fully protected Marine Protected Areas (reserves) are often identified as providing benefits to fishery management, including by providing unfished reference sites to allow measurement of the effects of fishing (see for example references in Sainsbury and Sumalia 2003). These approaches have not been applied in fishery management as yet. ...
... If unfished areas are to be relied on to provide baseline data it is important that they be representative of the system with which they are compared and be large enough to mitigate edge effects. Such reference areas are unlikely to be effective for highly mobile species or in relation to human impacts that are geographically widespread and degrade the ecosystem both inside and outside the reference site (Sainsbury and Sumalia 2003). ...
... ). It is important to note that, in certain situations, MPAs may not provide good reference points for sustainability because both fished and unfished areas may be degraded over time due to factors operating at larger space scales (Sainsbury and Sumaila, 2001). ...
... To protect genetic diversity, Kenchington, 1999, recommends that MPAs should include part or all of the breeding area of a species of interest. A target MPA size of 20% of the world's oceans has been commonly suggested (Agardy et al., 2003;Sainsbury and Sumaila, 2001). Yet the 20% figure has been adopted as the mantra of some MPA advocates targeting a wide range of objectives under a diverse spectrum of ecological and social conditions. ...
... The classical theory goes as follows. MPAs, if partially or entirely closed to fishing, are thought to be effective in association with conventional fisheries management in rebuilding System Analysis for Decision Support in the Allocation of MPAs in the Belgian Part of the North Sea damaged fish stocks and in giving all stocks some stability (Sainsbury and Sumaila, 2001). In several regions, fish stocks have increased rapidly following the establishment of MPAs. ...
... The history of fisheries management has shown that "objectives" have often remained rhetorical, with little real linkage with practical management measures and fishing operations. In order to improve on this aspect of management failure, it will be necessary to develop a strong link between the selected objectives and a formal and continuous assessment of the performance achieved (Sainsbury and Sumaila, 2003). In practice, this will require that objectives are formally organized in a system of sustainability indicators or sustainable development reference system (SDRS) (FAO, 1999a;Garcia and Staples, 2000) in which objectives and constraints are respectively used as target and limit (or threshold) reference values as required by the precautionary approach (Garcia, 1996b;FAO, 1996a). ...
... Marine protected areas (MPAs) are regularly proposed as central to biodiversity and ecosystem management and, by extension, are often considered in the context of fisheries management (Sutinen and Soboil, 2003;Sainsbury and Sumaila, 2003). The 1982 Convention proposes to protect areas from pollution, referring to measures "necessary to protect and preserve rare or fragile ecosystems as well as the habitat of depleted, threatened or endangered species and other forms of marine life." ...
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Article
The artisanal catches contributes significantly in the overall annual fish production in Mozambique, estimated to 115,000 - 140,000 tones, and thus of significant importance to livelihood of the coastal communities. However, the variation in fish production depends on several factors, among which the climatic factors, that need to be understood for sustainable fisheries management. The present study analyses the influence of the river runoff in coastal fisheries production, using the Zambezi Runoff (1996-2014) as a climatic indicator and the artisanal fisheries catches (2000-2014) as the indicator of fisheries production. The results obtained indicated that the artisanal catches in Sofala Bank were dominated by resident species in the region of fresh water influence (Engraulidae (53%), Clupeídea (10%), Sciaenidae (8%) and Sergestidae (7%)), by species that inhabit these regions at their earlier stage of life (Penaeidae (4%)) and by species that inhabit the vicinity and move to the region of fresh water influence for feeding (Trichiuridae (6%), Ariidae (4%), Carangidae (4%) and Hemulidae (2%)); The total annual catches were positively-linearly correlated with the total annual runoff (slope = 0.343, r2 = 0.500, p = 0.005, n = 14). Further, the catches correlated better with both the wet season runoff (slope = 0.534, r2 = 0.369, p = 0.021, n = 14) and the dry season runoff (slope = 0.773, r2 = 0.389, p = 0.013, n = 15). The result is justified by the fact that most of the species caught (Engraulidae, Clupeídea, Sergestidae and Penaeidae) live in the region of freshwater influence, with one to two years life span and recruited to fisheries within the first year of their life. The present study emphasises the importance of the environmental/ climatic factors such as river runoff in the fish production, and hence, on the need for the inclusion of the runoff variability in the fisheries management strategies.
... Here we describe how a relatively simple equation, that arises from an ecological theory based on cumulative evaluations of ecosystem properties, can be useful for understanding marine ecosystem responses to a wide range of changes. The understanding of cumulative patterns such that they can detect and predict major, common pressures could suggest potential interventions (Sainsbury and Sumaila, 2003;Jennings, 2005;Link, 2005Link, , 2010Link, , 2018Link et al., 2011Link et al., , 2015Tam et al., 2017) via common mechanisms. Ecological theory that enables one to address the pervasive perturbations facing marine ecosystems via a general mechanism with a clear and robust pattern potentially has global implications. ...
Article
Examining marine ecosystems in a distinct way can produce new ecological, theoretical and applied insights. The common “S” and “hockey stick” -shaped curves, which result from examining the cumulative biomass and trophic level and the cumulative production and cumulative biomass curves of marine ecosystems, have strong potential to elucidate the mechanisms of marine food webs. These curves are based on the cumulative trophic theory, which can be summarized as the integration of biomass and production across trophic level that results from the relatively simple trophic transfer equation. Here we test the behavior of this theory via modeled simulations of the transfer equation under a variety of common mechanisms that can influence marine ecosystems. The simulated scenarios we present and evaluate here explore bottom-up driven changes (production, growth), internal dynamics (transfer efficiency) or top-down driven changes (mortality, selectivity), as well as multi-mechanism scenarios (overfishing and eutrophication) that are commonly experienced in marine ecosystems. We explore these scenarios at high, medium or low levels of change for each feature to ascertain how they can result in major changes to the realized trophodynamics of a marine ecosystem. Our results lend credence to the generality of the cumulative trophic theory by predicting the empirically observed “S” and “hockey stick” -shaped curves under a wide range of possible mechanisms. Given that common, repeatable and predictable dynamics is a key hallmark of increasingly robust theories, the application of cumulative trophic theory in managing marine ecosystems enables more repeatable and predictable responses across a wide range of conditions.
... The study used the MSC Risk-Based Framework (RBF) [35][36][37][38][39]. The method is based on the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) PSA approach [5,24,53]. Of the numerous adaptations to the CSIRO PSA approach, we employed MSC's because it is globally and broadly employed, the approach is standardized, it is relatively simple to implement given the availability of readily accessible tools and low data quality requirements, and MSC's methodology and Excel-based software are open source [35][36][37][38][39]. ...
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Article
Overexploitation is currently the main cause of marine defaunation. Vulnerability to overexploitation varies across populations. Determining which populations are of highest ecological risk from fishing mortality guides management. Because no single approach is optimal across taxonomic groups, a multi-model ensemble of relative risk estimates for a data-poor Pacific Ocean tuna longline fishery was obtained from two semi-quantitative Productivity-Susceptibility Analyses (PSAs) and from a quantitative approach that estimates instantaneous fishing mortality to compare to reference points of yield-per-recruit models. Individual estimates were combined to produce a pooled mean relative risk rank order. The study identified stocks below biological limits for which the contribution from this fishery to cumulative anthropogenic mortality may warrant intervention. Relative risks in descending order were for populations of albatrosses, cetaceans, mesopelagic sharks, rays, marine turtles, epipelagic sharks and teleosts. The fishery's contribution to cumulative fishing mortality of western central north Pacific Ocean striped marlin warrants a more rigorous assessment to determine absolute risks. The study identified the disparate factors explaining relative risk from an individual fishery versus absolute risk from cumulative anthropogenic mortality sources. Improved risk assessments are possible by addressing identified deficits with PSAs, obtaining information on variables that explain catch and post-capture survival risks that was unavailable for this assessment, improving electronic monitoring data quality and filling gaps in life history traits. Findings support stakeholders to design integrated bycatch management frameworks that mitigate fishing mortality of the most vulnerable taxa and account for multispecies conflicts that result from some bycatch mitigation methods.
... Coastal ecosystems are among the most productive yet vulnerable ecosystems in the world. Fisheries, pollution, urbanization and other anthropogenic drivers have the potential to affect them severely; however, the institution of marine protected areas (MPAs) goes a long way towards mitigating their adverse effects (Sainsbury & Sumaila, 2003;Lester et al., 2009). ...
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Article
Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are particularly useful to assess fish assemblages and to obtain reliable fish inventories. In this study we demonstrate the value of underwater photo contests as complementary tools to achieve these goals. We examined 3513 underwater pictures taken by free divers and scuba divers participating in two photo contests organized by the Italian Federation of Sport Fishing and Underwater Activities (FIPSAS). The competitions were held in the Italian MPAs of Punta Campanella (Tyrrhenian Sea; 2017) and Capo Rizzuto (Ionian Sea; 2018). Altogether, 97 fish species, 89 at Punta Campanella and 75 at Capo Rizzuto, were identified in different coastal habitats (depth range, 0-19 m). Their number was considerably higher than the one obtained with other census techniques and was close to the maximum number of species described at the two locations, as shown by accumulation curves. Significant differences in species richness were demonstrated at the level of both location and habitat type. The reasons for such differences are discussed along with the advantages and limitations of underwater photo contests as a participatory tool to obtain regular updates on coastal fish inventories in MPAs and in wider areas.
... Our study suggests the potential of using multiple data sources, Namibia has one of the few relatively well-managed fisheries in the world (Sainsbury & Sumaila, 2003;Sumaila et al., 2004), it is likely that similar unreported fishing occurs in many other African EEZs. ...
Article
Marine fisheries in African waters contribute substantially to food security and local economies in African coastal nations. Recently, there are growing concerns about the sustainability of living marine resources in these countries’ exclusive economic zones (EEZs) due to increased risks from climate change, pollution and potential over‐exploitation of fisheries resources by non‐African (foreign) countries. To effectively manage fishing activities and sustain marine resources in African waters, we need useful tools for characterizing the fishing activities in African waters. Here, we assess the utility of the Automatic Identification System (AIS) derived data for describing the spatial characteristics of African and foreign industrial fishing activities within the EEZs of African coastal nations. The results show that the AIS‐derived spatial pattern of industrial fishing activities in African waters is consistent with that of industrial catches derived from the Sea Around Us database. Across African EEZs, the spatial correlations between primary productivity and fishing effort highly vary by gear types, which emphasizes the importance of investigating specific fishing strategies when studying the effects of bottom‐up drivers on fishing effort. We find an EEZ‐specific spatial pattern for fishing efforts across African waters and identify some socioeconomic, political and geographic factors that likely affect the decision of fleets to fish in specific African EEZs. We conclude that AIS‐derived fishing data can be a useful complementary tool for characterizing the spatial pattern of industrial fishing efforts in African waters.
... ICM is an overarching governance concept, which provides a mechanism to transition from sector-based decision-making towards a more holistic and equitable consideration of values, interests and activities (Foley et al., 2010;Sainsbury and Sumaila, 2003;Visbeck, 2018). ICM has been, and is, referred to by several names including integrated oceans management (Winther et al., 2020), integrated coastal zone management (Burbridge, 2004) and integrated coastal and oceans management (Cicin-Sain, 1993). ...
Article
This paper examines ‘the governance gap’ regarding the operationalization of integrated coastal and marine management (ICM). ICM offers a holistic and strategic governance arrangement employed worldwide to help move beyond conventional sector-based approaches to contribute to the sustainability of complex and dynamic social-ecological systems. The context within which we investigate this gap is the Bay of Fundy, Atlantic Canada where a diversity of habitats and activities (e.g., eelgrass beds, mudflats, and estuaries) exist, along with a rich cultural attachment of coastal communities to marine resources. In-person, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 68 individuals across multiple sectors and scales with experience and interest in past or future integrative management interventions, or initiatives, in the Bay of Fundy. Participants identified 60 initiatives that they felt were integrative. However, our results indicate that few initiatives have been operationalized due to a ‘business as usual’ mentality. Five critical challenges were identified relating to: capacity to sustain initiatives; commitment from legal authorities; engagement of diverse actor groups; vertical integration of policies; and, informal structures that facilitate horizontal integration. These results shape how scholars, practitioners, and managers consider ICM as a governance approach. Understanding the governance dimensions of ICM will allow for initiatives to be operationalized more successfully.
... Implemented through the designation of delineated boundaries, MPAs help regulate human activities and act as one of the key management mechanisms available to policy makers to mitigate adverse anthropogenic impacts. These areas can be managed with specific restrictions, such as fishing quotas, access controls, seasonal limitations and no-take zones [8][9][10][11][12]. Monitoring, often associated with MPAs, can help provide a clear understanding of the species and biodiversity, within area boundaries, which can inform management tailored to benefit both sessile and mobile organisms, including migratory species [13][14][15]. ...
Article
Cetacean communities face significant threats from adverse interactions with human activities such as bycatch, vessel collision, and environmental pollution. Monitoring of marine mammal populations can help to assess and safeguard marine biodiversity for future generations. Traditional surveys can be costly and time-consuming to undertake, but we explore the ability of citizen science to inform environmental assessments and subsequent conservation management. We use data collected from platforms of opportunity within the Bay of Biscay to investigate spatial changes in cetacean diversity, with the aim of identifying hotspots which may be suitable for further investigation and conservation. Seventeen species of cetaceans were recorded over a ten year period, many of which are data deficient in European waters (e.g. Bottlenose dolphin, Short-beaked common dolphin, Striped dolphin, Risso's dolphin, Long-finned pilot whale, Killer whale, Northern bottlenose whale, Cuvier's beaked whale, Sowerby's beaked whale and True's beaked whale). Biodiversity (determined by Simpson's Diversity index) ranged from 0.19 to 0.77. The central and southern areas of the survey area indicated the highest biodiversity (0.65–0.77), and these locations may benefit most from protection as Important Marine Mammal Areas. We present a case for this designation, and discuss the benefits and limitations of citizen science for informing conservation action.
... How should other uses of the marine environment, such as tourism, be taken into consideration? See Hilborn (2004), Sainsbury and Sumaila (2003) and de la Mare (1998) for examples. ...
Article
Bristol has undertaken to develop a tree strategy at the same time that the UK government has appointed a tree champion to bolster planting rates and grow green spaces, with a particular role of preventing unnecessary felling of street trees and requiring proper consultation with local communities. Bristol has also renewed a commitment to double its tree canopy cover to 30% by 2050. This paper uses the case study of Bristol and its Tree Forum to make the case for the inclusion of community engagement as part of the tree strategy. At present, the community is not usually consulted over the felling of trees on public land, resulting in risks being considered without the benefits taken into consideration, or alternative management options. In addition, there is often no consultation with the Tree Forum regarding the removal of trees for other schemes. This paper advocates a legal obligation to properly consult before trees are cut down, and proposes mechanisms whereby this may be accomplished. In addition, it proposes proper consultation before key strategic decisions are taken.
... Besides their conservation or other goals, protected areas also provide unique and important scientific research and educational opportunities because their ecosystems are usually subject to minimal human disturbance. For example, scientific study designs can require biota and habitat within protected areas to serve as important references for understanding the effects of human activities on the structure and functioning of ecological communities [10][11][12][13], or provide valuable information about populations and life history parameters in the absence of harvest [14]. In addition, scientific information on the status and dynamics of populations and communities is essential for protected area managers to evaluate the performance of individual protected areas and networks of protected areas [15][16][17][18][19][20]. ...
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Article
There are numerous reasons to conduct scientific research within protected areas, but research activities may also negatively impact organisms and habitats, and thus conflict with a protected area’s conservation goals. We developed a quantitative ecological decision-support framework that estimates these potential impacts so managers can weigh costs and benefits of proposed research projects and make informed permitting decisions. The framework generates quantitative estimates of the ecological impacts of the project and the cumulative impacts of the proposed project and all other projects in the protected area, and then compares the estimated cumulative impacts of all projects with policy-based acceptable impact thresholds. We use a series of simplified equations (models) to assess the impacts of proposed research to: a) the population of any targeted species, b) the major ecological assemblages that make up the community, and c) the physical habitat that supports protected area biota. These models consider both targeted and incidental impacts to the ecosystem and include consideration of the vulnerability of targeted species, assemblages, and habitats, based on their recovery time and ecological role. We parameterized the models for a wide variety of potential research activities that regularly occur in the study area using a combination of literature review and expert judgment with a precautionary approach to uncertainty. We also conducted sensitivity analyses to examine the relationships between model input parameters and estimated impacts to understand the dominant drivers of the ecological impact estimates. Although the decision-support framework was designed for and adopted by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife for permitting scientific studies in the state-wide network of marine protected areas (MPAs), the framework can readily be adapted for terrestrial and freshwater protected areas.
... Still, the scientific approaches underlying most fisheries management do not account for many of the complexities of ecology or target species' life histories and population dynamics (Beddington, Agnew, & Clark, 2007;Hsieh, Yamauchi, Nakazawa, & Wang, 2010;Sainsbury & Sumaila, 2003). Failing to incorporate these important considerations may prevent rebuilding or allow overharvesting of some fish stocks, even under rights-based management (Branch, 2009). ...
Article
The role of spatial management, including marine protected areas, in achieving fisheries outcomes alongside conservation goals is debated. In fisheries that fail to meet fishing mortality targets, closed areas are sometimes implemented to reduce fishing mortality. However, fisheries with stronger management, including rights‐based approaches that can address overcapacity and overfishing problems, often employ spatial management as well. Here, we compare the objectives, design, and performance of spatial management in nine temperate demersal fisheries in North America, Oceania, Europe, and Africa that employ rights‐based systems. Common objectives of spatial management included protecting habitat, juveniles, and spawners and reducing discards. Recovering age structure and creating scientific reference sites were less common objectives, despite being widely cited benefits of spatial management. Some fisheries adopted single closures to achieve single objectives, whereas others adopted diverse networks to achieve multiple objectives. Importantly, many spatial protections are implemented primarily through industry initiatives. Environmental change compromised the efficacy of spatial management in some cases, suggesting the need to design spatial management systems that are robust to changing ocean conditions. Fisheries with diverse and extensive spatial management systems have generally healthier fish stocks. Whether this implies that spatial management contributed substantially to fishery performance is unclear due to an absence of large‐scale, long‐term studies aimed at discerning different drivers of success. Although these targeted monitoring studies of closed areas are limited, such studies are necessary to help resolve the ongoing debate and to enable more purposeful design of spatial management for fisheries and conservation.
... However, these classic stock assessment methods have inherent deficiencies that have occasionally manifested as dramatic management failures and even contributed to collapses of entire fisheries (Walters and Maguire, 1996). Increasingly, national and international agencies are seeking to implement an ecological approach to manage marine resources, including fisheries (Stergiou, 2002;FAO, 2003;Sainsbury and Sumaila, 2003;Browman and Stergiou, 2004;Pikitch et al., 2004;Sherman et al., 2005). An ecological approach is essential when considering fishery related issues, such as bycatch of an undesired or protected species (FAO, 2003;Howell et al., 2008). ...
Article
We have extracted information on the habitats of bigeye (Thunnus obesus), skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis) and yellowfin (Thunnus albacares) in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean by matching the spatial‐temporal distribution of catch and effort of purse seine and longline fleets collected by the Inter‐American Tropical Tuna Commission with oceanographic conditions and subjecting the matched data to Quotient Analysis and General Additive Models (GAMs). These analyses yielded the following results. The habitats defined by the GAM analysis of young fish differ significantly between two periods, one before and one after the introduction of fish aggregation devices (FADs). This was not true for the older fish caught by longline. We speculate that these changes were caused by the extensive use of FADs. Younger bigeye and yellowfin caught by the purse seine fleet have a different preference of environmental variables compared to older fish caught by longline. This is to be expected since tuna of different age groups have different sizes, metabolic capabilities and swimming skills. Moreover, as revealed by GAMs, the habitats of young fish differ between species to a much larger degree than those of older fish. Our results indicate the fundamental differences between fishing methods, targeted species, and operating region of the two fisheries. Specifically, young bigeye occupy equatorial waters farther from the coast and where the hypoxic layer is deeper, young skipjack occupy more productive waters associated with equatorial and coastal upwelling, and young yellowfin occupy broad areas where waters are underlain by a shallow hypoxic layer.
... Several studies [2], [3], suggest that although statistically the number of global fish catches increase, the fish-catch growth actually has annually decreased since the 1990s. In Indonesia, the production of capture fisheries in some provinces shows a declining growth, although there are still many provinces showing a positive growth in the production of capture fisheries. ...
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Article
The condition of fishery sector is currently stagnating, even tending to decline, which is indicated by the decrease of production in some areas in Indonesia. Environmental degradation in marine waters is due to global climate change and uncontrolled fish exploitation impact on the decline of marine fisheries production. While in aquaculture, the environmental quality is also indicated to influence the production. Nevertheless, the increase of production of both marine and terrestrial fisheries has an effect on the quality of the environment. This study aims to analyze the interrelationship between the influence of environmental quality on the production of fishery sub-sector and the influence of fishery subsector production on environmental quality. This research employs environmental quality data and output of fishery of 34 provinces in Indonesia during 2011-2015. The study finds that output of fishery sector affects the environmental quality, which proves the Environment Kuznets Curve in the fishery sector in Indonesia. Since a certain threshold is achieved, the increase in revenue followed by the increase in environmental quality. The study also finds that the environmental quality has a positive effect on the production of fishery. Implication of the study is the increase of income of fishery households can be encouraged the ability of the community to protect the environment and increases the willingness of households to sacrifice other goods to environmental protection.
... We follow an established protocol for selecting indicators: identifying overall goals for the assessment, operationalizing these goals through a conceptual framework, collecting and developing candidate indicators, defining screening criteria for selecting indicators, evaluating the candidate indicators according to these screening criteria, and selecting a parsimonious suite of complementary indicators that delivers useful information toward achieving the overall goals (Michalos 1997;Sainsbury and Sumaila 2003;Boyd and Charles 2006). We tailor each of these steps according to social science considerations and the specific aim of selecting social indicators for EBM. ...
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Article
Introduction: Interrelated social and ecological challenges demand an understanding of how environmental change and management decisions affect human well-being. This paper outlines a framework for measuring human well-being for ecosystem-based management (EBM). We present a prototype that can be adapted and developed for various scales and contexts. Scientists and managers use indicators to assess status and trends in integrated ecosystem assessments (IEAs). To improve the social science rigor and success of EBM, we developed a systematic and transparent approach for evaluating indicators of human well-being for an IEA. Methods: Our process is based on a comprehensive conceptualization of human well-being, a scalable analysis of management priorities, and a set of indicator screening criteria tailored to the needs of EBM. We tested our approach by evaluating more than 2000 existing social indicators related to ocean and coastal management of the US West Coast. We focused on two foundational attributes of human well-being: resource access and self-determination. Outcomes and Discussion: Our results suggest that existing indicators and data are limited in their ability to reflect linkages between environmental change and human well-being, and extremely limited in their ability to assess social equity and justice. We reveal a critical need for new social indicators tailored to answer environmental questions and new data that are disaggregated by social variables to measure equity. In both, we stress the importance of collaborating with the people whose well-being is to be assessed. Conclusion: Our framework is designed to encourage governments and communities to carefully assess the complex tradeoffs inherent in environmental decision-making.
... Garcia et al., 2000;Rice, 2000;Rochet and Trenkel, 2003a). This study makes use of the direction and significance of trends in suites of ecological, fishing and environmental indicators in order to aid decision making, rather than the specific reference points utilised in other EAF studies (Link et al., 2002;Sainsbury and Sumaila, 2003). The use of an indicator-based EAF approach may be particularly helpful in the Mediterranean Sea where a significant proportion of landed biomass comes from data-deficient fisheries where stock levels and dynamics may not be known (Pilling et al., 2009). ...
... However, these classic stock assessment methods have inherent deficiencies that have occasionally manifested as dramatic management failures and even contributed to collapses of entire fisheries (Walters and Maguire, 1996). Increasingly, national and international agencies are seeking to implement an ecological approach to manage marine resources, including fisheries (Stergiou, 2002;FAO, 2003;Sainsbury and Sumaila, 2003;Browman and Stergiou, 2004;Pikitch et al., 2004;Sherman et al., 2005). An ecological approach is essential when considering fishery related issues, such as bycatch of an undesired or protected species (FAO, 2003;Howell et al., 2008). ...
Article
We have developed a set of tools that operate within an aquatic geographic information system to improve the accessibility, and usability of remote-sensed satellite and computer-modeled oceanographic data for marine science and ecosystem-based management. The tools form the Pelagic Habitat Analysis Module (PHAM), which can be applied as a modeling platform, an investigative aid in scientific research, or utilized as a decision support system for marine ecological management. Applications include fisheries, marine biology, physical and biological oceanography, and marine spatial management. The GIS provides a home for diverse data types and automated tools for downloading remote sensed and global circulation model data. Within the GIS environment, PHAM provides a framework for seamless interactive four-dimensional visualization, for matching between disparate data types, for flexible statistic or mechanistic model development, and for dynamic application of user developed models for habitat, density, and probability predictions. Here we describe PHAM in the context of ecosystem-based fisheries management, and present results from case study projects which guided development. In the first, an analysis of the purse seine fishery for tropical tuna in the eastern Pacific Ocean revealed oceanographic drivers of the catch distribution and the influence of climate-driven circulation patterns on the location of fishing grounds. To support management of the Common Thresher Shark (Alopias vulpinus) in the California Current Ecosystem, a simple empirical habitat utilization model was developed and used to dynamically predict the seasonal range expansion of common thresher shark based on oceanographic conditions.
... One of the challenges of fisheries science is the integrated analysis of human uses of the marine ecosystem as economic, social and political aspects, and not just the system components that directly affect fish production such as biological and fisheries aspects (Sainsbury & Sumaila, 2001;Dudley, 2008). Lucena & O´Brien (2005) add that economic studies in fisheries are scarce in the world and, as a consequence, management has focused only on biological and technological issues. ...
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Article
This cost-benefit analysis of three industrial bottom gillnet fisheries that operated in SE/S Brazil during 2009, had a double purpose: to determine the economic and financial performance of the average gillnet vessel in the coastal whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri), the gulf hake (Urophycis mystacea) and monkfish (Lophius gastrophysus) fisheries and to determine the expected effects of applying fishing gear regulation (MPA/MMA No12/2012) on the performance of the whitemouth croaker fishing fleet. Crucial to this cost-benefit analysis was to collect data through interviews to vessel owners on these fishing fleets cost structures and their fishing costs levels. Three economic and financial performance indicators were used to assess the condition of these fishing fleets: Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Profitability Index (PI). Results showed different costs levels between fishing fleets but, similar relative importance of cost components across fleets: with running costs being the highest, followed by vessel and labor costs in order of importance, except in the gulf hake fishing fleet. Results from the economic and financial performance assessment showed that these three fishing fleets were in a fragile economic and financial condition, all having IRRs lower that 20% and PIs of 1.7 or lower, too low for a high risk activity like fisheries. This problem been more acute in the whitemouth croaker fishing fleet with the lowest IRR (12.11%) and PI (1.2). Potential effects of applying the fishing regulation showed marginal improvements in the fragile condition of the whitemouth croaker fishing fleet.
... They raised concern and awareness about its current state, resilience and ability to continue to deliver services. Most importantly they led to a clear positioning of the stakeholders that can be used to figure out three ecosystem visions or "ways things should be" paraphrasing Sainsbury and Sumaila (2003). ...
Article
This article considers the major events in recent history, current situation and prospects for developing an ecosystem-based style of management in the Gulf of Cadiz. This particular socio-ecosystem is characterised by a clear focal ecosystem component—the role of the estuary of the Guadalquivir River as a nursery area—that has an influence on the marine ecosystem and at the same time concentrates a number of sectoral human activities. This nursery role particularly concerns the anchovy fishery, which is the most economically and culturally important fishery in the region. As a transition zone between river and marine environments, estuaries are particularly sensitive to human activities, either directly developed within the aquatic environment and its surroundings or further upstream within its catchment area. The particularities of the Guadalquivir socio-ecosystem, with an area of influence that extends as far as the city of Seville, require the consideration of multiple sectors and the corresponding conflicting interests. These include the shipping and tourism sectors, the agriculture, aquaculture, salt and mining industries, and the fisheries and conservation interests. This article aims to give an overview of the high-level policy goals and the jurisdictional framework, scope the sectors involved and describe the pressures and risks of their activities. It will identify conflicting interests relating to different visions of the ecosystem as well as the institutional arrangements that could be used to balance them and finally, put forward a vision for using ecosystem-based information to improve multi-sectoral management decisions.
... The importance of incorporating values is apparent in several stages of the suggested IEA implementation process. For example, the first step in NOAA's IEA is to 'define EBM goals and targets' and Levin et al. [31] highlight the importance of process, considering scope, and refer to a framework developed by Sainsbury and Sumaila [45] for developing an ecosystem vision (and/or objectives) that articulates 'the way things should be'. The second step in the NOAA IEA process is to develop indicators, which Levin et al. [31] see as involving quantitative measures of key system attributes that serve as 'effective measures of the many ecosystem services that concern policy-makers and stakeholders…". ...
... While many studies use specified reference points in order to aid decision making (e.g. Link et al., 2002;Sainsbury and Sumaila, 2003), here we use the direction of indicator trends. The observed trends in indicators can be placed into decision trees, which can then in turn be computerised in order to create "expert systems" to guide the decision making process while providing supporting information (Jarre et al., 2006). ...
Article
Indicators have been recognised as a useful tool aiding the implementation of an ecosystem approach to fisheries in marine ecosystems. Studies, such as the IndiSeas project (www.indiseas.org), use a suite of indicators as a method of assessing the state and trends of several of the world's marine ecosystems. While it is well known that both fishing and climatic variability influence marine fisheries in the southern Benguela ecosystem there are currently few studies in support of fisheries management that make use of environmental indicators in order to include climatic impacts on marine fish populations. Trends in ecological, fishing and environmental indicators can be utilised in a way that allows an overall ecosystem trend to be determined, and can therefore be used to aid decision support within southern Benguela fisheries. In this study trends in indicators were determined using linear regressions across three time periods, Period 1: 1978-1993, Period 2: 1994-2003 and Period 3: 2004-2010. These time periods were selected based on the timing of regime shifts within the southern Benguela, including changes in upwelling, wind stress and temperature. Each ecological indicator received a score based on the direction and significance of the observed trend with respect to fishing. To account for the impacts of fishing and environmental drivers on ecological indicators, scores were adjusted by predetermined factors, depending on the extent and direction of trends in these indicators. Weightings were applied to correlated ecological indicators to account for their redundancy, and lessen their impact on overall ecosystem score. Mean weighted scores were then used to establish an overall ecosystem score for each time period. Ecosystem classification was determined as follows: 1-1.49 = improving, 1.5-2.49 = possibly improving, 2.5-3.49 = no improvement or deterioration, 3.5-4.49 = possible deterioration, 4.5-5 = deteriorating. The ecosystem was observed to neither deteriorate nor improve across Period 1 or 2 (mean weighted scores: 2.75 and 2.56 respectively), however, during Period 3 a possible improvement was observed (mean weighted score: 1.99). This study shows that the sequential analysis of suites of ecological, fishing and environmental indicators can be used in order to determine ecosystem trends, accounting for both the impacts of fishing and the environment on ecosystem components.
... The importance of considering potential impacts on ecosystems when managing fisheries is well documented (e.g., Sainsbury and Sumaila, 2003;Pikitch et al., 2004;Polovina, 2002;Hall and Mainprize, 2005). The maintenance of spawning stock biomass can be an ecological as well as a biological objective, if overfishing a given species affects system-wide productivity or trophic dynamics (Garrison and Link, 2000). ...
Article
Fisheries managers seek to maintain sustainable fisheries production, but successful management often requires the pursuit of multiple biological, ecological, and socioeconomic objectives simultaneously. Fisheries managers must choose among a broad range of harvest control methods (HCMs) to meet management objectives. This review identifies strengths and weaknesses of eight HCMs and evaluates their ability to meet a multitude of common biological, ecological, and socioeconomic management objectives such as protecting spawning biomass, reducing bycatch, and sustaining fishers’ profit. Evidence suggests that individual HCMs often fail to meet management objectives and may unintentionally create incentives to race to fish, discard catch and overcapitalize fishing operations. These limitations can be overcome by strategically combining multiple controls or incorporating rights-based and spatial management.
... Actualmente, la mayoría de las pesquerías se encuentra en su máximo nivel de explotación o sobreexplotadas, lo cual ha estimulado el desarrollo de un enfoque ecosistémico para su manejo (EEMP) (Gislason et al., 2000;Sainsbury & Sumaila, 2001;Hall & Mainprize, 2004;Cury et al., 2005;Garcia & Cochrane, 2005). Por lo tanto, es indispensable considerar las diferentes interacciones ecológicas, especialmente aquellas de naturaleza trófica como las relaciones interespecíficas (Bax, 1998;Link, 2002). ...
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Article
This work describes the food habits of Lutjanus synagris by means of stomach content analysis, considering the trophic spectrum in general as well as by sex and size, the ecological aspects of the preys, their spatial distribution, and the relationship of the diet with the habitat conditions. In the analysis of 148 stomachs 45.3% were found to be full and 54.7% empty. The most representative preys (%N) were: Portunus spp. (27.3%; n = 44) and Squilla intermedia (10.6%; n = 17), whereas the gravimetric analysis (%P) showed the heaviest preys to be Gastropoda (31.8%; 51.74 g) and Farfantepenaeus spp. (17.5%; 28.52 g). The frequency of occurrence (%FO) showed that Portunus spp. (25.4%; 17 stomachs) and S. intermedia (10.5%; 7 stomachs) were the most frequent preys. According to the IRI (%), Portunus spp. (43.01%) and Gastropoda (13.38%) were the most representative categories. The diet of L. synagris was found to consist of four types of main preys: Portunidae (837.06), Gastropod (260.29), Squillidae (234.66), and Penaeidae (218.05); and two types of secondary preys: Sicyoniidae (126.35) and Trichiuridae (75.64); with all others being incidental preys. The spatial distribution of the breadth of the trophic niche and the size of L. synagris allowed us to identify two zones. The first, between Riohacha and Dibulla, had the highest niche breadth values (0.64-1.00), denoting generalist predators, and the smallest specimens of L. synagris. The second zone, between Riohacha and Punta Gallinas, had the lowest niche breath values (0.00-0.23), indicating a high degree of dietary specialization, and the largest-sized individuals.
... Biological reference points have become central to modern fishery management for commercial, bycaught, threatened, endangered and protected species (Sainsbury and Sumaila 2003) and must integrate dynamic processes (e.g. growth, recruitment, connectivity and mortality) into indices usually expressed as fishing mortality and biomass (Gabriel and Mace 1999). ...
Article
Reference points based on fishing mortality (F) and spawning stock biomass (SSB) are a requirement of many fisheries management frameworks. SSB is assumed to be a proxy for stock reproductive potential (SRP). Limit reference points based on SSB are used to indicate the level of biomass below which productivity is affected. SSB fails to account for changes in fecundity, egg viability and sex ratio, and it has been argued that total egg production (TEP) provides a better reflection of SRP. We explore how accounting for TEP impacts limit reference points and evidence for a relationship between stock and recruit. Time series of SSB and TEP are compared for three North Sea stocks: cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus) and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). Dynamics based on TEP are different from those based on SSB for cod and plaice, but the stock-recruit relationships were not 'improved' using TEP. Shifts in productivity (spawner per recruit) occur in all three time series and SSB underestimated uncertainty. Yet again, it was shown that assumptions of stationarity about fish population productivity are incorrect. We argue that the use of TEP does improve the realism in our understanding of stock dynamics, and demographically, more complex management strategy evaluation is required to develop management procedures that are robust to uncertainty and integrate F and the demographic health of a stock. Empirical feedback control systems based on fisheries independent indices including surveys of eggs, larvae, recruits, juveniles or spawning adults should be evaluated and compared to traditional approaches.
... Attempts to establish MPAs have exposed complexity in several dimensions that policy makers must negotiate with affected communities: ecological (Allison et al. 1998, Guénette et al. 1998), socioeconomic (Sumaila and Charles 2002), and sociopolitical (Guénette et al. 2000, Mascia 2003, Agardy 2005. Effective selection, design, and management of MPAs require both local community and centralized government authority, with scientific and socioeconomic objectives clearly identified, combined with "best-practice" reference points (Sainsbury and Sumaila 2003) and enforceable management priorities (Jones 2002(Jones , 2007). An analysis of compliance of the top 53 fishing nations with the MPA provisions of the United Nations' "Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries" (Pitcher et al. 2009b) awarded only 15% "good," and over 80% "fail" grades. ...
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Article
Fisheries science and management have been shrouded in controversy and rhetoric for over 125 yrs. Human reliance on fish through history (and even prehistory) has impacted the sea and its resources. Global impacts are manifest today in threatened food security and vulnerable marine ecosystems. Growing consumer demand and subsidized industrial fisheries exacerbate ecosystem degradation, climate change, global inequities, and local poverty. Ten commonly advocated fisheries management solutions, if implemented alone, cannot remedy a history of intense fishing and serial stock depletions. Fisheries policy strategies evaluated along five performance modalities (ecological, economic, social, ethical, and institutional) suggest that composite management strategies, such as ecosystem-based management and historically based restoration, can do better. A scientifically motivated solution to the fisheries problem can be found in the restorable elements of past ecosystems, if some of our present ideology, practices, and tastes can be relinquished for this historical imperative. Food and social security can be enhanced using a composite strategy that targets traditional food sources and implements customary management practices. Without binding laws, however, instituting such an ethically motivated goal for fisheries policy can easily be compromised by global market pressures. In a restored and productive ecosystem, fishing is clearly the privilege of a few. The realities of imminent global food insecurity, however, may dictate a strategy to deliberately fish down the food web, if the basic human right to food is to be preserved for all.
... Sustainability is one of the central concerns in fisheries (Pauly et al., 2002;Gaichas, 2008). There is increasing recognition that it is necessary to manage fisheries in a broader ecological context (Constable, 2001;Garcia et al., 2003;Sainsbury and Sumaila, 2003;Pikitch et al., 2004;Fulton et al., 2005;Fogarty, 2014). In this study we developed a simulation approach using a multispecies size-spectrum model (Scott et al., 2014a) to evaluate MSY from an ecosystem perspective. ...
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Article
Maximum sustainable yield (MSY), often defined in relation to a single species considered in isolation, has long been considered a cornerstone in fisheries management. It is difficult to expand the concept of MSY for the purpose of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM). Here we consider MSY for a fishery in a multispecies fish community by addressing issues of trophic interaction and bycatch, along with parameter uncertainty. A size-spectrum model, which fully considers trophic interactions within the fish community, was used for simulating various fisheries scenarios including a single species fishery, a multispecies stow-net fishery, and a multispecies trawl fishery. Population biomasses, yields, and ecological indicators were used to assess the dynamics of the fishery and fish community status. The single species fishery with no bycatch resulted in a low impact on non-target stocks, but led to the collapse of the target stock at low fishing mortality rates. The stow-net and trawl fisheries had broader ecosystem impacts, but allowed target stocks to be fished at much higher fishing mortality rates with higher yields. Ecological indicators were related non-linearly to fishing mortality, possibly diminishing their effectiveness as management tools. Background resource carrying capacity was found to be a greater source of uncertainty than reproductive efficiency. This study demonstrates that bycatch mortality can play an important role in trophic interactions likely via predation release and depensation, and thus influence the resilience of fisheries to fishing pressure. The study indicates that the combination of mixed fisheries and multispecies effects lead to complex fish community dynamics that may present additional challenges for fisheries management.
... Ecosystem-based management is increasingly advocated for marine fisheries around the world [1,2]. Typically, different management strategies could be implemented to achieve the management objectives specified in an ecosystem approach. ...
... Increasing the temporal range of the study would require accounting for dynamics in empirical assessments and adapting sampling designs. Sainsbury and Sumaila (2003) and others define reference points as desired targets and limits for an indicator. The availability of reference points with threshold and limit values is considered a desirable property for indicators (Nicholson and Fryer 2002;Rochet and Trenkel 2003). ...
... Each of these can be used individually or combined and each has weaknesses and strengths. Independently of chosen method, the establishment of benchmarks and performance measures is necessary [10,15]to assist wine growers to improve their sustainability by comparing to their peers and analysing their results and/or performance against program goals. Certification can be developed for any of these methods with a higher or lower degree of complexity; however, it is important to point out that the purpose of certification is marketing. ...
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Article
This article documents and compares the most prominent sustainability assessment programs for individual organisations in viticulture worldwide. Certification and engagement processes for membership uptake; benefits; motives; inhibiting factors; and desirable reporting system features of viticultural sustainability programs, are all considered. Case-study results are derived from nine sustainability programs; 14 focus groups with 83 CEOs, Chief Viticulturists or Winemakers from wine grape production organizations from five countries (Australia, Chile, New Zealand, South Africa and the United States); 12 semi-structured interviews with managers either currently or formerly in charge of the sustainability programs; researcher observations; and analysis of documents. Programs were categorized by their distinct program assessment methods: process-based, best practice-based, indicator-based and criterion-based. We found that programs have been created to increase growers' sustainability, mainly through the direct and indirect education they receive and promote, and the economic benefit to their business caused by overall improvement of their operations. The main finding from this study is that the success of each of these programs is largely due to the people driving the programs (program managers, innovative growers and/or early adopters) and the way these people communicate and engage with their stakeholders and peers.
... climate change or fishing, can protect valuable habitats, and can support the species that use these habitats for feeding or breeding (Parnell et al. 2006). MPAs are an essential tool for marine conservation in that they are designed to protect pristine and sensitive areas from anthropogenic activities, and to protect altered communities from further degradation (Allison et al. 1998, Sainsbury & Sumaila 2003). ...
... Assessing the state of a complex ecosystem requires simultaneous evaluation of many indicator variables (Sainsbury and Sumaila, 2002;Levin et al., 2009;Shannon et al., 2010). Model outputs from an Atlantis simulation cover a vast array of metrics, and often produce gigabytes of data. ...
... Additionally, the RFMS includes guidelines for authorities and resource users that wish to pursue a RBM process [41]. Critical elements in this process include the setting of operational objectives [42][43][44] and incentive mechanisms, the identification of means to meet the requirements, and the development of a strategy for documenting the effectiveness of the means. In this sense, the RFMS allows the resource users to focus on how defined objectives can be implemented, instead of a policy that regulates in detail what they may, should or should not do in their day-today operations (adapted to fisheries from [45]). ...
... According to FAO definition [2], an indicator is defined as a variable, pointer, or index related to a Indicator applicability limits ensue from the above indirectly. A more specific description of it is provided by Sainsbury and Sumaila [10], defining that "…an indicator that does not relate to an operational objective is not useful in this context". More specific conditions, however, are missing. ...
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Conference Paper
When designing a sustainability indicator system (SIS) within the integrated coastal management (ICM) development process, there are still to be encountered a number of difficulties in the constructing of the system both in the indicator selection process and later when analysing the system and assessing its degree of correspondence to the direct objective of application, reflecting the set of planning targets and accounting for the specifics of the particular coastal territory. During research and development work in the coastal municipalities in Latvia, particularly, in Saulkrasti municipality, there was developed municipal level SIS, being locally discussed and acknowledged by experts and municipality specialists. Saukrasti SIS was developed, based on the adaptation of the known theoretical approaches and previous national case studies research done. This practice based experience also gave an inspiration for a number of theoretical generalisations about coastal indicators definition area, their spatial properties and, especially, algorithmic scheme for designing sustainability indicators. Keywords: indicators, algorithm, coastal zone, integrated management, sustainability capitals, spatial, governance 1 Introduction to indicators definition In the literature on measuring sustainable development, a number of sustainability indicator definitions by different authors and institutions can be found being based mainly on two approaches: conceptual and functional [1]. As the name suggests, conceptual definitions are derived from the indicator concept itself and are important for understanding it. According to FAO definition [2], an indicator is defined as a variable, pointer, or index related to a
... While we concur with the movement toward an ecosystem-based approach to the management of marine fisheries (Gislason & Sinclair 2000, Sainsbury & Sumaila 2003, Browman et al. 2004, Pikitch et al. 2004, it is important to recognize that a broader, place-based approach to marine ecosystem assessment and management, focused on clearly delineated ecosystem units, is needed and is presently under way, with the support of financial grants, donor and UN partnerships, in nations of Africa, Asia, Latin America and eastern Europe. It is within the boundaries of 64 LMEs that (1) 90% of the world's annual yield of marine fisheries is produced (Garibaldi & Limongelli 2003), (2) global levels of primary production are the highest, (3) the degradation of marine habitats is most severe, and (4) coastal pollution is concentrated and levels of eutrophication are increasing (GESAMP 2001). ...
Article
MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Mar Ecol Prog Ser Vol. 300: 241–296, 2005 Published September 16 Introduction Howard I. Browman1,**, Konstantinos I. Stergiou2 1Institute of Marine Research-Austevoll, 5392 Storebø, Norway Email: howard. browman@ imr. no 2Aristotle ...
Article
To demonstrate conservation effects resulting from marine protected areas, many studies rely on spatial comparisons between areas afforded different levels of protection. These spatial comparisons can be confounded if the habitat and reef size are dissimilar and not accounted for in the statistical analysis. Taking into account reef size (obtained from multibeam sonar data) and benthic habitat structure, this research tested the effect of management zonation (No-take Sanctuary Zone = NTSZ; Controlled Pelagic Zone = CPZ) on the population structure (relative abundance and average biomass) of six fish species in the iSimangaliso Wetland Park, South Africa. Furthermore, this study tested the effect of ignoring reef size in spatial comparisons. Our results showed that reef size had a significant positive effect on the relative abundance and average biomass of most, but not all species. When reef size was included in the models, the results showed that two of the six species presented no effect of management zone; two appeared to be directly affected by the permitted (past and present) fishing activity in the CPZ; and the last two species appeared to be affected by the disturbance caused by the diving and/or boating activity in the CPZ. Excluding reef size from the analysis consistently resulted in the predicted relative abundance and average biomass decreasing in the CPZ and increasing in the NTSZ. This effect was most marked in the average biomass data, as the management zone effect changed from negligible to significant for five of the six species. Our results highlight the importance of accounting for the reef size, or area of suitable habitat, when conducting spatial comparisons among species and illustrate the potential impact of the trade-off required to accommodate human needs within protected spaces.
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Article
The need of Small Island Park (SIP) management at Kei Kecil Islands and improvement of fisheries management, stems from the question of whether conservation can improve fisheries management. Doubts of the benefits of conservation areas in addressing fisheries management issues, as well as poor planning, monitoring and evaluation, have the potential to create disincentives and low expectations of management. This study aims are to assess the effectiveness of SIP management, fisheries management status, and formulate an integrated model of improved management of conservation areas and fisheries. The effectiveness of conservation area management was in the red rank. For two years, these developments were relatively slow. The status of fisheries management in the medium category. The Kobe Plot analysis recommended to management by maintaining the existing strategy. Scenario to improve management through the determination of 80% of indicators are in good condition, the opportunity to achieve well management within 3 - 4 years. Based on integration model, multi-level assessment of effectiveness had a weakness in answering its relationship with fisheries management. The strength of the integration model in the grouping of management objectives according to sustainable management system, including: ecological protection, social strengthening and dynamic and accommodative governance system. Keywords ecological, social, governance, model
Thesis
Scientific monitoring is the key to reliable information in Tunisian future MPAs, where management plans are being established. This crucial step comes with the need to choose appropriate methods, metrics and indicators for monitoring parameter that are important to assess MPAs effectivness. Therefore, the purpose of this manuscript is to select, adapt, test and propose fish assemblage and fishing monitoring methods and indicators in order to propose a monitoring strategy for four Tunisian future MPAs (locations). Selection of methods and indicators from literature was made according to their feasibility, cost-effectiveness and suitability with future MPAs objectives. Therefore, data on fish assemblage and fishing activities were collected using five methods: (1) Transects with variable width (TVW); (2) Fish Assemblage Sampling Technique (FAST); (3) Questionnaires and landing catch monitoring; (4) Experimental fishing; (5) photo-surveillance method. Results shows some highlights that were considered for proposing the monitoring strategy: (1) the usefulness of adopting appropriate sampling models, BACI ("Before After Control Impact"), using standard TVW, to test hypotheses related to the effectiveness of the future MPAs, (2) the relatively low values of biomass in all studied locations in comparison with other Mediterranean MPAs (3) the high potential of citizen science for fish monitoring in Tunisia using easy-to-use FAST method, after testing its coherence with standard TVW method, (4) a high percentage of illegal fishing practice (recreational fishers that commercialize their catch), in the studied locations, (5) the competition of recreational and illegal fishing with commercial-small scale (CSS) one, on vulnerable and high economic value species, and (6) low biomasses, carnivores proportions, large fish proportion in catch of CSS using experimental fishing method. Therefore, the proposed strategy for fish and fishing monitoring for Tunisian future MPAs is based on the collaboration between scientists, stakeholders (fishermen, recreational divers) and managers, which can be useful to implement high compliance and MPAs acceptance levels, especially when it comes to creating a future MPAs network.
Article
The present study investigated coastal fish assemblages, using Underwater Visual Census (UVC) transects, in Tunisia (south Mediterranean basin). The rationale behind this work is to get i) a suggestive evidence about the status of fish assemblages, and ii) baseline data at 3 locations in Tunisia where 3 MPAs will be established, before the implementation of protection measures. At each location, we used a sampling design where fish censuses were performed in two types of zone: zones that will be inside MPAs, and zones that will remain outside. On the whole, 49 taxa belonging to 19 families were censused. Data reveal clear symptoms of overfishing, especially in terms of dominance of small- and medium-sized individuals of commercially relevant species. Our analyses, moreover, did not show any significant difference in whole fish assemblage structures (considering both density and biomass), patterns of average species richness, total fish density and biomass, density and biomass of different trophic categories of fishes, size distribution of commercially relevant species, between future-protected and unprotected zones. Overall, results suggest that 1) current fish assemblages at the three studied locations are likely to be seriously impacted by fishing activities, and 2) these data could be used as reliable baselines to assess the effectiveness of protection measures within the MPAs that will be established in the future. Our study is the first in Tunisia, and in North African coasts, that assessed distribution patterns of coastal fish assemblages by means of UVC, using a formal spatially replicated sampling design for resource management.
Article
We examined shrimp and bycatch species composition in the shrimp beam trawl fishery off Wan-do, Korea(in the major or fishing ground)from December 2004 to November 2005. We observed a total of 103, 072 individuals in 96 taxa. By densities of individuals, 96.97% were shrimps, 1.20% decapods, 1.10% fish, 0.30% cephalopods and 0.43% other species. By catch weight, 57.29% were shrimps, 26.33% fish, 6.82% decapods, 4.64% cephalopods and 4.92% other species. In spring, the dominant bycatch species by biomass were Okamejei kenojei, Lophiomus setigerus, and Charybdis bimaculata. In summer, the dominant species were Charybdis bimaculata, Muraenesox cinereus, and Paralichlhys olivaceus. In autumn, dominants were Okamejei kenojei, Conger myriasler, and Sefipinna tenuifilis, and in winter they were Okamjei kenojei, Chaeturichthys stigmatias, and Sillago japonica. Bycatch species composition and individual species abundances differed significantly among seasons, probably indicating that variations were related to the life history characteristics of bycatch species. The diversity index was highest in October (2.797) and lowest in July (1.012). The July dominance index (0.569) was much higher than in other months; evenness was highest in September (0.856) and lowest in July (0.374). During the study period, the bycatch-to-shrimp ratio of this fishery varied from 0.063 in February 2005 to 11.031 in May 2005, with a mean of 3.363 These temporal variations may be linked 10 variations in reproductive behaviors and migration patterns of the marine animals sampled.
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Chapter
Past human impacts on the riverine ecosystems of North America remain poorly understood. This continent is home to the world's most diverse freshwater mussel fauna, but mussels are particularly vulnerable to human impacts because they are long-lived sedentary filter feeders with complex life histories. A large body of historical and archaeological sources provide an extraordinarily comprehensive record of mussel distribution and in some cases abundance throughout the Holocene that exists for few organisms in general and is unprecedented for invertebrates. Despite high harvest pressure and the potential effects of prehistoric human land use practices on aquatic habitats, no extinctions of mussel species have been documented in North America until the 20th century. However, freshwater mussels have experienced one of the highest rates of extinction of any group of organisms during the past 100 years, primarily due to dam construction and the indirect effects of habitat fragmentation.
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Research
Babitonga bay is an estuarine complex located in the northern coast of Santa Catarina State, Brazil. This work aimed to study the spatial-temporal variation of ichthyoplankton assembly in Babitonga Bay, within the period of October 2007 and August 2008, as a tool for the definition of priority sites for conservation in the estuarine ecosystem. The samples were collected in 9 stations, and oblique hauls were used, with a 40cm diameter conical plankton net fitted with 200μm mesh and with a 50cm diameter cylindrical-conical plankton net fitted with 500μm mesh (of two and five minutes hauling, respectively). The identification of retention zones of fish eggs and larvae in the estuary were conducted by lagrangean transport module of Sisbahia program. The definition of priority sites for conservation in Babitonga Bay was based on COMPARE methodology, beyond the compilation of ecosystem aspects and species distribution. Considering theses aspects, the priority sites for conservation were classified in zoning based on the use of the estuarine environment. A total of 17.443 eggs and 5.420 fish larvae were collected, being 4.154 eggs collected with 200μm net and 13.289 with 500μm net, and 3.380 and 2.040 larvae, respectively. A total of 59 taxa were identified (11 in family level, 18 in genus level and 30 in specie level), being Engraulidae, Gobiidae, Haemulidae, Scartella cristata, Cynoscion spp., and Parablennius pilicornis more abundant in 200μm net samples (94,3%), and Engraulidae, Microgobius meeki, Gobiidae, Chloroscombrus chrysurus and Haemulidae in the 500μm net samples (83%). The larval assembly in Babitonga Bay was represented by differents groups, spatially and temporally. The retetion zones of icthyoplankton in the bay were correlated with the zones of low hydrodynamic near the estuarine islands and the eddy at the estuary mouth. The criteria associated with espatial-temporal distribution of ichthyoplankton, taxa number and use pattern of early life stages of fishes, in the Babitonga Bay evaluation with COMPARE methodology, contributed both for biodiversity protection (81%) and fisheries management (85%). The occupation pattern and use aspects of ichthyofauna and early life stages were used for the establishment of the ecological zoning in Babitonga Bay, being proposed: preservation zone (mangroves, saltmarshes, and estuarine islands), conservation zone (estuarine beaches and estuarine shallow waters, external sector and adjacent coastal area), and environmental restoration zone (areas close to the city of São Francisco do Sul, Joinville and Itapoá, and port areas) in the estuarine ecosystem.
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Chapter
Non-conventional methods to maintain and restore reef fishery productivity include protecting fishery habitats, hatchery releases, artificial reefs, introduction of exotic species, habitat restoration and marine fishery reserves. I conclude that it is far better to prevent overfishing and stock collapse in the first place than to have to rebuild fishery productivity later. The most important strategies to prevent loss of fishery productivity are switching to less destructive fishing methods, preventing destruction of fishery habitats and protecting some areas by establishment of marine fishery reserves. If fisheries must be rebuilt, habitat restoration and marine reserves appear to be the more promising alternatives over the long term. Except for unique circumstances, deployment of artificial reefs and release of hatchery-raised organisms have less potential for retrieving lost fishery productivity. Because of unpredictable consequences and the general inability to correct mistakes, the introduction of exotic organisms is the least favoured alternative for rebuilding fishery productivity.
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Article
Miller, D. 2000. Managing fisheries to conserve the Antarctic marine ecosystem: practical implemen-tation of the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57: 778–791. We aim to identify the important steps in the evolution of the ecosystem approach to management under the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). The first section provides the background to CCAMLR, including the formulation of the convention and its objectives, its operation, and the historical trends in fisheries. Later sections describe (i) the reasons why a precautionary approach to setting catch limits evolved, (ii) how the precautionary approach takes account of ecosystem objectives and provides for the orderly development of new fisheries, and (iii) how the use of ecosystem indicators in the setting of catch limits and for monitoring the effects of fishing is being evaluated. The final section describes the general framework being used to develop a feedback-management system that incorporates objectives, target species assessments and ecosystem assessments. The CCAMLR experience provides two important lessons. First, conservation objectives can only be achieved by implementing management measures, even when very little is known. Second, methods were found for achieving scientific consensus despite the uncertainties surrounding estimates of parameters and the behaviour of the system. CCAMLR is yet to face the real test in its ecosystem approach, the development of the krill fishery. Before this occurs, appropriate management procedures have to be developed to avoid localized effects on the ecosystem and to provide effective feedbacks on the effects of fishing through its monitoring programme. 2000 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea Key words: ecosystem management, icefish, krill, management strategies, precaution-ary approach, toothfish.
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Article
The intensity of human pressure on marine systems has led to a push for stronger marine conservation efforts. Recently, marine reserves have become one highly advocated form of marine conservation, and the number of newly designated reserves has increased dramatically. Reserves will be essential for conservation efforts because they can provide unique protection for critical areas, they can provide a spatial escape for intensely exploited species, and they can potentially act as buffers against some management miscalculations and unforeseen or unusual conditions. Reserve design and effectiveness can be dramatically improved by better use of existing scientific understanding. Reserves are insufficient protection alone, however, because they are not isolated from all critical impacts. Communities residing within marine reserves are strongly influenced by the highly variable conditions of the water masses that continuously flow through them. To a much greater degree than in terrestrial systems, the scales of fundamental processes, such as population replenishment, are often much larger than reserves can encompass. Further, they offer no protection from some important threats, such as contamination by chemicals. Therefore, without adequate protection of species and ecosystems outside reserves, effectiveness of reserves will be severely compromised. We outline conditions under which reserves are likely to be effective, provide some guidelines for increasing their conservation potential, and suggest some research priorities to fill critical information gaps. We strongly support vastly increasing the number and size of marine reserves; at the same time, strong conservation efforts outside reserves must complement this effort. To date, most reserve design and site selection have involved little scientific justification. They must begin to do so to increase the likelihood of attaining conservation objectives.
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Article
The traditional fisheries management approach involves scientists providing their best assessment of the status and productivity of a resource. They then use these results to recommend a control measure, such as a Total Allowable Catch (TAC), based upon some harvest control law, which is usually associated with a biological reference point (e.g. F0.1). Superficially, the Operational Management Procedure (OMP), or equally the Management Strategy Evaluation (MSE), approach for providing TAC recommendations may appear identical, as this often also links the results from some form of assessment to a harvest control law. However, the key difference is that the OMP/MSE approach involves simulation testing of the whole process that gives rise to the TAC recommendation within an adaptive management framework. This testing includes checks that application of the control law adopted will not lead to major problems, even if key perceptions about the resource happen to be in error; in other words, explicit account is taken of scientific uncertainties, in the spirit of the precautionary approach. Furthermore, quantitative evaluations are provided of the levels of catch to be anticipated in the medium term, and how these trade off against levels of risk of unintended depletion of the resource, to provide managers with a readily interpretable basis to choose between different management options. However, the process involves some problems in defining risk, which have yet to be resolved. Examples where ecosystem considerations have been taken into account in extending this OMP/MSE approach beyond the single-species level can be conveniently divided into two broad categories, depending on whether they concentrate primarily on operational (e.g. by-catch) or biological (e.g. predator-prey) interactions between species, and examples are given of each. To date, actual practical applications of this approach are more readily found for cases of operational interactions, particularly in the area of marine mammal by-catch. For practical applications involving biological interactions, the key limiting factor thus far is the paucity of data to estimate the form and magnitude of predation and competition interactions, which precludes confident computation of the trade-offs between harvest policy options that differ in the extents to which they concentrate upon different species. Nevertheless there are approximate approaches for dealing with this problem. We recommend the use of such approaches, while recognizing their limitations, until the data needed to develop more reliable models of biological interactions become available.
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Article
The South China Sea has been devastated by human fishing. This paper reports an initiative to restore Hong Kong's marine ecosystems and fisheries through the deployment of artificial reefs (ARs) within marine protected areas (MPAs). Current catch and biomass data by species and fishery sector were available. Quasi-spatial ecosystem simulations, using a modified ECOSIM method, have been employed to forecast benefits from a successful MPA/AR system. Results indicate that, despite increasing fishing power in the Hong Kong fleet, a 10-20% MPA/AR system could provide significant benefits within 10 yrs, and shifts to low-value pelagic fish could be reversed. Approximate scores, expressing how species benefit from protected ARs, suggest that results are not biased by changes in species composition. The design of MPA/ARs balances island biogeographic theory with the needs of monitoring and compliance: minimizing perimeter losses and establishing colonizing corridors are trade-offs with statistical replication and monitoring, whereas sacrifice of some ARs to fishing encourages compliance and learning. In Hong Kong, workshops with fishing communities encouraged support. Bioeconomic analysis shows an MPA/AR system increasing fishery value, but noncompliance rapidly erodes benefits. The benefits of this approach are assessed together with problems and difficulties that have arisen.
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Article
Coastal zones are usually managed with two main objectives: (1) conservation/maintenance of biodiversity and intrinsic ecosystem services and (2) maintenance of sustainable fisheries. The management needs that can be met with marine protected areas fall into corresponding categories. First, fully protected (that is, no-take) reserves—parks—offer benchmarks and protect ecosystem integrity while encouraging research, education, and aesthetic appreciation of nature. Second, by allowing focused local control of human impacts, marine protected areas can be used to focus more intense local management designed to increase yield and allow research to help define sustainability and protect against uncertainty by using carefully managed fisheries as a research tool. We have been gambling with the future by establishing a poor balance between short-term profit and long-term risks. The absence of meaningful, fully protected reserves has produced a situation in which there are virtually no areas north of the Antarctic in the world's oceans that have exploitable resources where scientists can study natural marine systems. In most areas the higher-order predators and many other important species have been virtually eliminated; many benthic habitats have been much changed by fishing activities. Without solid data documenting changes through time, the relative merits of various causes and effects that operate in complex ecological systems can always be argued. Without natural systems important questions cannot be studied—for example, how the ecosystem roles of various species can be assessed, how they can be managed in a sustainable manner, and how we can evaluate resilience or relative rates of recovery. Networks of fully-protected reserves could facilitate research into such questions, contribute to the recovery of many coastal systems, and enable society to enrich its existence by observing species that should be part of its heritage (Murray et al., 1999). The use of marine protected areas as fishing refugia has met strong resistance by fishers and many managers, and it is misunderstood by many conservation biologists because different proponents have different, usually simplistic, visions. It is important to spell out the objectives of each proposed example. Our essential habitat perspective emphasizes that each situation depends on specific life-history parameters and emphasizes critical thresholds in population dynamics, including density and behavior for fertilization, transport processes, settlement, survivorship, and growth to maturity. These are extremely difficult problems, and we cannot expect simplistic solutions to be effective. The only basis for optimism is that most of the seriously affected species are not yet extinct, and we still have a little time to establish permanent fully protected reserves to allow mankind to appreciate its rich but much depleted biological heritage. At least in some systems recovery can be measured over short time scales (<10 yrs), whereas others are much slower. Society as a whole is the ultimate stakeholder, not only the commercial and sports fishing industries that so dominate the public arena. Society will have to play a more active role if these species and habitats are to be saved.
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Article
Seasonal closed areas have been an element of fishery management in New England waters since 1970 but before 1994 had limited impact on the conservation of groundfish stocks for which they were designed. Beginning in December of 1994, three large areas of historic importance to groundfish spawning and juvenile production on Georges Bank and in Southern New England, totaling 17,000 km2, were closed year-round to any gears capable of retaining groundfish (trawls, scallop dredges, gill nets, hook fishing). In the ensuing five years, the closed areas contributed significantly to reduced fishing mortality of depleted groundfish stocks. Placements of the closed areas afforded the greatest year-round protection to the shallow-sedentary assemblage of fishes (primarily flounders, skates, and miscellaneous others) and bivalve molluscs. Although the closures afforded less year-round protection to migratory age groups of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, and haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus, additional new regulations in open areas and in the Canadian portions of Georges Bank also contributed to the observed reductions in stock-wide fishing mortality rates. The areas were closed to dredge gear designed for sea scallops, Placopecten magellanicus, because of groundfish by-catch (particularly of flounders). Scallop biomass increased 14-fold within the closed areas during 1994-1998. In July 1998, total and harvestable scallop biomasses were 9 and 14 times denser, respectively, in closed than in adjacent open areas. A portion of the closed areas was designated a "habitat area of particular concern" on the basis of patterns of occurrence of juvenile groundfish in gravel/cobble sediment types. Managers reopened portions of one closed area to sea-scallop dredging in 1999, but restrictions on gear and areas fished were used to minimize groundfish by-catch and impact on juvenile cod and haddock on gravel substrates. Results from these reopenings have encouraged managers to contemplate a formal 'area rotation' scheme for scallops intended to improve yield per recruit. Closures of large portions of Georges Bank have proved to be an important element leading to more effective conservation of numerous resource and nonresource species, despite selection of the closed areas on the basis of seasonal spawning grounds of haddock and the distribution of yellowtail flounder, Limanda ferrugineus, in southern New England. In the future, factors other than fishing mortality reduction, including optimal placement to enhance larval production and to protect nursery areas and spawning concentrations, may well influence the selection of closed-area boundaries.
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Article
In tropical prawn (shrimp) trawl fisheries it is daunting to assess the sustainability of bycatch species because they are diverse and there is little historical and biological information for quantitative stock assessments. We developed a process to examine the likely impact of prawn trawling on the sustainability of bycatch species and applied this to fish bycatch in the Australian Northern Prawn Fishery. The 411 fish bycatch species were ranked with respect to biological and ecological criteria that contributed to two overriding characteristics, namely first, their susceptibility to capture and mortality due to prawn trawling, and second the population's capacity to recover after depletion. The rank of each species on these two characteristics determined its relative capacity to sustain trawling, and therefore its priority for research and management. Species that were the least likely to be sustainable came from the families Apogonidae, Ariidae, Bathysauridae, Callionymidae, Congridae, Diodontidae, Labridae, Opisthognathidae, Plotosidae, Synodontidae and Tetraodontidae. These species are highly susceptible to capture by trawls, they are benthic or demersal, their primary habitat is soft sediments, and their diet may include prawns. The recovery capacity of these species is also low, with the estimated removal rate by trawling high. The species that were the most likely to be sustainable came from the families Carangidae, Clupeidae, Ephippidae, Scombridae, Sphyraenidae and Terapontidae. They are less susceptible to capture by trawls, they are generally pelagic, their primary habitat is not in trawl grounds, and they have a broad depth distribution and range in the fishery. These species also have a greater capacity to recover, as most individuals have bred before capture, and a low estimated removal rate by trawling. The final ranking of the species must be used with caution because of the assumptions made in the process. However, the process is a valuable first step towards ensuring the sustainability of the bycatch species. Because of the simplicity of the process, it can be readily used in fisheries, particularly those with diverse bycatch, to manage the sustainability of their bycatch.
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A selection of recent published opinions from marine fisheries managers, scientists and conservationists “Marine protected areas thus provide the sociological anchor for averting the ‘tragedy of the common” and fostering a sense of stewardship for ocean resource and ocean space among the people who most rely on healthy, intact coastal system. ” (Agardy 1994) “ … possibly high costs relating to exclusion of certain users, the mechanics of boundary delineation, scientific uncertainties relating to identification of ecologically critical areas, lost opportunity and the spill-over of potentially increasing fishing pressure outside the limits of the closed area all necessitate that managers evaluate costs and benefits carefully before using closed areas to complement other forms of fisheries management ” (Agardy 2000) “Reserves will be essential for conservation efforts because they can provide unique protection for critical areas, they can provide a spatial escape for intensely exploited species, and they can potentially act as buffers against some management miscalculations and unforeseen or unusual conditions.” (Allison et al. 1998) “To date, most reserve design and site selection have involved little scientific justification.”
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Article
2000. Design of operational management strategies for achieving fishery ecosystem objectives. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57: 731–741. Ecosystem objectives in fisheries management usually flow from high-level national policies or strategies and international agreements. Consequently they are often broadly stated and hence are difficult to incorporate directly in management plans. Predicting the results of any management action is very uncertain because the dynamics of ecosystems are complex and poorly understood. Methods to design and evaluate operational management strategies have advanced considerably in the past decade. These management-strategy-evaluation (MSE) methods rely on simulation testing of the whole management process using performance measures derived from operational objectives. The MSE approach involves selecting (operational) manage-ment objectives, specifying performance measures, specifying alternative management strategies, and evaluating these using simulation. The MSE framework emphasizes the identification and modelling of uncertainties, and propagates these through to their effects on the performance measures. The framework is outlined and illustrated by three ecosystem-related applications: management of benthic habitats and broad fish community composition; by-catch of species of high conservation value; and food-chain interactions and dependencies. Challenges to be overcome before broader ecosystem-related objectives can be fully handled are discussed briefly. 2000 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea Key words: ecosystem indicators, ecosystem objectives, fisheries management, man-agement strategy evaluation (MSE), operational management strategies (design and evaluation), uncertainty.
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Article
The idea of using marine reserves, where all fishing is banned is not new to fisheries management. It was first formally considered by Beverton and Holt but rejected in favour of approaches such as fleet and gear control. Since that analysis, many fisheries have collapsed worldwide, illustrating the vulnerability of fishery resources and the ineffectiveness of these approaches. Empirical data and modelling suggest that marine reserves would generally increase yields, especially at the high fishing mortality that occurs in most fisheries. However, the most interesting feature of reserves is their ability to provide resilience to overexploitation, thereby reducing the risk of stock collapse. Benefits from reserves come from the increase in biomass and individual size within them, resulting in adult migration and/or larval dispersal that would replenish fishing grounds. The use of marine reserves in managing fisheries necessitates a thorough understanding of critical habitat requirements, fish movement, fish behaviour, the relations between subpopulations and the critical density effect for larval dispersal. When properly designed, and coupled with other management practices, reserves may provide a better insurance against uncertainties in stock assessment, fishing control and management by protecting a part of the population from exploitation. This strategy can be used for both sedentary and migratory species.
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Article
Concerns about possibly heavy impacts of bottom trawl fisheries on red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) pot fisheries in the eastern Bering Sea led in 1987 to an emergency closure of trawling in an area of adult and juvenile crab habitat. We examine the effectiveness of this bycatch refuge in protecting and possibly enhancing the crab resource using three approaches. First, bycatch of crab in trawl fisheries is a small proportion of total estimated abundance throughout the southeastern Bering Sea but may be high relative to stock abundance within the closed area and relative to annual crab landings; recent regulations have diminished this apparent effect. Effects of direct bycatch on the stock are obscured by lack of evidence on indirect effects of trawling, including crushing of crab and degredation of juvenile habitat. Second, surveys inside and outside the refuge before and after closure show no significant changes in abundance of female and prerecruit male crab. Third, important breeding and hatching grounds and juvenile habitat are not protected by the refuge, leaving long-term stock renewal subject to trawl impacts. We suggest that full consideration of the needs of all life history stages could lead to a more effective refuge design.
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Article
Fisheries science was the precursor of population ecology and continues to contribute important theoretical advances. Despite this, fishery scientists have a poor record for applying their insights to real-world fisheries management. Is there a gulf between theory and application or does the high variability inherent in fish populations and complexity of multispecies fisheries demand a different approach to management? Perhaps the solution to the world fisheries crisis is obvious after all?
Chapter
Fisheries are the last major world industry exploiting wild natural resources for food. Yet the history of modern fishery management is replete with spectacular failures. In virtually every case, the realpolitik of fisheries has rendered long-term sustainability of catches a futile management goal. All too often, politicians have compelled fishery managers to ignore the implications of the best available science. Management actions that might have prevented the disastrous collapse of fisheries but which carried a price unacceptable to industry have been scrupulously avoided. Society has simply lacked the political will to forestall the fishing industry’s tendency to use up its living capital and thereby destroy itself.
Article
High-resolution seismic, sidescan-sonar, multibeam bathymetry, and sediment sampling techniques were used to map the surficial geology and shallow subbottom stratigraphy of a segment of the inner shelf and nearshore region of New York-New Jersey metropolitan area. Preliminary analyses of these data provide a sedimentologic framework for addressing a wide range of science and management issues. Principal features identified include: 1) a series of sharply defined, rippled scour depressions in the nearshore areas of Long Island and New Jersey that are thought to be an erosional pattern indicative of storm-induced cross-shelf sediment-transport processes from the shoreface; 2) outcropping Upper Cretaceous to early Tertiary coastal plain strata and associated gravelly lag deposits; 3 ) morphologic and chemical indications of anthropogenic waste disposal and redistribution; 4) extensive deposits of medium- to fine-grained sand northeast and east of the Hudson Shelf Valley; 5) acoustic backscatter patterns on the sidescan imagery and sediment bedforms that indicate a general south-southwest sediment transport direction toward the Hudson Shelf Valley; and 6) the Hudson Shelf Valley is a depositional site for silty sediment and acts as a conduit for cross-shelf pollutant transport.
Article
A simulation method was developed for identifying populations with levels of human-caused mortality that could lead to depletion, taking into account the uncertainty of available information. A mortality limit (termed the Potential Biological Removal, PBR, under the U.S. Marine Mammal Protection Act) was calculated as the product of a minimum population estimate (N(MIN)), one-half of the maximum net productivity rate (R(MAX)), and a recovery factor (F(R)). Mortality limits were evaluated based on whether at least 95% of the simulated populations met two criteria: (1) that populations starting at the maximum net productivity level (MNPL) stayed there or above after 20 yr, and (2) that populations starting at 30% of carrying-capacity (K) recovered to at least MNPL after 100 yr. Simulations of populations that experienced mortality equal to the PBR indicated that using approximately the 20th percentile (the lower 60% log-normal confidence limit) of the abundance estimate for N(MIN) met the criteria for both cetaceans (assuming R(MAX) = 0.04) and pinnipeds (assuming R(MAX) = 0.12). Additional simulations that included plausible levels of bias in the available information indicated that using a value of 0.5 for F(R) would meet both criteria during these 'bias trials.' It is concluded that any marine mammal population with an estimate of human-caused mortality that is greater than its PBR has a level of mortality that could lead to the depletion of the population. The simulation methods were also used to show how mortality limits could be calculated to meet conservation goals other than the U.S. goal of maintaining populations above MNPL.
Article
This paper presents a simulation model of the spatial and temporal dynamics and the fishery of North Sea plaice that provides a powerful tool for exploring the effects of fishing and growth on the spatial dynamics, and the effects of technical measures such as closed areas. The model simulates the basic biological processes of growth, recruitment, migration, and mortality, employing a spatial resolution of 30 miles and a time step of 1 week or less. Six size-classes are distinguished: two pre-recruitment size-classes (5-14 cm; 15-26 cm) and four commercial size classes (27-33, 34-37, 38-40, {4141 cm). Parameterisation was based on empirical observations from the literature except for the transport coefficients which were estimated from migration vectors. Such vectors, that describe the rate and direction of the migration for each rectangle in each calendar month, were estimated from first order periodic functions fitted through the average observed x and y coordinates of the monthly recaptures of tagged fish. These x and y coordinates were calculated taking account of the heterogeneity in recapture probability due to differences in spatial distribution of fishing effort. Migration rate increased almost linearly with fish size. Sensitivity of the model was explored for variations in growth and migration. Comparison of the spatial distribution patterns of specific age groups and discard percentages with observed distributions showed that model performance was promising. Simulations showed that exploitation substantially affected the spatial distribution patterns of age groups. Due to size-dependent migration, exploitation was shown to be size-selective, leading to a lower perceived growth of the surviving population as compared with the true growth of the simulated, unexploited population. Possibilities of application and future improvements of the model are discussed.
Article
Data on the species composition, size, seasonality and capture rates of surf-zone fish sampled by shore-angling at two sites in the De Hoop Marine Reserve are presented. In all, 21 969 fish of 33 species were caught during 11 344 angler-hours of effort. The overall catch rates were 163 and 233 fish·100h−1 at Koppie Alleen and Lekkerwater respectively. Coracinus capensis (57%N) and Diplodus sargus (33%N) were the most frequently captured species and four others (Lithognathus lithognathus, D. cervinus, Umbrina canariensis and Rhabdosargus holubi) each contributed >1% of the combined catch. Catch rates of most species varied seasonally, the overall catch rate being high (175–215 fish·100h−1) between March and November and lower (135-150 fish-100h−1) during summer. Differences in the species composition of catches, catch rates and seasonality at the two sampling sites are attributed to differences in the seasonal distribution of sampling effort and exploitation histories. Despite the fact that comparisons with other angling catch data from around southern Africa are complicated by a number of factors, a clear relationship between catch per unit effort and degree of exploitation is evident, suggesting that abundance of angling fish is particularly sensitive to exploitation and that marine reserves are a viable management option.
Article
Browns Bank is located on the glaciated continental shelf off southern Nova Scotia. Geological mapping of Browns Bank is based on interpretation of multibeam bathymetric and backscatter data, in conjunction with 220 line km of seismic reflection profiles and sidescan sonograms, sea-floor sediment samples and bottom photographs. The Fundian Moraine, part of the previously identified end moraine system on the continental shelf off Nova Scotia, is a prominent west–east, flat-topped, multi-lobate ridge identifiable in the multibeam bathymetric data and in geophysical records. The Fundian Moraine was subjected to erosion in the surf zone during sea-level rise in depths less than 100 m. A series of north–south, roughly parallel till ridges, continuous in the subsurface with the Fundian Moraine, is interpreted as interlobate moraines suggesting formation by a tidewater glacier. The Browns Bank Moraine, connected to the Fundian Moraine, is evidence of a newly identified grounded ice position farther seaward than the latter. Bedforms, including obstacle marks, comet marks, sand waves and megaripples, are evidence of a vigorous anticyclonic current pattern on Browns Bank. The combination of multibeam bathymetric imagery with high-resolution geoscientific information represents a powerful technique for sea-floor geological investigations.
Article
This article is a synthesis of the current literature on the potential of marine protected areas (MPAs) a useful management tool for limiting the ecosystem effects of fishing, including biological and socio-economic aspects. There is sufficient evidence that fishing may negatively affect ecosystems. Modelling and case studies show that the establishment of MPAs, especially for overexploited populations, can mitigate ecosystem effects of fishing. Although quantitative ecosystem modelling techniques incorporating MPAs are in their infancy, their role in exploring scenarios is considered crucial. Success in implementing MPAs will depend on how well the biological concerns and the socio-economic needs of the fishing community can be reconciled. Cet article fait la synthèse de la littérature sur la possibilité d'utiliser les zones marines protégées (MPAs) comme outils de gestion afin de limiter les effets de la pêche sur les écosystèmes, en incluant les aspects biologiques et socio-économiques. La littérature fournit suffisamment d'évidences à l'effet que la pêche peut avoir un effet négatif. Les MPAs établies dans divers habitats à travers le monde ainsi que les modélisations montrent que MPAs offrent une certaine protection contre ces effets négatifs. Les techniques quantitatives de modélisation des écosystèmes, bien que cruciales pour l'exploration de scénarios de gestion, n'en sont encore qu'à leurs débuts et mériteraient encore plus d'attention. Finalement, le succès des MPAs dépendra de la manière dont on réussira à allier les aspects biologiques et les intérêts socio-économiques.
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We aim to identify the important steps in the evolution of the ecosystem approach to management under the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). The first section provides the background to CCAMLR, including the formulation of the convention and its objectives, its operation, and the historical trends in fisheries. Later sections describe (i) the reasons why a precautionary approach to setting catch limits evolved, (ii) how the precautionary approach takes account of ecosystem objectives and provides for the orderly development of new fisheries, and (iii) how the use of ecosystem indicators in the setting of catch limits and for monitoring the effects of fishing is being evaluated. The final section describes the general framework being used to develop a feedback-management system that incorporates objectives, target species assessments and ecosystem assessments. The CCAMLR experience provides two important lessons. First, conservation objectives can only be achieved by implementing management measures, even when very little is known. Second, methods were found for achieving scientific consensus despite the uncertainties surrounding estimates of parameters and the behaviour of the system. CCAMLR is yet to face the real test in its ecosystem approach, the development of the krill fishery. Before this occurs, appropriate management procedures have to be developed to avoid localized effects on the ecosystem and to provide effective feedbacks on the effects of fishing through its monitoring programme.
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In 1988, FAO adopted its definition of sustainable development. In 1995 it adopted a Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, which offers an integrated comprehensive framework for the sustainable development of fisheries and aquaculture. The paper analyses briefly the correspondence between the principles contained in the definition and the provisions contained in the Code. It shows that both texts represent a sustainability framework (with different degree of detail) and identifies the main criteria and indicators implicitly or explicitly called for in both the FAO definition and Code of Conduct.
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A framework for risk assessment. A probabilistic framework. Causes of Extinction. Summary. White rhinoceros on Ndumu. Formulating a birth-and death model. Parameters and initial condition. The deterministic prediction. Adding demographic stochasticity. Introducing a population ceiling. Removing constant numbers. Environmental variation. Risk Assessment. Summary. Useful methods when data are scarce. The Exonential model for population growth. Density dependence, the logistic equation and magpie geese. Other forms of density dependence. A model for suburban shrews. More about unstructured models. Summary. Structured populations. Age structure. The Leslie matrix. Stage structure. Simulating variability. Correlation and authocorrelation. Migration and dispersal. Density and dependence. Conclusion. Summary. Spatial structure and metapopulation dynamics. Conservation of spatial structure. Occupancy models. Population dynamic model. Summary. Conservation genetics. Consequences of loss of genetic diversity. Drift, risk and genetic diversity. The effects of inbreeding on population dynamics. Stochastic model for Banksia Cunteata. The genetics of metapopulations. Summary. Extensions of risk assessment. Appendices. Reference. Index. Conclusions. Random numbers. Random events and correlated random numbers. More about sensitivity analysis. References. Index.
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Large marine ecosystems (LMEs) are areas of ocean space with distinct bathymetry, hydrography, productivity, and trophic relationships. On a global scale, researchers have described 50 LMEs; these areas account for 95% of the annual global marine fishery yields. Retrospective analyses of the principal forces driving changes in the yields and sustainability of fisheries biomass have been completed for 33 of the LMEs. Based on the results of these studies, working groups within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and National Marine Fisheries Service have developed a five-module strategic approach for strengthening the links between science-based assessments of changing LME states and socioeconomic benefits of long-term sustainability of fisheries. The modules provide a framework for developing countries to improve assessment and management of LME fisheries, habitat, and related pollution reduction needs. The LME projects currently funded or being developed in collaboration with the Global Environment Facility, World Bank, and other international donor agencies represent a broad global spectrum of stakeholders. Included are the ministries of Fisheries, Environment, Finance, and other public and private sector interests of 14 countries in Asia, 20 countries in Africa, 16 countries in Central and South America, and 9 countries in eastern Europe.
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Overexploitation of marine fisheries remains a serious problem worldwide, even for many fisheries that have been intensively managed by coastal nations. Many factors have contributed to these system failures. Here we discuss the implications of persistent, irreducible scientific uncertainty pertaining to marine ecosystems. When combined with typical levels of uncontrollability of catches and incidental mortality, this uncertainty probably implies that traditional approaches to fisheries management will be persistently unsuccessful. We propose the use of large-scale protected areas (marine reserves) as major components of future management programs. Protected areas can serve as a hedge against inevitable management limitations, thus greatly enhancing the long-term sustainable exploitation of fishery resources. Marine reserves would also provide an escape from the need of ever more detailed and expensive stock assessments and would be invaluable in the rehabilitation of depleted stocks.
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Recovery of the isolated Palos Verdes Peninsula (PVP) kelp forest community after severe disturbance offers important implications for the design of marine harvest refugia. In 1977, part of the Southern California mainland coast was closed to abalone fishing to promote natural recovery. Pink (Haliotis corrugata) and green (Haliotis fulgens) abalones, historically the more abundant haliotids at PVP, did not respond. Nearby islands had substantial stocks, but the short planktonic period of green abalone larvae suggested that dispersal between isolated beds was uncommon. A drift tube study supported this hypothesis and stressed the importance of local brood stock. An experimental transplant of green abalone brood stock into sites where the drift tube data suggested high probability of larval retention led to a dramatic increase in juvenile abundance, a pattern not seen at distant controls. Other taxa with different distributions and larval periods further support the importance of dispersal potential to the natural recovery of depleted stocks. Thus, refugia design must consider the life history of target species, the oceanographic regime and distances from source areas, as well as the feasibility of enforcement.
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An ecosystem-based approach is being developed for the management of groundfish fisheries in the North Pacific Ocean off Alaska, USA. The approach involves public participation, reliance on scientific research and advice, conservative catch quotas, comprehensive monitoring and enforcement, by-catch controls, gear restrictions, temporal and spatial distribution of fisheries, habitat conservation areas, and other biological and socioeconomic considerations. The basic ecosystem consideration employed is a precautionary approach to extraction of fish resources. Off Alaska, all groundfish stocks are considered healthy, while providing sustained yields of about 2 million tonnes annually. Management measures are also taken to minimize potential impacts of fishing on seafloor habitat and other ecosystem components such as marine mammals and seabirds.