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Upside-Down Brilliance: The Visual-Spatial Learner

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  • Institute for the Study of Advanced Development
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... One key figure in the field of the visual-spatial in education has been Silverman (1989Silverman ( , 2002Silverman ( , 2003. Much of her work has focussed on those facing learning problems or those with extraordinary high ability. ...
... Silverman had found that many highly gifted visual-spatial learners were successful at many tasks given in many ways although there were some visual-spatial learners who seemed to depend almost entirely on their visual-spatial abilities. The first group seemed to choose to learn visuallyspatially as a preferred way of learning; the latter group required to use this approach (Silverman 2002). Correlation shows the extent to which a high score in the visual-spatial test is related to high scores in each of the six subjects. ...
... It is interesting to note that there are high proportions of visual-spatial learners at school levels. Indeed, visual-spatial thinkers learn better visually when compared to the auditory route (Silverman 1989(Silverman , 2002. It is a way of thinking and understanding that places high emphasis on relationship rather than on logical lists and development of ideas. ...
Chapter
Research shows that all humans process information in essentially the same way. However, there are variations in the detailed ways by which we handle information. This leads to variations in the ways humans learn and, specifically, in the ways by which we seek to generate understanding. The chapter seeks to tell the story of the research that led to the idea of learner characteristics and how such characteristics relate to performance. We explore possible ways to link these characteristics to all that we now know about the way we all process information.
... Aspects that are challenging for visual-spatial learners The natural gift these students have for creating images that represent ideas sets them apart from most other students not only through the superior level of their ability to do so; the three dimensional form that these representations take also gives rise to significant differences that can impact on classroom learning. While tasks that utilise their spatial abilities can be performed to a high level, these same abilities do not lend themselves so well to the performance of tasks that involve sequential or step by step processing (Gohm et al., 1998;Mahoney & Seeley, 1982;Seeley, 1987Seeley, , 2003Silverman, 1995Silverman, , 1998Silverman, , 2002. This asynchrony was observed in the first case whereby Kyle found the act of writing irksome as it interrupted his flow of thought processing. ...
... Kyle described writing as a tedious and pointless task. Silverman points out how difficult and time consuming it can be for those who think in pictures to have to find the right words to describe their image (Silverman, 2002). Kyle's experience demonstrated how stopping to write interrupts the flow of his thought processing -forcing what is naturally a rapid, fluid process to break down as it continuously grinds to a halt in order to mechanically record the facts so far in words. ...
... While she was having difficulty with basic computation and number knowledge, her teacher acknowledged that in areas such as patterns and strand-based knowledge, she was doing much better. Excelling at math concepts with an accompanying difficulty verbalising the steps and slow processing of computation is a commonly observed characteristic of gifted visualspatial learners (Golon, 2004(Golon, , 2008Mann, 2001Mann, , 2005Rapp, 2009;Silverman, 2002). ...
... There is also little evidence that a specific pedagogy or curriculum exists for students separated out as having LD with no proof that this segregation has led to any significant academic gain for these students (Tomlinson, 2004). Many current researches (i.e., Attree, Turner, & Cowell, 2009;Galaburda, & Livingstone 1993;Geschwind, 1982;Gordon, 1983;Davis, & Braun, 1997;Silverman, 1989Silverman, , 2002von Karolyi, 2001;West, 1992West, , 2005 have begun to concentrate on the different and nontraditional strengths and capabilities of individuals with learning disabilities, which so far have not been recognized or highly valued by the schools. In current study, the findings of the related studies are summarized in the following sections: the insights from multiple intelligences, differentiated instruction and visual-spatial learning theories for students with LD, the evidence of talents and strengths of the students labeled as learning disabled and the implications and some practical recommendations for the schools. ...
... Since the early recognition of learning disabilities, the condition has been viewed as a linguistic deficit, which is also associated with above average ability in some non-linguistic domains, like; enhanced specific visual-spatial talents (Geschwind, 1982;Gordon, 1983;Davis, & Braun, 1997;Silverman, 1989Silverman, , 2002von Karolyi, 2001;von Karolyi, Winner, Gray, Sherman, 2003). The evidence from physiological studies also has shown the possibility that the dyslexic brain might process visual-spatial information in a different manner, due to atypical structure, development, and organization of their brain cells (Galaburda, 1993). ...
... Although less research has been conducted on visual-spatial learning compared to verbal learning, there are many indications of how the individual differences affect students' learning from visual and verbal instructions. (Davis, & Braun, 1997;Silverman, 1998Silverman, , 2002.In several studies, Mayer, et.al (e.g., Mayer, & Sims, 1994;Mayer, & Anderson, 1992) examined how students learn from visual and verbal instructions differently and the role of their spatial ability in learning from words and pictures about how a system works. Results showed the importance of spatial ability in determining of the learners' use of cognitive resources. ...
... The Spectrum of Gifted Characteristics screening tool provides an overview of basic gifted characteristics found to be similar across several cultures, economic disadvantage, and levels of giftedness (Frasier & Passow, 1994;Rogers & Silverman, 1997). It also includes 11 childrelated disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2013) that have been identified in gifted children (Rogers, 2011;Silverman, 2002) as well as predictions of how these may hide or change the basic gifted characteristics. The predictions were based on the known characteristics of each specific disorder and inferences were made about how these may reduce or change basic observable gifted characteristics. ...
... The list of disorders were based on the literature of disorders associated with attachment (e.g., Prior & Glaser, 2006;Schore, 2001), disorders associated with maternal depression (Goodman, 2007;Goodman et al., 2011;Prior & Glaser, 2006;Quevedo et al., 2011); as well as observations of gifted children with disorders (Rogers, 2011;Silverman, 2002). It is noted that attachment styles are also included in the tool (American Psychiatric Association, 2013;Prior & Glaser, 2006). ...
Article
Most Australian education departments' gifted policies are guided by Gagne's Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent (DMGT; Gagne, 2003, 2004; 2008). In this examination and critique of the DMGT, an argument is made that the DMGT is based predominantly on behavioural/biological research, leaving out genuine environmental factors, and that its application relates specifically to gifted achievers. This renders gifted underachievers, including those who may have environmentally acquired socio-emotional problems (e.g., due to poor attachment and maternal depression), without a legitimate claim for identification or without an appropriate educational pathway. An expanded conception of underachievement is proposed, and a revised Model of Inclusive Gifted Identification and Progression (Wellisch and Brown, 2012) is reviewed and recommended as a replacement.
... Due to this statistical procedure for assessing IQ, identified giftedness tends to relate to academic areas such as science, maths and literacy. However, research has shown that giftedness can be found into many different domains (Gardner, 1983, Moltzen, 2011, Renzulli, 2012and Silverman, 2002. Teachers can use an IQ test report to inform them about the strengths -and weaknesses -of each child, and hence help them to seek for different strategies to cater for children who are gifted or twiceexceptional. ...
... Twice-exceptional is a term used to describe children who are gifted and disabled (Clark, 2013;Reis, Baum, & Burke, 2014and Silverman, 2002, and these disabilities can include physical, sensory and learning disabilities (Ministry of Education, 2008) and/or social and emotional disabilities. The second section of the online survey asked the early childhood practitioners about their understanding of twice-exceptionality. ...
... 85). If we consider the younger learners' characteristics proposed by Nunan (2010) and Pinter (2006), we could state their main learning style is the visual one, which is defined as the style in which a person learns better visually (Silverman, 2005). Visual learners (also known as visual-spatial learners) think primarily in images and have visual strength (Silverman, 2005). ...
... If we consider the younger learners' characteristics proposed by Nunan (2010) and Pinter (2006), we could state their main learning style is the visual one, which is defined as the style in which a person learns better visually (Silverman, 2005). Visual learners (also known as visual-spatial learners) think primarily in images and have visual strength (Silverman, 2005). According to Hindal (2014), "through the visual learning system, the learner recognizes objects, distinguishes sizes and shapes, perceives depth, notes color, and uses visual-spatial awareness to estimate where he is" (p. ...
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Conducted in a semi-public school in Chile, this action research study aims at determining the change in 18 English as a foreign language young learners’ performance regarding their understanding of instructions after being exposed to an audiovisual materials-based teaching strategy. With the use of a lesson observation report for assessing the way they follow instructions and a Likert scale to analyze their attitudes towards the strategy, findings show there was a positive change in their performances and that these learners regard this strategy as beneficial, which supports the belief that the inclusion of audiovisual aids benefits young learners when learning English.
... Linda Silverman (2002), in modifying her terminology from what had previously been called right-brained thinkers to visual-spatial learners as a more accurate representation of their strengths, contributed to the lay understanding of brain research and its application to education, noting that different learners see the world through their lens-preferred learning strategies. She described visualspatial learners as oddballs, late bloomers, and usually at-risk in school because they operate nonsequentially in a school world designed in a sequential pattern. ...
... Similar to Silverman's (2002) notions, Eric Jensen (2005) declared there to be no right or left brain-ness, just preferences towards what was termed learning perspectives. He believed that brain wiring and dominant behaviors are determined by those experiences that were first, occurred most frequently, and those that were the most coherent to the young child. ...
Chapter
Academie Da Vinci Charter School for the Arts (ADV), the first charter school in Pinellas County, Florida, uncovered a revelation about the lowest quartile of academic performers on standardized testing that has led to a commitment to training innovations designed to transform teaching methods and shift educational paradigms of stakeholders. Although ADV is currently a High Performing Charter School, the discovery occurred during tutoring of the lowest performers, part of ADV’s continuous school improvement efforts. The Instructional Leadership Team (ILT) of practitioner scholars, including ADV’s principal, two professors, and an ADV teacher, found that these lowest performing students, who continually struggled to make gains, exhibited characteristics common in visual-spatial learners (VSLs) (Silverman, 2002). Traditional instruction (sequential, detailed, rational, linear, and analytical) was synonymous with torture for these VSLs (simultaneous, big picture, non-linear, instinctive) who frequently disengaged from step-wise instruction (Pink, 2006). This chapter addresses scholarly treatment of the latest neuroscience research and best practice instructional methodology, while using ADV as an example of how student needs can be approached differently in an environment that respects their neurodiversity.
... 'Late bloomers' (late achievers who may • not stand out in childhood, but who may be identified as gifted on the basis of achievement or test scores early on) need support and encouragement as they come to understand how to handle their abilities (Silverman L. K., 2002). ...
... Styles and the Identification of Giftedness Silverman (2002) in an influential work described two types of learning styles among children, creating differences in how information is absorbed. While conventional schooling systems cater to the 'auditorysequential learner' (the label refers to the preferred methods of receiving and processing information), a fair number of children are actually visual-spatial learners. ...
Technical Report
Giftedness, or the existence of remarkable natural talents, is believed to occur once in every hundred individuals, and exceptional giftedness once in every ten thousand as per current definitions. The phenomenon of giftedness has caught the attention of psychologists, pedagogists, educationists and neuroscientists from the from the mid-19th to the 20th centuries. Giftedness research is the basis of various specially developed tests and programmes the world over. These tests and programmes are intended to identify gifted children and to encourage them to develop their talents and realize their potential, as well as to handle the social and emotional issues that may arise from their differentness. Giftedness has been defined in many ways, pointing to the complexities associated with its identification. Inevitably, special programmes for the gifted draw as much criticism as applause, triggering debates on elitism vs. equity in education. The present review of literature of giftedness research attempts to outline the phenomenon of giftedness in children in its various manifestations, the methods of evaluation and tests in current use, the need for gifted programmes and their efficacy, the developmental trajectory of giftedness, the social and emotional issues accompanying giftedness, and the impact of the socio-cultural, educational internation options for gifted children are also discussed.
... Por ello, es el momento ideal para la realización de mapas de relación con conceptos y metáforas visuales para organizar sus intereses. Esta práctica comienza con la presentación teórica sobre alfabetización visual, pensamiento visual, gestión de la carga cognitiva, desarrollo de la capacidad de síntesis, iconos e iconicidad, metáforas visuales, mapas mentales y mapas conceptuales con diferentes ejemplos (Kreger-Silverman, 2005). Para la práctica, se hace especial énfasis en realizar la metáfora visual del concepto relacionado (en algunos casos el de arte), se les da la opción de realizar un mapa mental o mapa conceptual con conceptos de su interés dentro del máster y con relación a la asignatura, detectando beneficios en presentaciones y trabajos fin de máster. ...
... Hemos visto que sería lógico pensar que el alumnado de Bellas Artes tiene modelos de aprendizaje más cercanos a capacidades visuales-espaciales, característica del desarrollo del pensamiento visual, con una herencia derivada de la educación formal cercana al enfoque auditivo y secuencial (Kreger-Silverman, 2005), por lo que deberían poseer una alta alfabetización visual que poder aplicar tanto en la creación como en la decodificación de mensajes visuales de todo tipo. Sin embargo, en las titulaciones que se imparten en la Facultad de Bellas Artes de la UCM, la competencia de la alfabetización visual no parece reflejada en los planes de estudio de casi ninguna de ellas, y si lo hace es de una forma implícita al hablar de lenguajes artísticos o cultura visual. ...
Article
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En este texto nos acercaremos a la alfabetización visual de quienes, formándose en bellas artes, quieren dedicarse a la docencia, y la importancia de esta en estos profesionales, con la intención de lograr los siguientes objetivos: 1) Medir la presencia de la alfabetización visual en las titulaciones. 2) Evaluar la alfabetización visual de estudiantes a través de su capacidad de representar un concepto abstracto mediante imágenes. 3) Indagar acerca del concepto de arte que tiene el alumnado y cuál eligen para transmitir. Para ello, partimos de la premisa de que este alumnado debería ser experto en alfabetización visual, por el manejo que del lenguaje visual hacen como creadores y por el tipo de pensamiento (visual - espacial) que presuponemos predomina en ellos; revisamos el concepto de pensamiento visual y los de metáfora visual y pictograma. En nuestro estudio de campo, y dentro del desarrollo de actividades sobre el tema, recogemos 25 metáforas visuales y 167 pictogramas realizados por el alumnado de diferentes titulaciones en los que se representa el concepto arte. Estos ejercicios son analizados tanto desde el punto de vista formal y de adecuación al lenguaje utilizado como desde su contenido, para medir la alfabetización visual y conocer el concepto de arte que pueden transmitir con ellos. Los resultados nos muestran que la alfabetización visual no aparece en los documentos que describen las titulaciones, aunque sí conceptos relacionados (lenguaje visual, comunicación visual,…), pero hay asignaturas en los grados en bellas artes y en diseño que incluyen contenido relacionado. En cuanto a la realización de metáforas y pictogramas, la mayor parte del alumnado lo ha hecho satisfactoriamente, transmitiendo un concepto de arte muy relacionado con lo manual (aunque también con lo mental) y con el pincel y/o la paleta como imágenes clave para su representación.
... Thus it appears that some of the known outcomes of school bullying are also evident among gifted children in schools (Coleman & Cross, 1988) and worthy of greater attention by anti-bullying researchers and practitioners. Peterson and Ray (2006) offered several reasons for why gifted adolescents generally may be greatly susceptible to the dangers of bullying such as asynchronous child development, i.e. their inner experiences and self-awareness are qualitatively different from the norm (Silverman, 2002), and non-stereotypical gender behaviour, i.e. gifted children's gender and sexuality preferences and behaviour can significantly differ from their same-sex peers (Kerr & Multon, 2015). Additionally, this susceptibility to bullying appears to magnify when gifted adolescents also self-identify as LGBTI + (Graytak et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Research has indicated that gifted adolescents experience an increased amount of bullying and cyberbullying compared to their non-gifted peers. However, there has not been a sufficient attempt to investigate the extent of bullying and cyberbullying victimisation among gifted adolescent populations in Ireland. A total of 195 gifted adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 years completed a comprehensive online survey assessing the bullying and cyberbullying prevalence, wellbeing, indicative mental health, and friendship quality outcomes. The results showed considerably higher prevalence rates of bullying and cyberbullying victimisation among gifted adolescents compared to an all-Ireland national prevalence rate. Bullying and cyberbullying victimisation was associated with higher levels of negative outcomes. Females, LGBTI + , and twice-exceptional participants scored significantly lower on satisfaction with life and significantly higher on negative outcomes compared to other gifted participants. The results are discussed alongside recommendations for anti-bullying policies and teacher education provisions.
... No significant difference could be established for girls. This result (as well as the higher score on concrete processing for TSE boys) raises the question whether there is a larger representation of visual-spatial learners (Silverman 2002) in the group of TSE boys, which may also explain performance differences given the educational context (despite identical non-verbal intelligence levels). Wai and Kell (2017) point to the existence of a large group of unidentified visual-spatial thinkers who are less verbally and mathematically talented and stress the social and individual importance of identifying, developing, and valuing spatial talent. ...
Article
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Research indicates that educational stratification may lead to a lower-track school culture of futility and a less academically-oriented culture among lower-track teachers, leading to both reduced study involvement and lower educational achievement among their students. This study investigated whether an anti-school culture in the lower tracks (in this study, in technical secondary education [TSE; N = 132] in comparison with general secondary education [GSE; N = 356]) has a solid basis that is supported by personal, ontological differences in intelligence and developmental potential (i.e., overexcitability, according to the theory of positive disintegration [TPD]). In addition, this study examined the consistency of these results with differences in mathematical and verbal achievement, the use of cognitive processing and metacognitive regulation strategies, and study motivation, as well as differences in the influence of personal competence indicators on the learning approach, all suggesting contextual, educational influences. A Bayesian analysis was applied to address the problem of a frequentist approach in complex statistical models. This study does not primarily reveal competence differences between both tracks (as indicated by no substantive differences in overexcitability and intelligence between respectively former GSE and TSE students and GSE and TSE boys), but rather substantial differences in verbal and mathematical performance, as well as regulatory/motivational problems among former TSE students, corroborating to some extent the abovementioned consequences of academic differentiation. The results are further elucidated from the perspective of self-determination theory and the TPD.
... Figyelemzavaros illetve túlmozgásos gyerekek hatékony tanításához fogalmaz meg javaslatokat Silverman (2002): ...
Chapter
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A kétszeresen kivételes tanulókat bemutató fejezet azokról a gyerekekről és fiatalokról szól, akik esetében a tehetség valamilyen zavarral, hátráltató állapottal társul. Bemutatja a kétszeres kivételességgel járó erősségek és gyengeségek mintázatát, megismerhetők a diagnosztizálás problémái és módszertani lehetőségei. Ismertetésre kerülnek azok a javaslatok és kipróbált technikák is , melyek hatékonyabbá teszik oktatásukat és tehetséggondozásukat.
... The concept of being introverted or extraverted can also explained as a product of attachment by many researchers. Silverman (2002) pointed out that coming from an insecure attachment environment could lead to a gifted student being perceived as introverted. A more recent study by Wellisch, Brown, & Knight (2011) found that the opposite was true when gifted students came from responsive and secure family environments. ...
Article
The term giftedness has been interpreted in many different ways throughout history depending on the area(s) of expertise of a researcher, the focus of a study, and the current trends of time. Each new definition has introduced a different dimension of giftedness to produce better representations for the gifted population and it’s diversity. The first portion of this paper summarizes the most common definitions of giftedness in education research and examines the evolution of the term giftedness in the classroom. The second portion of this paper highlights how researchers have characterized general traits of gifted students. Rather, during the course of this research a new definition emerged that considered diversity and uniqueness of the gifted students and of the environments that support their special talents. This definition asserts that there are two type of giftedness: active and dormant. Active giftedness manifests as outstanding potential in a defined area, influences others, promotes productivity, and active gifted students need differentiated services to maximize their potential. Dormant giftedness manifests when natural abilities shine through when its time to solve problems, produce ideas, or to be a leader. Dormant gifted students need rich, supportive learning environments to be motivated to bring forth their giftedness.
... Yalnızca Sözel olmayan ölçeği uygulayabilme esnekliği, SB5'i uygulanan ülkedeki anadili konuşamayan çocukların yeteneklerini ölçmede yararlı olur. Matematiksel ve görsel-uzaysal akıl yürütmeye yaptığı vurgu ve liberal zaman sınırları, onu görsel-uzaysal öğrenenleri bulmak için çekici kılmaktadır (Silverman, 2002). Testin %20'si matematiksel akıl yürütmeyi ölçerken, yalnızca %10'u soyut sözel akıl yürütmeyi ölçmektedir. ...
Book
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Değerlendirme, özel eğitim alanının en önemli konularından birisidir. Özel gereksinimli bir öğrencinin sahip olduğu yetenek ve beceri düzeyine uygun eği- timden yararlanması en temel hakkıdır. Bu temel haktan yararlanabilmek için amaca uygun bir değerlendirme sürecinin işletilmesi gerekmektedir. En genel haliyle birey hakkında bilgi toplama süreci olarak tanımlanan değerlendirme kavramı, özel gereksinimli öğrencilerin ilk belirlenmesinden başlayarak, gönderme öncesi süreç, gönderme, ayrıntılı değerlendirme, özel eğitim hizmetlerine uygunluğuna karar verme, bireyselleştirilmiş eğitim programı hazırlama ve programın etkililiğini değerlendirme basamaklarından oluşan oldukça kapsamlı ve dinamik bir süreçtir. Değerlendirme sürecinde kullanılacak olan yöntem, teknik ve araçlar değerlendirmenin amacına göre farklılık gösterir. Özel eğitim alanının gereksinimini karşılamak üzere hazırlanmış olan Özel Eğitimde Ölçme ve Değerlendirme Kitabı dört bölümden oluşmaktadır. Birinci bölümde Değerlendirmenin Temelleri başlığı altında değerlendirme kavramına açıklık getirilmeye çalışılmış; geçmişten günümüze değerlendirmenin tarihsel süreç içerisindeki gelişimi ile değerlendirme basamakları ayrıntılarıyla açıklanmıştır. Değerlendirme Yöntemleri başlığını taşıyan ikinci bölümde ise Formal ve İnformal teknikleri ayrıntılarıyla açıklanmıştır. Kitabın üçüncü bölümü Yeteneklerin Değerlendirilmesi başlığını taşımaktadır. Bu başlık altında Zekanın–Bilişsel Alanın Değerlendirilmesi, Uyumsal Davranışların Değerlendirilmesi, Davranışların ve Duygusal Durumun Değerlendiril- mesi ve Dilin Değerlendirilmesi konuları ele alınmıştır. Akademik Becerilerin Değerlendirilmesi başlığını taşıyan dördüncü bölümde ise Okuma-Yazmanın Değerlendirilmesi, Matematik Becerilerinin Değerlendirilmesi, Değerlendirmede Özel Konular başlıklı beşinci bölümde ise Erken Çocuklukta Değerlendirme, Aile Gereksinimlerinin Değerlendirilmesi ve Mesleki/ Geçiş Becerilerinin Değerlendirilmesi konuları ele alınmıştır.
... Üstün yetenekli çocukların özellikleri genel itibariyle aşağıda özetlenmiştir (Hany, 1995;George, 1995;Jackson ve Klein, 1997;Pufal-Struzik, 1999;Silverman, 2002;Davis ve Rimm, 2004): ...
... The 2E (MG/LDs) learners showed significantly higher visual S-T memory (average skills) than auditory S-T memory (belowaverage skills). While little was done in the field of 2E on visual and auditory S-Term memory, a review of several case studies by Linda Silverman (2002) showed that 2E learners tend to show stronger visual memory and visual-spatial abilities. However, recent research on dyslexia indicated that a combination of audiovisual aids is crucial for dyslexic readers (see Tejero et al., 2020). ...
Article
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The purpose of this research was to examine the utility of psychometric and dynamic assessment for the identification of a twice-exceptional (2E) group of students who showed both mathematical high abilities and specific learning disabilities. Of a population of 800 students, 30 (14 boys and 16 girls) ages 10 to 12 years were selected and identified as twice-exceptional at three public elementary schools in Amman, the capital of Jordan. A combination of three psychometric tests and one dynamic math assessment tool was used to recognize the cognitive and perceptual characteristics strengths and difficulties among students. Both psychometric and dynamic assessment models were found important and complementary to one another for the identification of cognitive and perceptual characteristics of twice-exceptional children. The findings were reported and discussed.
... A review made by Kurup et al. (2013) suggests addressing the following aspects in helping mathematically promising children develop their full potential: the need for talent-appropriate stimulation that is not restricted by the chronological age of the child (Roedell 1989); the need for counseling, acceptance and recognition of talents by peers, parents and teachers (Gross 1998;Silverman 2002); and programs and encouragement to aid the growth and blossoming of their special abilities (Reis et al. 1998). ...
Chapter
The links between research in mathematics education, psychology of creativity and research in gifted education started to gain more attention in the last decade, from researchers and the large public as well. The paper is intended to provide a concise survey of these links, with a focus on: frameworks for studying students’ creativity and giftedness in mathematics; domain specificity of creativity; some characteristics of mathematical creativity resulting from its specificity; relationships between mathematical giftedness and creativity from a mind-and-brain perspective; relationships between creativity, giftedness and social inclusion; underlying connections between mathematical creativity and innovation, creativity and metacognition, creativity, giftedness and expertise; and the teaching of mathematically-promising students with a focus on structuring their mathematical competencies. The paper offers also brief reviews of the chapters included in the book, stressing on the benefits of an integrated approach of creativity and giftedness in mathematics education.
... El sistema de representación visual suele ser el más común para aprender (Romo, López & López, 2006) ya sea mediante diagramas, esquemas, mapas mentales o conceptuales. Según algunos estudios (Gardner, 1998;Silverman, 2005) el ser humano tiene mayor facilidad para procesar la información de un modo visual; y expuesta de esa manera, aumenta la capacidad de retención de la información. El sistema auditivo es útil para las personas en las que su modo de representación de la información se produce de modo sonoro. ...
Article
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El presente trabajo presenta el análisis de una experiencia llevada a cabo en el área de ciencias sociales de Educación Secundaria, con los contenidos de Historia del Arte. Estos contenidos suelen tener una importancia secundaria en la materia, y a menudo, son percibidos con dificultades por parte de los estudiantes. Esta experiencia ha consistido en la elaboración de una exposición virtual de arte, en la que se exponen láminas, con vídeos elaborados por los estudiantes, en los que se explican las características artísticas de las obras. Entre los objetivos que se persigue, destacan la búsqueda de la motivación por el aprendizaje de la Historia del Arte en los estudiantes, y la visibilización de los contenidos artísticos en el centro. En la experiencia han participado como protagonistas 35 estudiantes de 2º de Bachillerato y como observadores de la exposición 564 estudiantes de Educación Primaria y Secundaria. La metodología empleada es una metodología de aprendizaje basado en proyectos. Los resultados son satisfactorios, tanto a nivel de motivación como a nivel de visibilización de contenidos artísticos
... Portanto, reconhecer Talento implica, na maioria dos casos, em localizar sinais de inteligência geral: facilidade e rapidez em aprender e fixar material aprendido; acervo de conhecimentos e informações; curiosidade e interesses variados; rapidez de pensamento e ação; iniciativa, autonomia, persistência na busca dos interesses, indicadores derivados do corpo de pesquisa acumulado por décadas de estudos (Singer, Houtz, & Rosenfield, 1992;Passow & Frasier, 1994;Maker, 1996;Hunsaker, Finley, & Frank, 1997;Mcbride, 1992;Feldhusen, 1996;Moon, Feldhusen & Kelly, 1991;Harold, 1989). A Inteligência Geral reflete-se no funcionamento da pessoa na maneira como ela se posiciona perante as situações enfrentadas e na organização do quadro referencial interno de significados (Combs, 1952; (Silverman, 2002;St. Clair, 2006). ...
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Crianças sobredotadas mostram desempenho notavelmente superior em relação ao grupo comparável, como indicação da maior capacidade de aprender. Sustentam esse processo: a Família, onde a criança nasce e é criada; a Escola, instituição social encarregada de prover educação; e a Comunidade, como o terreno onde forças culturais e ideológicas atuam, influenciando a vida das pessoas; portanto, a comunidade oferece as bases de um programa para desenvolver o potencial de suas crianças e jovens sobredotados. Ressaltam na comunidade 1º. A influência das instituições educacionais, mormente universidades, e 2º. A ação de pessoas ali reconhecidas e produtivas, sob a forma de voluntariado. O presente artigo discute maneiras como essas duas fontes podem ser recrutadas para atuar em um programa sistematizado de educação para desenvolver estudantes sobredotados e talentosos. Gifted children show significantly higher performance than their peers, what is an indication of their increased capacity to learn. Support this process: the family, where the child is born and raised; the School, a social institution in charge of providing education; and the community, where cultural and ideological forces act to influence people's lives; Therefore, the community offers basis for a program to develop the potential of their gifted children. The major forces within the community are: 1st. educational institutions, especially universities; and 2nd. voluntary action of acknowledged and productive persons. The present article discusses how these two sources can be recruited to act in a systematic program of education for gifted and talented students.Gifted; talent development; community talent centers
... Verbal learners reported a lower degree of focus in the multimedia classrooms because of too much unacceptable graphic information [53]. Additionally, according to Silberman (2002), the multimedia classroom achieves visual presentation of most learning materials to satisfy the need of visual learners [54]. ...
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Good academic performance will occur when learning spaces match or support individual preference and needs. This effect depends on environmental characteristics and individual attributes. Learning styles (LSs) have been used as a tool to capture the behavioral and psychological characteristics of learners in the process of learning activities, which provide instructions to address their learning needs. However, few have focused on the perceptual characteristics of learning space from the view of distinct learning styles. The research aims to identify which kinds of learning spaces in university campus have been preferred by students with different learning styles respectively and the spatial characteristics which have significant influence on the distinct evaluation results; the research consists of 178 college students’ LSs measurement conducted by the Index of Learning Styles questionnaire and their subjective assessment to five typical learning spaces obtained by 5-point Likert-type scale. Then, the key spatial influencing factors were identified by the focus group interviews; the results firstly ranked the learning spaces according to their satisfaction evaluation and restorative potential. The self-study rooms are rated highest, followed by professional classroom, traditional classroom, and multimedia classroom. Then, two dimensions of learning styles were proved as having considerable effects on perception. Specifically, there are significant differences between visual and verbal learners’ evaluations of multimedia classrooms and traditional classrooms, and between global and sequential learners’ evaluations of multimedia classrooms, informal learning spaces, and learning buildings. The other two dimensions including perceiving and remembering have no obvious impacts on learners’ perception of any learning spaces. At last, the important influence factors of perceptions of five typical learning spaces were identified, respectively, and their different effects on various groups were discussed. For example, the serious atmosphere in traditional classrooms was regarded as a motivation for sensing learners but a stress for intuitive learners. The studies emphasize the perceptual difference on learning space in terms of students’ unique learning styles and key points for each kind of learning space with regard to satisfaction of personalized needs. However, before it can be used by designers as tools, more research is needed.
... One of the most important criticisms about the nomination process was that teachers might make a biased decision depending on such variables as the student's gender, ethnic identity in the nomination process (Bahar & Maker, 2020;Daglıoglu, 2012;Elhoweris, Mutua, Alsheikh, & Holloway, 2005;Endepohls-Ulpe & Ruf, 2006;Guskin, Peng, & Simon, 1992;Masten & Plata, 2000;McBee, 2010;Rohrer, 1995;Schack & Starko, 1990;Siegle & Powell, 2004). Silverman (2002) asserts that teachers behave biased according to gender when defining student behaviors that are seen as gifted indicators. For example, they define male students as having leadership skills, while they label female students with the same skills as "knowing very much". ...
Article
Teachers' decisions to nominate the students whom they think are gifted and talented can seriously be negatively influenced by their possible prejudices and lack of knowledge. In this respect, it is considered that it is important to compare the teachers' nomination decisions with the tests used to officially identify gifted and talented students. In this study, it is aimed to identify the relationship between the teachers’ nominations and the results from the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM) of students who are identified as gifted or non-gifted. Also, the effects of gender on teacher’s nominations or RSPM results have been examined. The relational survey model, one of the quantitative research models, was used in the research. The number of students to be included in the research was determined by using stratified sampling, which is one of the probabilistic sampling methods. Accordingly, 385 students studying from the 1st grade to the 4th grade in the selected schools formed the sample of the research. In this study, RSPM was used to determine whether students are gifted or not. Teachers were also given a form in which they could list the students' names, surnames, and gender to nominate the gifted students. Chi-square test was used in the analysis of the data obtained from the research. If the relationship was significant as a result of the chi-square test analysis, the strength of the relationship was examined by using Phi & Cramer V test. According to the obtained results, although there was an acceptable significant relationship between RSPM results and teacher’s nominations in diagnosing gifted students, it was observed that success of the teachers’ nomination was not sufficient, and RSPM results, teachers’ nominations and gender factor were not related. Also, the results indicate that teachers showed a bias towards male students in nomination.
... Maker (2003) üstün zekâlı bireyin ayırt edici özelliğinin problem çözme gücü ve problem çözme sürecindeki esnek ve etkili yaklaşımları olduğunu belirtmektedir. Yaratıcı ve eleştirel düşünebilme, olasılıklı düşünebilme, bir problemi farklı yollardan çözebilme, öz-denetim ve öz-düzenleme yapabilme, tümevarımsal ve tümdengelimsel düşünebilme ve parça bütün ilişkisini kurabilme türünden zihinsel yetenekler üstün zekâlılığın göstergeleri olarak kabul edilmektedir (Jackson ve Klein, 1997;Marland, 1972;Renzulli, 1977;Silverman, 2002). Krutetskii'nin (1976) üstün zekâlı öğrencilerde gözlemlediği zihinsel yetenekler ise şunları içermektedir: matematiksel materyali şekillendirebilme, matematiksel materyali genelleştirebilme, zihinsel işlemleri geri çevirebilme, mantıksal ve esnek düşünebilme. ...
... El sistema de representación visual suele ser el más común para aprender (Romo, López & López, 2006) ya sea mediante diagramas, esquemas, mapas mentales o conceptuales. Según algunos estudios (Gardner, 1998;Silverman, 2005) el ser humano tiene mayor facilidad para procesar la información de un modo visual; y expuesta de esa manera, aumenta la capacidad de retención de la información. El sistema auditivo es útil para las personas en las que su modo de representación de la información se produce de modo sonoro. ...
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RESUMEN El trabajo presenta los avances realizados en la Reserva Provincial de Usos Múltiples Los Colorados (provincia de La Rioja, Argentina) respecto de su uso público. Se hace una caracterización general del área y se realiza un resumen de la gestión. Se describe el marco teórico de diferentes disciplinas utilizado y se presentan las herramientas pedagógicas y de interpretación de patrimonio implementadas a lo largo del tiempo. Se destaca la implementación de un modelo espiralado de interpretación de patrimonio, multivocal y participativo. Finalmente se propone que este proceso se construye en base a una formación interdisciplinaria que involucra la antropología, las teorías de conocimiento y el diseño. En este sentido debe valerse de los fundamentos del diseño en su aspecto museográfico, de la antropología en relación con un concepto integral de cultura y la pedagogía en las formas para llegar con el conocimiento al público visitante. La articulación de diferentes competencias hace que la disciplina presente determinadas características como ordenador de la conducta humana, estableciendo diferentes procedimientos para comunicar el contenido del mensaje en el marco de un territorio para construir un museo in situ o museo de sitio integrado. ABSTRACT This paper presents the progress achieved in the Provincial Reserve of Multiple Uses Los Colorados (La Rioja, Argentina) regarding its public use. A general characterization of the area and a summary of the management are described. The theoretical framework of various disciplines used is described and the different pedagogical and heritage interpretation tools used over time are presented. The implementation of spiral model of heritage interpretation, multivocal and participatory is highlighted. Finally, it is proposed that this process is developed based on an interdisciplinary work that involves anthropology, knowledge theories and design. In this sense, it must use the fundamentals of design in its museological aspect, of anthropology in relation to an integral concept of culture and pedagogy to reach the visiting public with knowledge. The combination of different competences presents certain characteristics to produce a change of human behavior, establishing different procedures to communicate the content of the message, within the framework of the reserve to build an on-site museum or integrated site museum.
... In some cases giftedness is definable as an asynchronous development in which advanced cognitive abilities and heightened intensity combine to create inner experiences and awareness that are qualitatively different from the norm (Silverman, 2002). This characteristic affects both the personality of the subjects, that their interactions with the environment such as family, school and relationship with peers (Terrassier, 1985;Brofenbrenner et Al., 1998;Heller et Al., 2005). ...
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Gifted adolescents were faced with the typical problems of their age, and with the difficulties connected with their potential. Often they present behaviour such as school demotivation, perfectionism, sensitivity, over-excitability and social problems. These characteristics can influence academic performance, in a two-way relationship. Purpose of the study is to investigate the behavioural characteristics of the high-potential students. Goal is to better understand the high potential adolescents in order to prepare individual or group interventions, to promote their psychological well-being. Understanding the weaknesses of gifted students allows the structuring of individual or group activities to provide students with tools and strategies to manage their potential. Also this allows to provide teaching methodologies and laboratory to promote the skills of high-potential students in inclusive perspective. The promotion of the skills of gifted students is critical to prevent early school leaving.
... Kinh nghiệm giảng dạy: Dựa vào đặc điểm của người có thiên hướng thông minh không gian của Silverman (2002), nghiên cứu của Rimbatmojo cùng cộng sự (2017), và phương pháp luận tiếp cận vấn đề của Dewey (1998), chúng tôi đề xuất phát triển trí thông minh không gian cho sinh viên khối kỹ thuật như sau: ...
... Kinh nghiệm giảng dạy: Dựa vào đặc điểm của người có thiên hướng thông minh không gian của Silverman (2002), nghiên cứu của Rimbatmojo cùng cộng sự (2017), và phương pháp luận tiếp cận vấn đề của Dewey (1998), chúng tôi đề xuất phát triển trí thông minh không gian cho sinh viên khối kỹ thuật như sau: ...
Conference Paper
Thế hệ Z, thường được định nghĩa là những người có năm sinh trong khoảng 1997-2012 (Dimock, 2019), là lực lượng quan trọng trong cơ cấu dân số quốc gia. Với độ tuổi từ 9 đến 24 (tính đến 2021), thế hệ này là thành phần chính của quy mô dân số độ tuổi đi học, đồng thời là nhóm tuổi đang chuẩn bị hoặc vừa bước vào thị trường lao động. Bài viết này tập trung vào các đặc điểm tâm lý của thế hệ Z có liên quan đến hoạt động dạy và học ở sinh viên đại học, vốn là lực lượng dự bị quan trọng cho nền kinh tế. Cụ thể, bài viết mô tả các đặc điểm về tính cách, động cơ học tập, sở thích học tập và xu hướng trong các mối quan hệ học tập của sinh viên thuộc thế hệ Z. Dựa trên những thông tin này, các tác giả thảo luận sự cần thiết của một tư duy về thế hệ (generational mindset) trong việc giảng dạy ở bậc đại học cho sinh viên nhóm này. Các gợi ý về chiến lược và phương pháp dạy học cho sinh viên thế hệ Z cũng sẽ được trình bày. Bên cạnh đó, bài viết cũng đưa ra một số lưu ý khi áp dụng tư duy về thế hệ vào hoạt động giáo dục đại học cho thế hệ Z trong bối cảnh đặc thù tại Việt Nam.
... Kinh nghiệm giảng dạy: Dựa vào đặc điểm của người có thiên hướng thông minh không gian của Silverman (2002), nghiên cứu của Rimbatmojo cùng cộng sự (2017), và phương pháp luận tiếp cận vấn đề của Dewey (1998), chúng tôi đề xuất phát triển trí thông minh không gian cho sinh viên khối kỹ thuật như sau: ...
Conference Paper
Thế hệ Z, thường được định nghĩa là những người có năm sinh trong khoảng 1997-2012 (Dimock, 2019), là lực lượng quan trọng trong cơ cấu dân số quốc gia. Với độ tuổi từ 9 đến 24 (tính đến 2021), thế hệ này là thành phần chính của quy mô dân số độ tuổi đi học, đồng thời là nhóm tuổi đang chuẩn bị hoặc vừa bước vào thị trường lao động. Bài viết này tập trung vào các đặc điểm tâm lý của thế hệ Z có liên quan đến hoạt động dạy và học ở sinh viên đại học, vốn là lực lượng dự bị quan trọng cho nền kinh tế. Cụ thể, bài viết mô tả các đặc điểm về tính cách, động cơ học tập, sở thích học tập và xu hướng trong các mối quan hệ học tập của sinh viên thuộc thế hệ Z. Dựa trên những thông tin này, các tác giả thảo luận sự cần thiết của một tư duy về thế hệ (generational mindset) trong việc giảng dạy ở bậc đại học cho sinh viên nhóm này. Các gợi ý về chiến lược và phương pháp dạy học cho sinh viên thế hệ Z cũng sẽ được trình bày. Bên cạnh đó, bài viết cũng đưa ra một số lưu ý khi áp dụng tư duy về thế hệ vào hoạt động giáo dục đại học cho thế hệ Z trong bối cảnh đặc thù tại Việt Nam.
... Kinh nghiệm giảng dạy: Dựa vào đặc điểm của người có thiên hướng thông minh không gian của Silverman (2002), nghiên cứu của Rimbatmojo cùng cộng sự (2017), và phương pháp luận tiếp cận vấn đề của Dewey (1998), chúng tôi đề xuất phát triển trí thông minh không gian cho sinh viên khối kỹ thuật như sau: ...
Conference Paper
Thế hệ Z, thường được định nghĩa là những người có năm sinh trong khoảng 1997-2012 (Dimock, 2019), là lực lượng quan trọng trong cơ cấu dân số quốc gia. Với độ tuổi từ 9 đến 24 (tính đến 2021), thế hệ này là thành phần chính của quy mô dân số độ tuổi đi học, đồng thời là nhóm tuổi đang chuẩn bị hoặc vừa bước vào thị trường lao động. Bài viết này tập trung vào các đặc điểm tâm lý của thế hệ Z có liên quan đến hoạt động dạy và học ở sinh viên đại học, vốn là lực lượng dự bị quan trọng cho nền kinh tế. Cụ thể, bài viết mô tả các đặc điểm về tính cách, động cơ học tập, sở thích học tập và xu hướng trong các mối quan hệ học tập của sinh viên thuộc thế hệ Z. Dựa trên những thông tin này, các tác giả thảo luận sự cần thiết của một tư duy về thế hệ (generational mindset) trong việc giảng dạy ở bậc đại học cho sinh viên nhóm này. Các gợi ý về chiến lược và phương pháp dạy học cho sinh viên thế hệ Z cũng sẽ được trình bày. Bên cạnh đó, bài viết cũng đưa ra một số lưu ý khi áp dụng tư duy về thế hệ vào hoạt động giáo dục đại học cho thế hệ Z trong bối cảnh đặc thù tại Việt Nam.
... In throwing more light to the era of creative thinking which is not exclusive to non-dyslexics Silverman (2002) submits that Upside-Down Brilliance is about the power of images. It's about visual-spatial learners, who think in images instead of words. ...
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The Igbo people of SouthEastern Nigeria are immensely gifted with multifold artistic vocations. Francis Aguilar's PEST analysis is an assessment framework for evaluating entrepreneurship. Dyslexia is a learning deficiency allied with complexity in processing words or numbers. In presenting Igbo Traditional Artistic Vocations (ITAV) as entrepreneurship, and dousing the Euro-metric assessment of African children's intelligence, the objective of the current study was to ex-ray its impact on the Early Entrepreneurial Education of Dyslexic Children (EEEDC) in Nigeria. The specific objectives were: (i) to find out the degree to which Igbo traditional artistic vocations can be utilized to boost early entrepreneurial education of dyslexic children, (ii) to ascertain the implications of using PEST analysis to endorse Igbo traditional artistic vocations for the early entrepreneurial education of dyslexic children in Nigeria, and (iii) to find out the learning strategies most obtainable while using Igbo traditional artistic vocations for the early entrepreneurial education of dyslexic children in Nigeria. The joint extracurricular study, involving children from Atani Primary School and Comprehensive Junior Secondary School, Amuvi, both in Arochukwu, Abia State, was phased into; pre-intervention, intervention and post-intervention stages. The population of sampled pupils/students was 40: Primary (n=20), and Secondary (n=20). The intervention showcased: (i) Embroidery and fabric weaving (ikpa akwa), (ii) clay moulding (ikpu ihe), (iii) basketry and mat weaving (ikpa ute na nkata), (iv) make-up and body painting (ite uri), (v) mural painting (ite uri aja), and (vi) tattoo making (igbu ichi) as Igbo traditional art subjects. The baselines for assessment were: (i) (RQ1)-Art and conventional Learning skills, (ii) (RQ2)-PEST analytical contemplations, and (iii) (RQ3)-Learning strategies. The instruments for data collection and analysis were: (i) the ITAV-PEST-EEEDC pre and post-UNICAL PRESS Vol. 1 No. 1, June 2021 2 | P a g e International Journal of ARTS, DESIGN AND ART THEORY IJADAT intervention syllabuses, with data percentage spread sheets, and (ii) the ITAV-PEST-EEEDC intervention syllabus, with data percentage spread sheet. While the syllabuses in each phase provided curricula, the percentage spread sheets were used to record and distribute data. A threefold ratio of results: Low: 0-39%, Average: 40-69% and High: 70-100% was ascribed to each cluster of frequencies. The results showed that Igbo Traditional Artistic Vocations (ITAV) can be utilized to a very high degree to boost entrepreneurial learning among dyslexic children. It was also found out that except the political implications, the rest of the PEST analytical considerations augur well with interactive and cultural kinesthetic strategies in place.
... In defining the key aspects of gifted children, the concept of developmental asynchrony is highlighted, underlining a precociousness in the cognitive sphere and a normotypical development, in terms of trajectories, in the emotional sphere [17]. This implies, precisely, an asynchrony: gifted individuals are strongly ahead in cognitive terms, showing: speed of learning; multiple interests; excessive curiosity; order and structure; critical thinking; high concentration; persistence. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper aims to investigate a cognitive profile that is still in the definition phase: giftedness. It was interesting to decline the profile with respect to learning environments and new teaching technologies. We started from the definition of giftedness, highlighting the presence of abilities and potentialities higher than average. Subsequently, several studies were reviewed that identified some cognitive, behavioral and emotional characteristics of gifted students. The difficulty of diagnosing the profile of giftedness was highlighted, referring to some examples of national and international guidelines. A focus was placed on the school integration of gifted students: highlighting the cognitive aspects in teaching practice and the social aspects with the peer group. Finally, it was interesting to analyze the process of gamification in relation to gifted individuals: highlighting the potential of this methodology for particularly gifted students.
Chapter
This chapter explores the use of Prototype Problem-Solving Activities and 3D printing (PPSA) as a curricular tool to develop mathematical understanding, creativity, and technological literacy. Prototype Problem Solving Activities (PPSA) are teaching and learning activities that have been designed for students to create artifacts that demonstrate their understanding and to find unique solutions to authentic problems. They represent an outgrowth of the maker movement and attempt to involve students in authentic problem-solving exploration. The thesis of this chapter is that by using PPSA as a teaching strategy teachers can (1) provide students with opportunities to develop mathematical and creative thinking, (2) encourage students who may not perceive themselves as talented in mathematics by providing new ways in which to demonstrate mathematical thinking, and (3) use authentic problems and interdisciplinary approaches to problem solving that simulates real-life behavior by practitioners in the STEM fields. PPSA emphasizes communication and problem solving which are two principles that are stressed in education and by business leaders as being critical for life-long success. A description is provided of the creative processes that are nurtured through the use of PPSA, as well as the instructional design principles, and specific connections to technological literacy that moves students beyond being mere consumers of information to generating ideas and reflecting on thinking. The use of authentic problems requiring a generation of prototype products allows learners to self-assess and reflect on their understanding. The process of using PPSA allows the students to develop higher order thinking skills of analysis and synthesis in their mathematical understanding.
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The latent variable path analysis program LVPLS was based on Herman Wold’s nonlinear iterative partial least squares (NIPALS) approach to theory construction and data analysis. Current developments derived from NIPALS have formed partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Both serve as appropriate techniques for data analysis under varying conditions. The study described in this chapter uses PLS-SEM to explore the predictive relationships among personality, intellectual ability, and self-concept in a sample of gifted youth. In the model, intellectual ability and introversion accounted for 24% of the variance in self-concept. Calculations and presentation of results are courtesy of Christian M. Ringle and the SmartPLS 3 computer program (http://www.smartpls.com).
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This case study described twelve narrative essays of Miko within aspects of language, cognitive, and affective. Miko is Gifted child With Disynchronous Development. The results indicated that the narrative essays in aspects of language, cognitive, and affective, as follows: 1) organizing content according to the narrative structure that consists of five components, namely opening, inciting moment, development stage, denouement and ending; 2) choice of words (diction) that appear in the narrative essays are general and specific words, abstract, slang, foreign, and a figure of speech metaphor; 3) the sentences that appear in the narrative essays are simple sentence, compound sentence, and complex sentence; 4) tools of cohesion grammatical in the narrative essays are reference, substitution, ellipsis, and conjunction; and 5) specific style of spelling was found consistently in the narrative essays; 6) cognitive skill of Miko in the narrative essays is inference; and 7) affective skill of Miko are openness, sympathetic, gracious, and emphathetic in the narrative essays.
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Chapter 4 addresses creativity and rationality or, more precisely, creative insight and its rational reconstruction, two complementary modes of knowledge, as Primas puts it, that are both needed for sound and innovative scientific progress. He relates them to two complementary modes of non-sequential and sequential processing, which will become the prototypes for non-sequential and sequential time in later chapters.
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This review includes the characteristics identified in terms of cognitive, socio-emotional, motivational and personality development of adolescents with high intellectual abilities. Even if the results of studies that addressed the same issue were contradictory, we had as a central objective the mention of these as well as the impact they have on the development of adolescents with high intellectual abilities. Even though this analysis of adolescents with high abilities features the contradictory results obtained by several researchers, it is nevertheless useful for a more accurate identification and understanding of this category of population. Another objective of this study was to identify in the existing literature the psychological profiles of adolescents with high intellectual abilities. Although there is not a large number of such studies, we can mention three of the categories identified by the authors concerned with this topic
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In South Africa, there are many informal settlements experiencing worsening socio-economic living conditions, along with associated environmental and urban open space degradation. These socio-spatial problems have increasingly attracted attention and responses from the South African government and researchers. Urban designers and architects as design professionals can make use of their visual-spatial skills to play a leading role in developing sustainable and enabling urban open spaces in informal settlements. This study employed visual assessment as a tool for urban designers and architects to address socio-spatial problems in informal settlements. A visual research methodology was explored, using Khutsong Section informal settlement as a vehicle so as to formulate a generalised approach to the upgrading of informal settlements. The study area, Khutsong Section, is located in Ivory Park township within the City of Johannes- burg. The visual-spatial design process gained from the context of the study, visual analysis, and interpretation of precedents as well as the analysis and understanding of the study area. The context-informed and -driven urban open space design process resulted in an integrative and consolidated spatial solution for Khutsong Section. The understanding obtained of specific socio-economic activities imbedded in prevailing spatial elements and features in informal settlements has broader applicability in the urban design and architecture professions. Therefore, the application of the visual research method in this study contributes to positioning urban designers and architects to be visionaries and pioneers in the sustainable upgrading of informal settlements.
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In a world in which individuals are judged on the basis of performance, parents can be lured into believing that their worth is measured by their child’s achievements. Parenting is not a competition. This outdated mechanistic model fails to appreciate the unrepeatable, precious uniqueness of every child and every parent. Nothing is more important than the bond parents form with their children. The “I-Thou” relationship between parent and child must be robust enough to stand the test of time.
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There are numerous areas where views and opinions about aspects of education are not supported by the evidence. Sadly, ideas have often been taken up uncritically and this has generated confusions in the world of academic education. This chapter looks at a further four areas: learning styles, information technology in education, academic motivation and the role of questionnaires. The aim is to bring together the relevant research evidence to show the extent to which ideas on these topics are supported.
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A pesar de que la alta sensibilidad es un concepto relativamente reciente, actualmente existe suficiente evidencia para poder ser reconocido y atendido adecuadamente. Esto no quita que todavía haya cuestiones polémicas o no resueltas tal y como se comentará en este capítulo, pero lo que es innegable es la existencia de una parte de la población que ha estado "sufriendo" su falta de comprensión de sus peculiaridades por parte del resto Así y a diferencia de lo que sucede con algunas características de los escolares como en el caso de las altas capacidades o el TDAH, que están reguladas como alumnos con necesidades específicas de apoyo educativo, los cuales pasan por una evaluación psicopedagógica, y de cuyo informe se extraen actuaciones específicas para cada
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En las escuelas se agrupa al alumnado según su edad cronológica. Sin embargo, durante los primeros años de vida de una persona destacan otros criterios en los que podríamos hacer clasificaciones. Se trata de la edad mental y la edad emocional. Conforme el individuo va creciendo, en condiciones normales, los tres tipos de edad se van equilibrando. La diferencia radica en el ritmo de aprendizaje de una determinada habilidad, pero no en el desarrollo de dicha capacidad. Por ejemplo, hay niños que empiezan a hablar más tarde, llegando a tener con posterioridad un excelente dominio del lenguaje. También hay niños que empiezan a caminar más tarde que otros y acaban siendo grandes deportistas. A medida que crecen, los niños y niñas con altas
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in the same manner as their classmates. The only means of differentiation was pace of learning. In one-room schoolhouses, children were often allowed to progress to the next level when they had completed the current one. The concept of continuous progress was particularly beneficial for gifted students; it is recently being rediscovered. An educational innovation toward the end of the century was the recognition that students learn differently from each other. With this revelation came the introduction of personality types, learning styles, and multiple intelligences as means of adapting to the individual differences of the student body. As we enter a new millennium, differentiation has become enormously important in the delivery of services to all students. Most K-12 educators have attended workshops in which they learned about their own preferred personality type or learning style, and the various types, styles and intelligences of their students. The educational work force as a whole is consciously attempting to adapt teaching methods to the individual differences of students. However, the diligent teacher may become overwhelmed by the complexity of the models that have been offered for individualizing instruction. One of the first of these instructional models evolved from the development of an instrument to assess dimensions of personality. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (Myers, 1962), developed by Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers, was based on Jung's theory of personality types (Jung, 1938). The MBTI has been used extensively in studies of the gifted: students enrolled in gifted classes (Delbridge-Parker, 1988; Gallagher, 1990; Hoehn & Bireley, 1988); National Merit Finalists (Myers &
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Not everyone understands what it means to be twice exceptional. How can you be both ‘learning abled’ and ‘learning disabled’? This doesn't compute. There are two basic misunderstandings here: that the learning disabled aren't smart and that giftedness means high achievement. If someone thinks learning disabled means ‘dumb’ and that the gifted are ‘smart,’ you can't be smart and dumb at the same time However, federal and state definitions of learning disabilities specifically limit the term, ‘learning disabled,’ to children of at least average intelligence. So you have to be smart to be learning disabled! Definitions and district identification procedures that focus on achievement make it nearly impossible to recognize and include twice exceptional (2e) children. Here is another way to look at giftedness. No two gifted people are alike. In fact, gifted people differ from each other to a greater extent than other groups. Imagine a scatter plot with thousands of dots representing the IQ scores of thousands of people. If you drew a line around the dots, it would form a normal curve. Where is the greatest density of the dots? Where are the fewest dots? The further the child is from the norm, the more unique the child. Thus, no two gifted children are alike. And if you add the co-occurrence of different types of disabilities, no two 2e children are alike. Each child who comes to the Gifted Development Center for assessment is a new puzzle. Our testers have to re-invent the wheel for each child. This paper analyses some of the underlying causes of ‘twice exceptionality’.
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This book is not intended to be a thorough academic analysis or a guide for parents and teachers. Rather, it is intended to be a kind of extended essay, from a layman's perspective, on the curious connections between creative ability, visual thinking, academic learning difficulties, and the remarkable people who, more or less, seem to have embodied these characteristics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
The tao of psychology
  • J S Bolen
Bolen, J. S. (1979). The tao of psychology. New York: Harper & Row.