Research review paper Xanthan gum: production, recovery, and properties


Xanthan gum is a microbial polysaccharide of great commercial significance. This review focuses on various aspects of xanthan production, including the producing organism Xanthomonas campestris, the kinetics of growth and production, the downstream recovery of the polysaccharide, and the solution properties of xanthan. D 2000 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.

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    ABSTRACT: The influence of operational conditions (pH, stirrer speed, and temperature) used in the process of xanthan production by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv vesicatoria (XCVA3-1) isolated from pepper plant were evaluated through yield of xanthan and compared with control strain Xanthomonas campestris NRRL-B 1459. Different conditions used during the fermentation affected the xanthan production. In this study the best combination of yield was obtained, reaching 1.325 g/100 mL with the use of pH 7.0, 30°C, and 250 rpm during fermentation. Increased yield of xanthan production can be obtained at high agitation values, with the maximum at 400 rpm. Higher yields of gum production can be obtained at 30°C and the optimum pH was found 7.0. This results were similar for the X. campestris NRRL-B 1459.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2011 · Food science and biotechnology
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    ABSTRACT: A chemical structured kinetic model for xanthan gum production is proposed involving both the carbon source metabolism and the nitrogen metabolism into the cell. This model considers eight lumped reactions (synthesis of amino acids, both non forming and forming bases, nucleic acids synthesis, both RNA and DNA, xanthan production, total sugar metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation and maintenance energy) and eight key compounds (biomass, ammonium, RNA, DNA, intracellular proteins, xanthan, sucrose and dissolved oxygen). Six runs under different temperatures and different initial nitrogen concentrations have been carried out. Parameter values of the model have been calculated by fitting experimental data of the six runs, using a multiple-response non-linear regression technique coupled to a fourth order Runge-Kutta algorithm. The kinetic model with the parameter values calculated is able to describe in close agreement with experimental data the concentration evolution of the eight key compounds previously mentioned in all the runs performed.Moreover, the structured kinetic model is able to predict the behavior of the system when some operational conditions are changed, such as temperature and initial nitrogen concentration, and also different oxygen transport rates, predicting different xanthan production rates depending on the operational conditions and medium composition (nitrogen source concentration).
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2004 · Enzyme and Microbial Technology
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    ABSTRACT: Genome programs changed our view of bacteria as cell factories, by making them amenable to systematic rational improvement. As a first step, isolated genes (including those of the metagenome), or small gene clusters are improved and expressed in a variety of hosts. New techniques derived from functional genomics (transcriptome, proteome and metabolome studies) now allow users to shift from this single-gene approach to a more integrated view of the cell, where it is more and more considered as a factory. One can expect in the near future that bacteria will be entirely reprogrammed, and perhaps even created de novo from bits and pieces, to constitute man-made cell factories. This will require exploration of the landscape made of neighbourhoods of all the genes in the cell. Present work is already paving the way for that futuristic view of bacteria in industry.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2004 · Microbial Cell Factories
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