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Yield and fruit quality performance of Nova and Robinson mandarins on three rootstocks in Eastern Mediterranean

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Abstract

Yield and fruit quality performances of Nova and Robinson mandarins were evaluated in the Mediterranean climate of Dörtyol, Hatay, Turkey from 2002 to 2007. The cumulative yields of both Nova and Robinson mandarins over this 6 year production period were highest on Carrizo citrange and smallest on Troyer citrange. The fruit weight and seed content were affected by the rootstock in Nova mandarin. The heaviest fruits were obtained from Troyer citrange. For Robinson mandarins, the fruit weight and size were not affected by the rootstock, whereas the fruit color and skin structure were found to be affected by the rootstocks. In the two mandarin cultivars evaluated, the rind thickness, juice content, total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity (TA) and TSS/TA ratio were similar when the rootstocks were compared. For Nova and Robinson mandarins, all of the rootstocks gave good fruit quality for the fresh fruit markets in the Eastern Mediterranean region. In conclusion, we propose Carrizo and Troyer citranges as an alternative to sour orange rootstocks.
African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 4 (4), pp. 262-268, April 2009
Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJAR
ISSN 1991-637X © 2009 Academic Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Yield and fruit quality performance of Nova and
Robinson mandarins on three rootstocks in Eastern
Mediterranean
T. H. Demirkeser*, M. Kaplankıran, C. Toplu and E. Yıldız
Mustafa Kemal University, Agriculture Faculty, Department of Horticulture, Antakya, Hatay 31034 Turkey.
Accepted 30 March, 2009
Yield and fruit quality performances of Nova and Robinson mandarins were evaluated in the
Mediterranean climate of Dörtyol, Hatay, Turkey from 2002 to 2007. The cumulative yields of both Nova
and Robinson mandarins over this 6 year production period were highest on Carrizo citrange and
smallest on Troyer citrange. The fruit weight and seed content were affected by the rootstock in Nova
mandarin. The heaviest fruits were obtained from Troyer citrange. For Robinson mandarins, the fruit
weight and size were not affected by the rootstock, whereas the fruit color and skin structure were
found to be affected by the rootstocks. In the two mandarin cultivars evaluated, the rind thickness, juice
content, total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity (TA) and TSS/TA ratio were similar when the rootstocks
were compared. For Nova and Robinson mandarins, all of the rootstocks gave good fruit quality for the
fresh fruit markets in the Eastern Mediterranean region. In conclusion, we propose Carrizo and Troyer
citranges as an alternative to sour orange rootstocks.
Key words: Mandarin, carrizo citrange, sour orange, troyer citrange, mediterranean.
INTRODUCTION
World production of mandarins (Citrus reticulate L. Ruta-
ceae) is on the rise. The world total citrus production has
increased by 8.3% in the last 10 years, reaching
114,878,542 tons. Among citrus species, mandarin pro-
duction has increased by 34.7% (FAO, 2006). Mandarins
are "easy-peelers" and so-called “child’s fruit” because
they have a sweet flavor and aroma, loose skins, a small-
ler fruit-size among the edible citrus and are easy to peel
and separate into segments.
The mandarin is adaptable to a wide range of climates
and is grown under desert, -semi-tropical and sub-tropical
Mediterranean conditions (Tous and Ferguson, 1992), yet
the climate in which mandarins are grown greatly influen-
ces the fruit quality. The excellent quality and charac-
teristic flavor of the mandarin cultivars are highly prized
by some, and if seedless varieties of a larger size can be
*Corresponding author. E-mail: demirkeser@gmail.com. Tel.:
+903262455845. Fax: +90326245 5832.
developed, their popularity will greatly increase. Over the
last decade, mandarin production in Mediterranean coun-
tries has increased by 21.2% (FAO, 1997; FAO, 2006)
and substantial increases are expected in Spain, Turkey
and Egypt. Over the same period, Turkish citrus produc-
tion was about 2,587,650 tons and exhibited a 2.7 fold
higher increase relative to the increase in the world citrus
production. Turkey’s mandarin production, in particular,
reached 585,000 tons, a 29% increase over the last de-
cade. Most Turkish mandarin production is conducted in
the Mediterranean region (76%), in which Adana
(204.201 tons) and Hatay (163.527 tons) are important
producing provinces. Hatay produces 22% of Turkey’s
citrus and 39% of Turkey’s mandarins (Anonymous,
2005a). In the Mediterranean regions of Turkey, the most
commonly grown mandarin cultivars are Owari Satsuma,
Fremont, Nova and Robinson. In addition, the production
of Okitsu and Clausellina Satsumas, Dobashi Beni, Nu-
les, Marisol and Arrufatina Clementine have recently in-
creased.
Among mandarin cultivars, Nova is a hybrid of the Fina
Clementine Orlando tangelo cross that was made in
1942. The rind color of Nova is a more attractive reddish-
orange and its internal quality is extremely high. The co-
lor is a deep orange and the segments are very juicy and
tender and have a fine sweet flavor. Acid levels are mo-
derate, resulting in a high sugar to acid ratio. Nova is po-
pular with consumers who are prepared to pay premium
prices only if the fruit is seedless and seedless fruits are
also preferred in European markets. Burdette (1993) re-
ported that the use of a suitable pollinator is the most effi-
cient method for producing incompatible cultivars such as
Nova mandarin, in terms of fruit yield and quality. In re-
cent years, production of mandarins, such as Nova, has
been increasing in Turkey.
Robinson is derived from a cross between a Clemen-
tine and Orlando tangelo that was made by F.C. Gardner
and J. Bellows in Florida in 1942. Robinson is a very ear-
ly maturing hybrid. Its size is similar to the Dancy tange-
rine and its external and internal color reaches a deep
rich orange color. The quality of Robinson fruit is excel-
lent (Saunt, 1990), and it possesses the typical mandarin
characteristic of an easily separable peel (Davis and Al-
brigo, 1994). Robinson requires cross-pollination with
compatible cultivars, but fruit are also produced partheno-
carpically. Seed number varies from 0 - 20 per fruit, de-
pending on cross-pollination and Robinson trees are mo-
derately vigorous and productive and exhibit only weak
periodicity (Tuzcu, 1990).
The latest trend in the citrus industry is to extend the
period in which the markets are supplied with citrus fruits,
particularly oranges and mandarins. For this reason, fruit
exporting companies of Turkey have proposed that grow-
ers use early and late cultivars. The characteristics of
preferred mandarin cultivars include deep colored fruit,
larger fruit, low seed number and easy-peeling (Kaplan-
kıran et al., 2005a; Filho et al., 2007). In addition to these
characteristics, both growers and breeders have focused
on novel early and late cultivars.
With changes in customer preferences, many new ci-
trus cultivars have been introduced to Turkey. However,
all are not expected to perform equally well, since various
ecological and climatic conditions exist in Turkey. It would
therefore be useful to identify favorable ecological condi-
tions for individual cultivars. In addition, factors such as
cultivar characteristics, rootstocks employed and growing
conditions.
Rootstock utilization has gained value for solving the
limiting factors of citrus production (soil, climate and
pests etc) and conditioning of market demands (fresh or
processed) on productivity, short juvenility period and
high fruit quality. In Turkey, the main rootstock utilized is
sour orange, which is the dominant rootstock in the Medi-
terranean region, where 88% of citrus fruits are pro-
duced; whereas trifoliate oranges are the dominant root-
Demirkeser et al. 263
stock in the Aegean and Black Sea regions. However, the
use of Carrizo has increased lately, especially in the Eas-
tern Mediterranean region (Kaplankıran et al., 2001). To
deal with potential problems of Citrus tristeza, Turkey has
initiated a research program to replace the susceptible
sour orange with alternative rootstocks that are tolerant to
C. tristeza. The present study therefore aims to evaluate
the growth, yield and fruit quality of Nova and Robinson
mandarins budded on three rootstocks in Turkey.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant material and field trial
Rootstocks were propagated from seed which were obtained from
the University of Çukurova Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Collection
plots in Adana. Seeds were sown in plastic bags in February and
October, 1997, the seedlings of sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.),
Troyer and Carrizo citranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) and Osbeck Pon-
cirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.) were grafted with Nova and Robinson
(Citrus reticulata Blanco x (Citrus paradisi Macf. x C. reticulata)
mandarins that were free of all known pathogens. Bud woods were
obtained from the University of Çukurova Citrus and Subtropical
Fruit Research Center. The grafted trees were subsequently plant-
ed at the Research Station of Mustafa Kemal University, Agricul-
tural Faculty Citrus Experimental Station, Dörtyol (Latitude, 36°
51.10 N; Longitude, 36° 09.57E and altitude 9 m). The region has a
Mediterranean climate with an annual average temperature of
19.1º
C and an annual rainfall of 950 mm (Anonymous, 2005b). Hor-
ticultural crops are prevalent in the research area and the most
common crops include subtropical and Citrus species (mandarin,
orange and grapefruit).
Experimental design and cultivation
The experimental design was a completely randomized one with
five replicates and a single tree per plot. Trees were planted with 7
× 7 m spacing in 1998. The experimental plantation was not isolate-
ed; rather, it was surrounded by various other Citrus cultivars, such
as Okitsu, Clausellina, Silverhill 22 - 9, Rhode Red Valencia, Mid-
knight Valencia and Valencia Late. Valencias were suitable pollina-
tor for Nova and Robinson and they are planted at uniform pollina-
tion distance. The soil texture of the plot located in Dörtyol (Hatay)
had a sandy-silt texture.
The soil was coarse-textured (sand, 646 - 693; silt, 245 - 270
and; clay, 64.6 - 69.4 g/kg) and slightly alkaline to alkaline in the
soil profile (pH 7.80, 7.98 and 8.25 for 0 - 30, 30 - 60 and 60 - 90
cm depths respectively in 1:2.5 soil water suspension) and rich in
total limestone, 15.0% for 0 - 30 cm; 22.1% for 30 - 60 cm and;
19.0% for 60 - 90 cm depth.
Standard culture techniques were used with mechanical weed
control between rows and chemical control between trees. In the
first three years of culture, trees were pruned. After 4 years of cul-
ture, the trees were annually hand-pruned in January. Drip irrigation
was installed with frequency adjustments according to the season
of the year, using a 2 - 3 day interval (in summer) per week with 40
L/tree in each irrigation. Fertilizer was applied with irrigation water
starting in the second year and application was increased annually.
In 2004, the trees were fertilized with 500 g N/tree (1/2 of it at the
end of February, 1/4 at the end of May and 1/4 at the beginning of
July), 300 g P/tree (in December) and 300 g K/tree (by the end of
264 Afr. J. Agric. Res.
Table 1. Annual and cumulative yield traits of Nova mandarin trees on three rootstocks in Dörtyol, Turkey
(2002-2007).
Yield (kg / tree)
Rootstock 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Cumulative
Sour orange 22.15b 39.95b 42.65 82.79a 83.62b 93.00 364.17 b
Carrizo 27.44a 76.95a 47.33 86.52a 75.25b 92.40 405.89 a
Troyer 17.27c 31.85b 40.81 66.37b 100.43a 88.33 345.06 b
Significance1 ** ** NS ** ** NS **
D0.05 4.15 18.82 --- 13.16 13.17 --- 26.35
1NS,*, ** represent non significant and significant at 5 and 1%, respectively.
January). Foliar nutrient application and pest and disease manage-
ment were conducted in accordance with normal commercial prac-
tices guided by the Department of Horticulture and Plant protection.
Yield, fruit quality, and growth measurements
Between 2002 - 2007, the fruits of each tree were harvested and
weighed for Nova on the 10th of December and for Robinson at the
end of November. 20 fruits per tree were randomly collected and
analyzed for quality. Fruits were weighed, and fruit diameter and
rind thickness were determined with a digital caliper. Juice was ex-
tracted with an electric squeezer. The juice content (%), TSS (deter-
mined with an Atago ATC-1E model hand refractometer (at 20°C),
and total acids (TA) were measured (as citric acid equivalent per
100 ml) by titration of 5 ml of fruit juice with 0.1 N NaOH to pH 8.1
(Sadler,1994). Rind color was determined on a 1 - 7 scale (1 - 4
light to dark green; 5 orange; 6 dark orange; 7 reddish orange).
In January, the height, canopy diameter and trunk circumference
(10 cm above the bud union) were measured. Canopy volume (CV)
was calculated from canopy height and spread; consider canopy as
a prolate spheroid and applying the formula (Westwood, 1993):
CV= 4/3 πab
2
Where:
The major axis = length/2 (a).
The minor axis = length/2 (b)
The trunk circumference was converted into trunk cross-sectional
area (TCSA). The yield efficiency was estimated as the ratio of yield
to canopy volume (kg/m3), trunk cross-sectional unit area (kg/cm2),
yield/canopy projectional unit area (kg/m2) and cumulative yield
(kg/tree).
Data analyses
The data were analyzed using SAS procedures (SAS, 2005). The
GLM procedure was used to construct analysis of variance tables.
When the factors were significant at 5% and 1% levels, the means
were separated using Duncan’s multiple range test at P = 0.05.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Yield
For the cumulative yield based on a six-year period, Car-
rizo citrange had significantly greater yield than sour
orange and Troyer citrange in Nova. Troyer had lower yi-
eld than Carrizo and sour orange rootstocks in Robinson
(Tables 1 and 2). Yield means except 2004 and 2007
showed significant differences among the rootstocks in
Nova mandarin. However, Carrizo had the greatest yields
for 2002, 2003 and 2007 (Table 3). The rootstocks sig-
nificantly affected yield parameters for (Table 3). Except
2005 - 2006, Carrizo and sour orange had the highest
yields. For Nova, the effects of rootstocks on yield para-
meters were measured and the average over the 6 year
period; sour orange (12.03 kg/m3) and Troyer citrange
(11.52 kg/m3) had the greatest yield canopy volume. For
yield expressed in trunk cross sectional area, Troyer
(15.72 kg/m2) and sour orange (14.89 kg/m2) were in the
same mean groups. However, for Robinson, no statistic-
cally significant differences were detected for rootstocks’
effects on yield (Table 3).
Nova trees on Carrizo differed significantly from sour
orange and Troyer citrange and had the highest cumu-
lative yield; however, sour orange and Troyer were not
significantly different from each other in Nova mandarin.
Georgiou (2000) reported in an 11 year study that sour
orange had higher cumulative yields when compared to
Carrizo and Troyer citranges. In the present study, Troyer
had less cumulative yield than Carrizo citrange. In a 2
year study by Temiz (2005), the greatest yield was re-
covered from Carrizo citrange for Nova.
Troyer had a lower yield than Carrizo or sour orange
rootstocks in Robinson. Matyar (1992) reported that Ro-
binson had high yields and quality parameters on sour
orange. Temiz (2005) observed the greatest yield of Ro-
binson grafted on sour orange. Tuzcu et al. (1995) stu-
died the effects of 9 rootstocks on Owari Satsumas and
found that Carrizo citrange, Sitrumelo 1452 and Yuzu
gave the most promising results in terms of yield and
quality. Based on their results, they proposed Carrizo as
an alternative to sour orange for the Mediterranean re-
gion of Turkey. For Nova, yield to canopy volume, trunk
cross sectional unit area and yield /canopy projectional
Demirkeser et al. 265
Table 2. The annual and cumulative yield traits of Robinson mandarin trees on three rootstocks in Dörtyol,
Turkey (2002-2007).
Yield (kg/tree)
Rootstock 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Cumulative
Sour orange 15.39b 37.59b 40.54a 71.99a 93.21b 120.96a 379.68 a
Carrizo 21.87a 58.75a 30.35b 60.81b 100.13ab 117.59a 389.50 a
Troyer 13.35b 23.79c 19.48c 80.04a 108.48a 94.19 b 339.33 b
Significance1 ** ** ** ** * ** **
D0.05 3.85 7.44 8.32 8.45 14.32 5.92 21.45
1NS,*, ** represent non significant and significant at 5 and 1% respectively.
unit area were found to be highest for sour orange and
Troyer citrange for the averages of 6 years. Although
Carrizo gave the greatest yield averages on a per tree
basis, these values were found to be lowest on Carrizo.
Similar results were obtained by Kaplankıran et al.
(2005b). These results may be explained by the greater
canopy volume of trees grafted on Carrizo citrange when
compared to those of other rootstocks tested.
Fruit quality
The fruit weight and seed content were affected by the
rootstock in Nova mandarin (Table 4), whereas root-
stocks had no effect on fruit diameter or rind thickness.
The heaviest fruits were obtained from Troyer citrange
(146.02 g), whereas Carrizo (136.54 g) and sour orange
(135.25 g) were in the same mean group. Blondel (1986)
on Clementines and Mendilciolu (1986) on Satsumas
found that Troyer and Carrizo citranges had higher fruits
when compared to sour orange.
The greatest seed number was recovered from sour
orange (12.15 per fruit), whereas the lowest was from
Troyer citrange (6.47 per fruit). When the effects of root-
stocks were measured for an average of 6 years for Nova
mandarin, no significant differences were detected for
rind thickness, juice content, TSS, TA or TSS/TA ratios.
However, some variables (juice content, TA, and TSS/TA
ratios) were found to be significantly affected by root-
stocks in specific experimental years.
The number of seeds was significantly influenced by
the rootstocks in Nova and Robinson fruits. However,
seed number did not reach commercially unacceptable
levels. Georgiou (2000) reported similar results for seed
numbers. Pollination and pollination efficiency are the
most important factors for number of seeds per fruit (De
Lange et al., 1973; Ferraro et al., 2006). The fact that the
pollinators for both species were similar in this study may
have contributed to similar numbers of seeds obtained
from experimental plots.
Robinson’s fruit weight and diameter were not affected
by the rootstocks (Table 5). Similar to Nova, no signi-
ficant differences were found for fruit quality parameters
tested when the means from the 6 year data were eva-
luated. However, the TA and TSS/TA ratios were found to
be affected by the rootstocks in specific years.
Robinson’s fruit weight and diameter were not affected
by the rootstock. Filho et al. (2007) also reported that fruit
weight and juice content of both mandarin cultivars were
not influenced by the rootstocks. These results are similar
to those of previous studies in which the fruit weight of
Satsuma mandarin was not affected when budded on 10
different rootstocks (Salibe and Mischan, 1984). Refor-
giata-Recupero and Russo (1983) reported that Clemen-
tine SRA-63 mandarin gave similar fruit weight and rind
color on Troyer and Carrizo citranges when compared to
sour orange.
No significant differences for rootstocks were found for
rind thickness, juice content, TSS, TA or TSS/TA ratios,
either in Nova or Robinson mandarins. Kaplankıran et al.
(2005b) studied the effects of the same rootstocks on fruit
quality parameters for Okitsu Satsumas and detected no
significant differences. Filho et al. (2007) reported no
differences in juice quality in two harvest seasons for
Fallglo and Sunburst mandarin cultivars.
The rootstocks did not affect the skin structure, rind
color or ease of peeling for Nova. However, skin structure
and rind color of Robinson were found to vary for the
rootstocks. For Robinson, sour orange gave smoother
skins than Troyer; whereas Carrizo gave a darker rind
color than Troyer. Similar results have been reported for
Satsuma and Okitsu mandarins when the same root-
stocks were compared in a similar environment (Tuzcu et
al., 1995; Kaplankıran et al., 2005b; Temiz, 2005). Matyar
(1992) and Urgun (1997) reported orange rind color for
Robinson grafted on sour orange. Nova is a grown man-
darin cultivar in the Mediterranean region of Turkey due
to its superior quality characteristics such as early fruit
production, high yield and low tendency for periodicity.
Robinson is also a popular cultivar because of its high
fruit set and resistance to cracking. Sour orange is the
266 Afr. J. Agric. Res.
Table 3. Various yield traits of Nova and Robinson mandarins on three rootstocks (2002-2007).
Nova Robinson
Year Rootstock Yield to
canopy
volume
(kg/m3)
Yield to trunk
cross-sectional
unit area
(kg/cm2)
Yield/canopy
projectional
unit area
(kg/m2)
Yield to
canopy
volume
(kg/m3)
Yield to trunk
cross-
sectional unit
area (kg/cm2)
Yield/canopy
projectional
unit area
(kg/m2)
Sour orange 10.80 a 2.03 a 10.83 a 5.09 b 1.83 5.87 b
Carrizo 6.71 b 1.84 a 8.87 a 7.77 a 1.97 8.61 a
Troyer 5.34 c 0.63 b 3.06 b 7.59 a 1.84 7.67 a
Significance1 ** ** ** * NS *
2002
D0.05 1.24 0.21 3.48 2.43 --- 1.09
Sour orange 22.83 a 2.40 a 22.49 a 10.60 b 1.45 ab 12.93 b
Carrizo 16.17 b 1.84 a 22.82 a 20.69 a 1.82 a 22.61 a
Troyer 9.71 c 1.00 b 12.57 b 11.15 b 1.15 b 11.89 b
Significance1 ** ** * ** * **
2003
D0.05 4.94 0.76 5.14 2.07 0.65 5.77
Sour orange 12.81 a 1.02 a 13.56 a 10.63 a 0.76 a 13.30 a
Carrizo 5.59 b 0.47 b 8.83 b 9.10 ab 0.48 b 10.75 ab
Troyer 10.37 ab 0.49 b 12.45 ab 8.25 b 0.47 b 9.07 b
Significance1 * ** ** * * *
2004
D0.05 6.11 0.46 4.33 1.98 0.27 3.71
Sour orange 11.92 a 2.30 a 17.64 a 6.88 b 0.84 b 11.23 b
Carrizo 7.03 b 0.87 b 13.83 b 8.16 b 0.67 b 12.39 b
Troyer 9.16 ab 0.88 b 14.61 b 15.03 a 1.35 a 21.84 a
Significant1 * ** ** ** ** **
2005
D0.05 4.78 0.63 2.61 4.02 0.25 4.89
Sour orange 8.24 b 0.82 ab 13.23 b 14.14 b 0.81 b 20.64
Carrizo 3.84 c 0.60 b 7.63 c 12.34 b 0.93 b 18.65
Troyer 15.58 a 1.17 a 20.19 a 19.00 a 1.51 a 21.61
Significance1 ** ** ** ** ** NS
2006
D0.05 3.46 0.48 5.31 3.45 0.28 ---
Sour orange 5.61 b 0.54 b 11.59 b 16.41 a 0.89 ab 24.77 a
Carrizo 4.44 b 0.60 b 9.07 b 11.86 b 0.80 b 20.84 ab
Troyer 12.81 a 0.76 a 18.79 a 16.44 a 0.98 a 19.52 b
Significance1 ** ** ** ** ** **
2007
D0.05 2.65 0.06 5.18 4.27 0.10 5.13
Sour orange 12.03 a 1.52 14.89 a 10.62 1.09 14.79
Carrizo 7.30 b 1.04 11.84 b 11.65 1.11 15.64
Troyer 11.52 a 0.86 15.72 a 12.91 1.21 15.27
Significance1 ** NS ** NS NS NS
Mean
D0.05 1.86 --- 2.69 --- --- ---
1NS, *, ** represent non significant and significant at 5 and 1%, respectively.
dominant rootstock in the Eastern Mediterranean where
88% of citrus fruits are produced. This fact might be due
to the fact that growers insist on the rootstock that they
are accustomed to for achieving good performance from
sour orange. Because sour orange is highly susceptible
to C. tristeza, several studies have been performed since
the 1980s to identify alternative rootstock. The present
study demonstrated that Nova and Robinson produce
fruits with quality (high juice quality and good fruit exter-
nal appearance on all rootstocks) sufficient for both fresh
fruit market and industry. For both mandarin cultivars
tested, Carrizo citrange appeared to be superior for yield
Demirkeser et al. 267
Table 4. The effects of three rootstocks on pomological characters of Nova mandarin in Dörtyol, Turkey (2002-2007).
Rootstock
Fruit weight
(g) Fruit diameter
(mm)
Rind thickness
(mm)
Seed no.
(no./fruit)
Juice content
(%)
Soluble solids
(%)
Acidity
(%)
Soluble solids/
acidity
Skin
structure2
Rind
color3
Ease of
peeling4
Sour orange 135.25b 65.17 2.83 12.15 a 50.67 11.92 1.01 11.98 2.00 6.07 3.97
Carrizo 136.54b 65.68 3.08 9.38 b 50.59 12.02 0.98 12.44 2.07 5.97 3.80
Troyer 146.02a 65.74 3.07 6.47 c 50.16 11.70 1.09 11.06 1.93 6.10 3.80
Significance1
** NS NS ** NS NS NS NS NS NS NS
D0.05 9.14 --- --- 2.24 --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
1NS, *, ** represent non significant and significant at 5 and 1%, respectively. 21: rough; 2: medium; 3: smooth.31: green - 5: orange; 6: dark orange; 7: reddish orange. 41: Very easy; 2: easy; 3:
somewhat tight; 4: tight.
Table 5. The effects of three rootstocks on pomological characters of Robinson mandarin in Dörtyol, Turkey (2002 – 2007).
Rootstock Fruit
weight (g) Fruit
diameter(mm)
Rind
thickness(mm)
Seed no.
(no./fruit)
Juice
content (%)
Soluble
solids (%) Acidity
(%)
Soluble solids/
acidity Skin
structure2 Rind
color3 Ease of
peeling4
Sour orange 136.92 64.73 3.24 9.62 b 50.19 12.11 1.05 11.67 2.67 a 5.ab 3.17
Carrizo 137.30 63.62 2.99 11.50 a 51.26 11.73 1.06 11.40 2.00 b 5.9a 3.03
Troyer 139.08 65.86 3.03 8.72 b 51.90 11.80 1.08 11.22 2.23 ab 5.4b 3.03
Significance1 NS NS NS ** NS NS NS NS ** * NS
D0.05 --- --- --- 2.15 --- --- --- NS 0.61 0.35 ---
1NS, *, ** represent non significant and significant at 5 and 1%, respectively. 21: rough; 2: medium; 3: smooth. 31: green - 5: orange; 6: dark orange; 7: reddish orange. 41: Very easy; 2: easy; 3:
somewhat tight; 4: tight.
characteristics. The fruit characteristics of the ci-
tranges were comparable to those of sour oran-
ges. We therefore propose Carrizo and Troyer ci-
tranges as alternatives to sour orange rootstocks.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors are thankful for Dr. Sedat Serçe for
reviewing the earlier version of the manuscript.
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... In a study on 'Marisol' Clementine, Bassal (2009) stated that CC and 'Swingle' citrumelo induced higher tree height compared to Cleopatra mandarin. In Nova mandarin, CC induced a bigger canopy diameter than other rootstocks [19]. In 'Navelina' orange [15], the biggest trees in height and canopy volume terms were obtained when grafted onto Volkamer lemon, CC, C-35 and FA-5, with no statistical differences between them, while the smallest trees were obtained on some hybrids: FA-03027 (Cleopatra mandarin × Troyer), FA-020349 and FA-02034 (Troyer × Cleopatra mandarin) and FA-13 (Cleopatra mandarin × Rubidoux). ...
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The yield and fruit quality performances of Clemenrubi and Orogros mandarins were evaluated in the Mediterranean climate of Valencia, Spain, from 2009 to 2016. The cumulative yields and tree growth of both varieties’ mandarins over this 8-year production period were lower in Clemenrubi. Fruit size was affected by the rootstock being the control rootstock (CC), which induced the smallest fruit, although yield efficiency and alternate bearing behaviour were not affected. Although C-35 was highlighted for delaying fruit maturity (lower RI and CI indices), no significant differences in TSS were obtained compared to the other rootstocks. CC also presented strong granulation disorder and C-35 the highest tree mortality. In conclusion, all the rootstocks for Clemenrubi and Orogros mandarins gave good fruit quality for fresh fruit markets in the eastern Mediterranean region. Nevertheless, long-term studies are needed to determine the exact effects of multibud galls on tree survival and the granulation problem on the CC fruit.
... Macrophylla 'Rough' lemon 'Cleopatra' mandarin; Citrus amblycarpa; 'Sour' Orange [40] 'Lane Late' (Spain) 4 Macrophylla; 'Volkamer' lemon Gou Tou Chen; 'Cleopatra' mandarin [28] 'Queen' (Iran) 6 No differences [41] Mandarin 'Nova' (Cyprus) 11 'Palest. Sweet' lime; 'Volkamer' lemon 'Troyer' citrange [42] 'Nova' 'Robinson' (Turkey) 3 No differences [43] 'Duong' (Vietnam) 3 'Matt' Orange 'Tau' lemon; 'Carrizo' citrange [44] Grapefruit 'Piemonte' (Brazil) 14 'Volkamer' lemon 'Cleopatra' mandarin Sunki; Riverside; TSCK x CTSW-028 [45] 'Marsh' (Saudi Arabia) 7 Shaub; 'Rough' lemon 'Volkamer' lemon [46] 'Rio Red' [47] 'Henderson' (Turkey) 5 No differences [48] Lemon 'Allen Eureka' (Saudi Arabia) 7 Macrophylla; 'Volkamer' lemon; 'Rough' lemon 'Cleopatra' mandarin; 'Swingle' citrumelo; Citrus amblycarpa; 'Sour' Orange [39] 'Fino 49 ,'Verna 50 'Fino de Elche' ...
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Citrus rootstocks are a relevant tree part that contributes to crops adapting to biotic and abiotic conditions, it becoming a key factor to face the current era of climate change. Although the emphasis of most studies on rootstocks has been placed on the yield and optimization of the citrus fruit grown in different environments, other studies have paid attention to the effect of rootstock on fruit quality. Hence, the quality of citrus fruit is becoming increasingly more relevant as consumers demand high internal and external qualities to eat citrus fruit fresh. To better understand how rootstock influences citrus fruit quality, the literature that focuses on physico-chemical parameters, nutritional compounds and physiological disorders has been revised. This review points out the influence that the external aspects surrounding plants has on fruit quality, such as the rootstock/scion interaction, the water uptake capacity of roots, the modification of the photosynthetic rate or availability of nutrient minerals.
... Carvalho et al. (2016) also demonstrated that Rough lemon showed better yield performance for Piemonte mandarin and Pera CNPMF-D6 orange scions. Castle (1995), Demirkeser et al. (2009), Al-Hosni et al. (2011), Gonzatto et al. (2011 and Incesu et al. (2013) reported Troyer citrange was least productive with different scion varieties. Similarly, the Troyer citrange was also a poor performer in our study. ...
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Performance of an inter-specific hybrid Fremont mandarin was assessed on different rootstocks in the hotarid regions of India as a potential scion species to expand citrus fruit availability in an arid region. Fremontscion attained superior growth and yield characteristics on Karna khatta rootstock by displaying the greatestplant canopy parameters followed by Rough lemon rootstock. However, the Pectinifera as well as the Troyercitrange resulted in dwarfness of the scion. The scion-rootstock compatibility indicators such as scion root-stock ratio, stionic difference and TCSA which were greatest in the Fremont/Pectinifera combination, confirmthat the inhibited tree growth on Pectinifera rootstock was caused by intrinsic features of the rootstockrather than an incompatibility reaction. Furthermore, Karna khatta rootstock resulted in highest fruit yieldand related traits followed by Rough lemon and Pectinifera rootstocks. The Pectinifera rootstock resulted in asimilar response to all fruit physical attributes i.e., fruit weight, fruit diameter, fruit index and fruiting den-sity, except fruit number. The fruit maturity of Fremont was obtained earliest on Pectinifera, while it wasmost delayed on Karna khatta and Rough lemon rootstocks. Fruit quality parameters on Pectinifera rootstockwere superior to those of common rootstock species (Rough lemon or Karna khatta) including fruit juice con-tent as well as its nutritional constituents like TSS, ascorbic acid, pH, total sugar, organoleptic taste, ripeningindex, lower content of acidity and rind thickness. The total AAE, totalflavonoids, total phenol contents werealso noticeably higher than those obtained on other rootstocks, except Troyer citrange. Overall, Fremontmandarin can be considered a promising scion in arid regions to extend the harvesting period of superiorquality fruits, especially on dwarfing Pectinifera rootstock. It would further ease harvesting operations vis-a-vis possible attainment of a better micro-climate due to small tree stature and high-density orcharding
... Although, the seedlings are the most widely and commonly used rootstocks, but the trend is now shifting towards the use of clonal rootstocks for intensive orcharding Rootstock . utilization has gained value for solving the limiting factors of production (soil, climate and pest) and productivity, and conditioning of market demands (fresh or processed), short juvenility period and better fruit quality (Demirkeser et al 2009) Rootstocks offer wider adaptability (pH, drought, . texture, drainage), tolerance against biotic stress (nematodes, insects and disease) and increasing hardiness to abiotic stresses like low temperature (Dolgov and Hanke 2006). ...
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The present research work was conducted with an objective to study the influence of auxin on rooting and growth of rooted plants of hardwood cuttings of new apple clonal rootstock M 116. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design consisting of ten treatments viz., IBA at 1500, 2000, 2500 3000, 3500 and 4000 ppm; NAA 500, 1000, 1500 and (ethanol + water solution). The increased auxin concentration showed a positive correlation with respect to rooting success and growth of rooted plants of 'M 116'. IBA when applied at 3500 ppm recorded the highest rooted cuttings (57.12 %), number of adventitious roots (7.33), total root length (4.16 m), length (97.42 cm) and diameter (5.00 mm), number of leaves per cuttings (51.00) and leaf area (29.22 cm ), which was statistically at par with hardwood cuttings treated with IBA (3,000 ppm). The propagation through hardwood cuttings with the application of auxin (IBA 3,000 and 3,500 ppm) aids to availability of elite propagation materials of new apple clonal rootstock 'M 116' in order to meet out farmers demand in India
... In this respect, the citrus production of Turkey has reached to 4,290,757 tons in 2016, with an astonishing 44% of increase (FAO 2016). In terms of either production or exportation, Satsuma mandarin is top citrus species and it is respectively followed by Clementine, 'Nova' and 'Fremont' (Demirkeser et al. 2009). K E. Yildiz et al. ...
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The characteristics of rootstock have impacts scion’s nutritional status, resistance to environmental stresses and adaptation to a specific region. Thus the performance of a cultivar is largely dependent on the rootstock-scion interactions. In this study, seasonal variations in mineral nutrients of ‘Nova’ and ‘Robinson’ mandarin cultivars budded on different citrus rootstocks were investigated under Dörtyol-Hatay (Turkey) ecological conditions. Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) contents of the leaves exhibited slightly similar trends with each other. In general, these nutrients decreased from January to March-April and increased in the subsequent growing season until mid- and late summer, then decreased again until December. Similar trends were also observed in calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) concentrations of leaves. Leaf Ca and Mg concentrations decreased from January to March, then increased during fruit development until July-August and decreased again during autumn and winter. Also, micro elements such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu) increased from January to May–June and then gradually decreases began during the growing season until December. Throughout the entire growing season, mean macro nutrients such as N, K and Ca concentrations ranged from 1.89% (‘Nova’/Carrizo citrange) to 2.02% (‘Robinson’/Carrizo citrange), from 1.10% (‘Robinson’/Carrizo citrange) to 1.39% (‘Nova’/Carrizo citrange) and from 2.62% (‘Nova’ /sour orange) to 3.48% (‘Robinson’/Troyer citrange), respectively. Phosphorus and Mg concentrations showed slightly similar trends and varied between 0.14–0.16% and between 0.31–0.39%, respectively. The ranges of mean micro nutrients such as Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu concentrations were between 65.3 and 75.4 mg kg⁻¹, 33.7 and 39.6 mg kg⁻¹, 64.1 and 70.6 mg kg⁻¹, and 10.5 and 11.4 mg kg⁻¹, respectively. It can be concluded that rootstock-scion relations can cause considerable differences in seasonal nutrition of mandarin cultivars.
... Mandarins are called 'easy-peelers' because of their sweet flavor and aroma, loose skins, relatively small fruit size among the edible citrus and are easy to peel and separate into segments (Demirkeser et al., 2009). Currently, mandarins remain the most consumed and demanded citrus species due to some important advantages, such as small fruit, thin skins and easy peeling in all over the world. ...
... Rootstocks directly affect the ability of plants to take up water and nutrients and significantly alter the pattern of canopy development and photosynthesis (Richardson et al., 2003). Factors like cultivar characteristics, rootstocks employed, growing conditions along with cultural managements, type of flowers , and the fruit drops can affect citrus cultivars yield and quality performance (Demirkeser et al., 2009). Rootstocks may influence citrus growth and development, including yield, fruit quality, and tolerance to stress caused by biotic and abiotic factors (Filho et al., 2007). ...
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The effect of three rootstocks viz. Carrizo citrange [ Poncirus trifoliate (L.) Raf. x C. sinensis ], Volkameriana (Citrus jambhiri Lush. x Citrus volkameriana), rough lemon (C. jambhiri Lush.) on vegetative growth , fruit yield and leaf nutritional composition was studied at Regional Research Station, Punjab Agricultural University, Bathinda (India). The vegetative growth in terms of rootstock and scion girth was maximum in Volkameriana. The scion showed maximum compatibility with rough lemon with respect to the smooth graft union having 0.87 scion/ stock ratio. Volkameriana proved to be vigorous rootstock in terms of maximum plant height and canopy volume. Fruit yield per plant was recorded highest on Volkameriana rootstock although Carrizo rootstock produced larger fruits during both the years. Fruit quality was better on Carrizo rootstock in terms of high total soluble solids content, thin rind and less granulation. Volakameriana rootstock resulted in higher leaf N content whereas other macro and micronutrients were found higher when budded on Carrizo rootstock.
... Currently, 65% of Turkey's fresh fruit exportation is citrus fruits and, there has been a large increase in the exportation of citrus fruits in recent years, especially for mandarins. Mandarins are called 'easy-peelers' because of their sweet flavour and aroma, loose skins, relatively small fruit size among the edible citrus and are easy to peel and separate into segments (Demirkeser et al., 2009). Mandarins remain the most consumed and demanded citrus species due to serious advantages, such as smaller fruit, thinner skins, easy peeling and export possibilities. ...
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The existence of a large amount of seeds in citrus fruits results as a major impediment to customer acceptability, even if the fruits have high organoleptic properties. Irradiation, which mainly reduces seed number of varieties, is a faster way than hybridization. The use of irradiation in citrus breeding programs is now quite widespread with most programs in the major citrus producing countries actively developing new selections. The present study reports the primarily results of gamma irradiation on seed number and fruit quality of Ortanique tangor mutant population. The shoots of scion were irradiated with gamma rays from 60Co at the dose of 50 Gy (gray) in April of 2014. All the treated buds were then immediately budded onto rootstocks and the survival rate was recorded as 60.34%. In order to stabilize the mutation, mV3 plants were developed by re-budding and plants at mV3 generation were transplanted in the orchard in 2017. Within the following year, 68 mV3 plants out of 852 grown in the field bore sufficient amount of fruit and were screened in terms of 19 fruit quality characters such as seed number per fruit, fruit diameter and ripening index. Fruit diameters of mV3 population varied from 56.72 mm to 84.79 mm, and fruit weight ranged between 90.00 g and 287.60 g. The number of seeds per fruit ranged between 0.6 and 13.1 whereas seed number of non-irradiated Ortanique tangor was recorded as 10.7 in the same fruit crop year. In general, fruit characteristics such as fruit weight, fruit height and fruit diameter which describe fruit size of a big part of the population, were similar to Ortanique tangor. According to primarily results, 18 plants have been described as low seeded (≤4). In addition, a cluster analysis was performed by using Euclidean similarity coefficient and similarity index ranged between 29.29% and 93.10% regarding variables related to fruit. The stability of mutations detected is being evaluated and new commercial field trials will be established with the selected materials.
... Citrus fruit phenological process depends on external temperature, and sunshine hours (Webb et al., 2007). Seasonal variability and locations directly changed climatic factors like temperature, rainfall frequency/pattern, relative humidity and wind direction; which do effect on fruit growth and development (Demirkeser et al., 2009). Similarly, climatic conditions also determine fruit external (Nawaz et al., 2020a) as well as internal quality (Ferguson, et al., 1999). ...
Article
Kinnow orchards were selected in districts Sargodha, Toba Tek Singh (TTS) and Vehari of Pakistan, to assess the impact of climate variables on fruit internal quality during maturing months. Analysis of variance technique was used and triplicated determinations of all samples were performed for biochemical analysis at the end of each month starting from August to February. Fruit juice contents remained low in August till October and attained uniform level from November to February by showing insignificant differences among three districts. Less count of agrometeorological indices were accrued at immature stage of green fruit in August, therefore, low level of pH, total soluble solid (TSS) and sugars were recorded. As maturing stage started after color-break to onwards, more increasing trend in soluble solids, pH and sugars were seen due to accretion of more agrometeorological indices which had hastened non-climacteric process in Kinnow fruit till arrival of peak ripening stage in the month of February. More level of titratable acidity was observed in August and then started to decrease afterward till arrival of peak maturity at the end of February. However, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity were increased to maximum level in September-October and then started to decrease afterwards. Total phenolic contents, flavonoids and flavonols were slightly changed while anthocyanins were increased gradually. More growing degree days (GDDs) and helio thermal units (HTUs) were computed at warm conditions of Vehari, followed by TTS, hence more reducing trend in titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, antioxidant activity, and reducing-sugar were observed in these districts. Climate variables had fluctuated in agrometeorological indices count in both fruiting seasons of three sites. Resultantly, fruit growth and development stages were altered which directly influenced on fruit internal quality parameters.
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The cherry rootstock influences the performance of the scion cultivar. It has an effect on cherry fruit quality, tree growth, yield and yield efficiency and floral and foliar nutrition. In this work, the influence of Saint Lucie 64 and Maxma 60 rootstocks on the fruit quality traits of cv. Early Bigi was evaluated. For this, several parameters, namely fruit weight (FW) and size (FS), soluble solids content (SSC), pH, titratable acidity (TA), flesh firmness (FF), epidermis rupture force (ERF), color and sensory profile, were assessed. Results showed that the fruits from trees on Saint Lucie 64 presented higher FF and ERF values and, consequently, better texture. On the other hand, fruits from trees on Maxma 60 showed sweeter cherries (higher SSC). Moreover, these trees presented the darkest cherries (lower values of L*, a*, b*, C* and hue◦) and the highest SSC. Therefore, although the trees on Saint Lucie 64 produced firmer cherries, it was those with the Maxma 60 rootstock that produced sweeter and darker fruits. In conclusion, both scion rootstock combinations proved to be good options for the region of Resende.
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The Mediterranean basin has long been a site of temperate fruit and nut production. Grapes, olives, figs, almonds, dates, and carobs have been cultivated there since early times. This area has both active consumption and commerce in these crops. Mediterranean countries are also rich sources of plant germplasm with the potential for new crops, and the revival of old crops. Recently interest in traditional diets, particularly in the Mediterranean diet, has increased among the public and scientific health communities. At a recent international symposium (Tree Nuts, Health and the Mediterranean Diet), in San Francisco, scientists presented several lines of evidence indicating the Mediterranean diet has the potential to prevent heart disease and other chronic diseases (Drescher et al. 1995). Grains, legumes, fruits, vegetables, olive oil, wine, seeds, and tree nuts are a part of the "Traditional Healthy Mediterranean Diet Pyramid" (Fig. 1), a diet now associated with the good health and high adult life expectancy of the Mediterranean people (Sacks 1995). Traditional Mediterranean fruit and nut crops include grapes, olives, figs, almonds, hazelnuts, pistachios, pomegranates, apricots, and citrus. One important aspect is the fat in olive and nut oils is mostly unsaturated, good for the prevention of heart disease. These oils are very high in monounsaturated fat (oleic acid), and secondarily high in polyunsaturated fat (linoleic acid). Olive oil, an important part of the Mediterranean diet, has been object of renewed interest in recent years. Other Mediterranean crops, such as mandarins, figs, loquats, persimmons, pomegranates, pistachios, carob pods, and cactus pear, have received little attention up until now but are now being re-emphasized in areas with Mediterranean climates for diversification and revitalization of local agriculture. These crops are important in many Mediterranean countries: Spain, Portugal through Southern France to Italy, Greece, Turkey, and the Middle East through Morocco and Tunisia to Egypt. They are also being introduced in other areas of the world such as California, Australia, and South America. The economic importance of these Mediterranean crops is shown in Table 1.
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The objective of this work was to study the pollination influence on Nova tangelo seed production. The experiment was carried out in the Pólo de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico dos Agronegócios do Sudoeste Paulista/DDD, Capão Bonito, SP, Brazil, during 2004/2005 crop. Nine years old flowers of Nova tangelo plants were treated as follows: 1. Valencia sweet orange pollination; 2. Natal sweet orange pollination; 3. Pera sweet orange pollination; 4. emasculated flower isolation; 5. complete flower isolation and 6. Check (free flower). In May 2005, the fruits were harvested. The highest harvested fruits percentage was obtained in Pera sweet orange treatment (42%). No fruits were obtained in treatments 4 and 5, suggesting that this tangelo did not develop partenocarpic fruits in this study conditions. In cross-pollination treatments was observed between 20 and 23 seeds in the fruits, which shows an evident pollination influence on fruit characteristic. No significant differences were noticed in fruit quality.
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Vegetative growth, yield, and fruit quality of ‘Fallglo’ and ‘Sunburst’ mandarins on ‘Rangpur’ lime, ‘Swingle’ citrumelo, ‘Orlando’ tangelo, and ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin were evaluated under subtropical climate of Northern São Paulo State, Brazil, from 2000 through 2006 harvest seasons. ‘Fallglo’ mandarin trees had the highest cumulative yield on ‘Rangpur’ lime, and the smallest on ‘Swingle’ citrumelo and ‘Orlando’ tangelo. Plants of this cultivar had the highest yield efficiency on ‘Rangpur’ lime, and the lowest on ‘Orlando’ tangelo. ‘Sunburst’ mandarin trees began to bear fruits later than ‘Fallglo’ mandarin trees, with no differences in yield induced by the rootstocks. ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin induced the most vigorous growth in ‘Fallglo’ mandarin as compared to plants on ‘Swingle’ citrumelo. On the other hand, the largest trees of ‘Sunburst’ mandarin were registered on ‘Orlando’ tangelo, and the smallest on ‘Rangpur’ lime. ‘Sunburst’ mandarin had higher alternate bearing than ‘Fallglo’ regardless the rootstock. Fruit weight and juice content were not affected by the rootstock. These two mandarin scion cultivars may be considered adequate alternatives to produce good fruit quality for the fresh fruit market. ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin and ‘Rangpur lime are suitable rootstocks for ‘Fallglo’ mandarin, whereas all rootstocks evaluated are adequate for ‘Sunburst’ mandarin.
Article
Tree size, yield, yield efficiency, fruit quality and leaf nutrients of ‘Nova’ mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco×(C. paradisi Macf.×C. reticulata)) on 11 rootstocks were evaluated under Cyprus conditions. Cumulative yield over the 11-year production period was highest on Palestine sweet lime rootstock (C. limettioides Tan.), followed by that on rough lemon (C. jambhiri Lush.), sour orange (C. aurantium L.), Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. and Pasq.) and Estes rough lemon, although there were no significant differences among these rootstocks. Cumulative yields on Carrizo and Yuma citranges (C. sinensis cv. Washington navel×Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.) were next in order, followed by those on Rangpur (C. limonia Obs.), C. taiwanica, Troyer citrange and Swingle citrumelo (C. paradisi Macf.×P. trifoliata). The largest trees were on sour orange, rough lemon and Palestine sweet lime, and the smallest on Yuma and Carrizo citranges, Swingle citrumelo and Rangpur. Yield efficiency was highest on Carrizo citrange, whereas other rootstocks had similar yield efficiencies. Rootstock affected fruit size and weight, rind thickness, juice content, Brix, total acids and Brix:acid ratio. Leaf analysis showed significant differences among rootstocks in the concentration of 10 out of 12 elements. Overall, results so for showed that Carrizo citrange and Volkamer lemon are the most promising for replacing the sour orange rootstocks which is used commercially in Cyprus but which is highly susceptible to tristeza.
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