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Breeding Behaviour and Embryonic Development of Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio)


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Induced breeding experiments of Nikishigoi (koi carp), Cyprinus carpio were conducted in mature males and females by administrating a single intramuscular injection of ovaprim at a dosage of 0.3 mL/kg weight. Spawning was observed six hrs after the injection at ambient temperature (26-28oC). The fertilized eggs were adhesive and transparent with diameter ranging between 0.9 mm and 1.10 mm. Incubation period was 73.00hrs. The hatchlings were transparent and measured 2.7-2.9 mm, with a large oval head, a well defined yolk sac and short tail. The yolk got fully absorbed within 3 days and by this time mouth formation was complete and the larvae started exogenous feeding. After 20 days the length of fry ranged between 10 mm and 12 mm and after 35 days length of the fingerlings ranged from 30-35 mm and appeared just like an adult in all respects except sexual maturity.
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Taiwania, 52(1): 93-99, 2007
Breeding Behaviour and Embryonic Development of Koi Carp
(Cyprinus carpio)
M. A. Haniffa(1,2), P. S. Allen Benziger(1), A. Jesu Arockiaraj(1), M. Nagarajan(1) and P. Siby(1)
(Manuscript received 27 January, 2006; accepted 12 April, 2006)
ABSTRACT: Induced breeding experiments of Nikishigoi (koi carp), Cyprinus carpio were conducted
in mature males and females by administrating a single intramuscular injection of ovaprim at a dosage of
0.3 mL/kg weight. Spawning was observed six hrs after the injection at ambient temperature (26-28oC).
The fertilized eggs were adhesive and transparent with diameter ranging between 0.9 mm and 1.10 mm.
Incubation period was 73.00hrs. The hatchlings were transparent and measured 2.7-2.9 mm, with a large
oval head, a well defined yolk sac and short tail. The yolk got fully absorbed within 3 days and by this
time mouth formation was complete and the larvae started exogenous feeding. After 20 days the length
of fry ranged between 10 mm and 12 mm and after 35 days length of the fingerlings ranged from 30-35
mm and appeared just like an adult in all respects except sexual maturity.
KEY WORDS: Breeding behaviour, ontogenic events, koicarp.
Koicarp, (Nishikigoi) were developed from
colour variants of the common carp Cyprinus carpio,
in Japan during the Tokugawa period (17-19 century).
They are basically delicate but very peaceful towards
other occupants and hence well suited to aquarium
setup. They grow up to 100 cm length with an elongate
body measuring 3 to 4 times less in height than length.
In their natural habitat, koicarp live up to 15-24 years
(Kuroki, 1981). Males are known to live longer than
females. In the present investigation induced breeding
techniques, breeding behaviour and ontogenic events
of koi carp are discussed since these aspects may be of
great help to the farming community venturing into the
breeding and culture of ornamental fish species.
Mature healthy koicarp brooders (200-250 g), two
males and one female were selected by sexual
dimorphism for breeding experiments (Fig. 1A).
Female is usually easier to spot, as the belly of a
mature female is generally plump, whereas male
remains streamlined and more torpedo shaped. When
males are ready for spawning, they develop breeding
tubercles on the head and pectoral fins, principally
1. Centre for Aquaculture Research and Extension (CARE), St.
Xavier’s College, Palayamkottai 627 002, Tamil Nadu, India.
2. Corresponding author. Email:;
*This article is adopted from Zoological Taiwanica which was
joined into Taiwania since 2006.
along the bones of the fin rays. These are used during
breeding, when the male nudges the female with its
head and fins to induce her to spawn. Koi generally
prefer to spawn around dawn but they may also spawn
throughout the day.
In the present study spawning was induced by
intra-peritoneal injections of ovaprim (Fig. 1B) at a
dose of 0.3 mL/kg body weight (Haniffa and Sridhar,
2002). The breeding set was released into cement
breeding tanks (1mx1mx1m) after the hormonal
administration. Aquatic macrophytes like Hydrilla
verticillata and Eichhornia crassipes were introduced
into the breeding tank for hiding purposes as well as
holding the adhesive eggs (Haniffa and Sridhar, 2002).
The breeding behaviour of brooders was observed
every hour after the injection.
Spawning activity started immediately after the
injection and lasted for about 1-8hrs. The courtship
took place at the bottom of the breeding tank. After the
first impulse of excitement, the males made
advancement towards the female (Fig. 1C). Both the
males showed participatory behaviour. Males
followed the female touching it frequently. A special
behaviour was noticed in males to attract the female
for courtship by encircling the female in order to retain
her in a given area (Fig. 1D). The excited male came
closer to the female, but the female remained quite
passive moving gracefully avoiding the approaching
male. But the active male chased the female and
generally swam underneath her. Often the active male
obstructed the path of the female (Fig. 1E) so that it
cannot avoid the male and often touched the
94 TAIWANIA Vol. 52, No. 1
Fig. 1. A: Breeding set. B: Intraperitoneal injection. C & D: Male chasing the female. E: Coutship behaviour.
F: Male touching the head of female. G: Male hitting vent of female. H: Adhesive eggs.
March, 2007 Haniffa et al.: Cyprinus carpio 95
vent of the female (Fig. 1F), and frequently touched
the head of the female also (Fig. 1G). During mating
their dorsal fins were frequently exposed above the
water surface and there was much splashing of water
and pursuing from one area to another.
During spawning the males were aligned on
either side of the female and rubbed their body
against the female and released the milt. The
adhesive eggs were deposited on submerged
vegetation (Fig. 1H) and were fertilized externally.
When they have finished spawning, the female hang
head down, respiring heavily. After spawning the
male and female remained calm in one corner of the
tank and did not show any signs of hostility when the
eggs were colleted. Koi are not good parents and
unless they are separated from the eggs they begin to
eat the eggs.
Fertilized eggs were collected with the help of a
dropper and were reared at a density of 30/cement
tank (3x1x1 m) provided with well-aerated water
(D.O: 5.4-5.8 mg/L, pH: 7.2-7.4; temperature: 26 -28
). Larvae were fed with zooplankton (rotifers and
moina) two times (at 8.00 and 16.00 hrs) daily ad
libitum after yolk absorption. Samples of eggs before
fertilization and at every 30-min interval were taken
for further studies. Descriptions of the developing
stages were made by examining live specimens under
Nikon Eclipse E 400-UIII microscope and
microphotographs of the developmental stages of
eggs (Fig. 2) and larvae were taken (Haniffa et al.,
Fish farmers are much less familiar with the
culture of koicarp because of the lack of breeding and
feeding techniques and non-availability of seeds
(Meehan, 2002). In the present study, spawning was
noticed 6hrs after the injection. The fertilized eggs of
koi carp were adhesive, demersal and spherical in
nature. Since the egg envelope is thick, transparent
and sticky, observations on the developmental stages
are difficult (Kovac, 2000). Changes in structure
emphasize the thresholds between embryonic, larval
and post-larval development from the onset of
cleavage or epiboly, or at the time of organogenesis,
respectively (Kovac, 2000; Carlos et al., 2002). The
eggs were deposited singly and were highly adhesive
throughout the incubation period. Due to the adhesive
nature of the egg, considerable debris adhered to the
capsule of the egg. The yellowish white egg capsule
was transparent, while the yolk was pale yellow or
green and granular. The eggs became translucent as
development progressed. The diameter of the
fertilized egg capsule ranged between 0.9 mm and
1.10 mm while the yolk sphere ranged from 0.6-0.8
mm. The incubation period of eggs depends largely
on water quality parameters such as salinity and
temperature (Kuo et al., 1973; Liao, 1975). In the
present study the eggs hatched 72hrs after
fertilization at a water temperature of 26-28.
Although a true metamorphosis is not generally
described for fishes, the term hatchling, larvae and
post larvae are used to indicate different stages of
development from hatchling to fingerling stage
(Boglinoe et al., 1992). In the present study the
developmental stages of koi carp were divided into
six stages. viz., embryo, hatchling, larva, post- larva,
fry and fingerling (Jhingran and Pullin, 1985) and
each stage was characterized by typical anatomical
and physiological features. A summary of the
important ontogenic events and structure is presented
in Tables 1 & 2.
The cleavage was typically meroblastic and the
first cleavage occurred (2-celled stage) within 20 min
after fertilization followed by the second cleavage,
which was completed 30 min after fertilization. The
16-celled stage reached after 39-40 min of
fertilization. The yolk invasion started after 3 hrs of
fertilization and completed after 5.26 hrs of
fertilization. The head and tail ends of the embryo
became distinguishable during yolk plug stage. Yolk
invasion was over and the blastopore was almost
closed. The notochord was clearly seen at 14hrs after
fertilization and at that time 22 somites were seen and
lens formation was started and heart formation was
almost complete. Blood circulation commenced over
the yolk into the rudimentary heart lying anterior to
the yolksac and 89-93 heartbeats per minute were
noticed at this stage. After 24 hrs of fertilization the
caudal region was detached from the yolk mass and
became free. Two otoliths were seen in the otic
vesicle and 130-140 heartbeats per minute were
observed. In the final stage of embryonic
development, the growing embryo occupied the
entire previtelline space; it exhibited frequent
twitching movement by lashing the tail against the
egg capsule. After a pause of few seconds, this
frequent movement suddenly culminated in a violent
jerk breaking the previtelline membrane and the
hatchling emerged with tail first.
Hatching occurred 32-34hrs after spawning and
the hatchlings were transparent characterized by the
presence of an almost round yolk sac. The hatchlings
ranged between 2.7 and 2.9 mm in length and tried to
hide in any refuge they find. At this stage of
development they have no swim bladder, mouth or
vent. They breathe by absorbing oxygen through the
fine blood capillaries that surround the yolk sac,
96 TAIWANIA Vol. 52, No. 1
Fig. 2. A: Fertilized egg. B: Formation of two blastomeres. C: Eight cell stage. D: Morula stage. E: Eight hours old
embryo. F: Eighteen hours old embryo. G: Twenty hours old embryo. H: Thirty hours old embryo. I: Thirty six
hours old embryo. J: Seventy one hours old embryo. K: Just hatched larva. L: One day old larva. M: Fifteen days
old fry. N: Thirty five days old fingerlings.
March, 2007 Haniffa et al.: Cyprinus carpio 97
Table 1. Embryonic development of koicarp.
Time after fertilization (hrs). Progress in embryonic development
0.40 Blastodic formation
1.00 2 celled stage
1.30 4 celled stage
1.50 8 celled stage
2.20 16 celled stage, two tires
4.40 Morula
7.30 Germinal ring formed
11.40 Half, yolk invasion completed.
18.00 Yolk invasion completed.
24.00 Cephalic region broadened with distinct fore brain
30.30 14 somites; cephalic region broadened
36.25 16-18 somites; optic lens starts differentiating
42.20 embryonic fin fold formed; gut differentiation started
49.00 22-25 somites, lens formed in the eye; heart formed; blood circulation commenced, embryo showed slight
movements; 89-93 heartbeats / minute.
63.15 The embryo encircles the whole of the yolk; vigorous twitching movements seen.
68.20 Lens fully formed, pectoral fin buds seen; 130-140 heart beats / minute; 2 otoliths in otic vesicle.
71.20 Hatching started.
73.30 Hatching completed.
Table 2. Larval Development of Koi carp.
Larval age (days) Length (mm) Characters
Just hatched (Hatchling) Transparent with heavy yolk
1 2.7-2.9 Transparent; fin fold originates and heavy ovoid yolk sac.
3 5.0-5.4 Yolk sac absorbed; started exogenous feeding; eye pigmented.
6 5.8-6.0 Yellow pigments on the body and a silvery band on the lateral sides
15 6.8-7.0 Fin rays differentiated; pigmentation gets dark
20 12-14 Pigmentation started; various colour combinations noticed.
35 24-32 Fin rays complete; started feeding artificial feed, colouration more conspicuous.
which are still attached to the gut. The head of the
hatchling was noticed above the yolk sac and the
brain was clearly visible. After 6-8 hrs of hatching the
fin folds were seen continuously around the tail.
After 2 days the hatchlings showed free movement
and after 3 days of hatching the larvae started
exogenous feeding and are fed with finely sifted
zooplankton (Jameson and Santhanam, 1996) in spite
of the presence of little yolk sac as Balon (1985)
defined this stage as eleutembryonic.
Autonomous feeding and morphological
changes characterized the larval stage. A relatively
broad space appeared between the head and anterior
margin of the yolk sac. The yolk sac was elongate,
oval in thorasic region and became cylindrical in
abdomen and occupied about 1/3 of the body from
the anterior end. At this stage the outline of the brain
in the cranial cavity could clearly be seen under a
microscope. When 8hrs old the vent and gill
rudiments were formed. Gut was straight to slightly
curved in anterior portion. Air bladder was shallow,
behind pectoral region, which develop into two
chambers in the post larval stage. Pigmentation was
more pronounced throughout the head and body. The
larvae attained free movement with the help of fins
when 8 hrs old. The larval development is
summarized in Table 2.
Hubbs (1943) defined post-larva as the stage that
began immediately after absorption of the yolk sac
that last as long as the structure and form are unlike
that of fry. The pectoral fin was differentiated and
was in the form of a flap just behind the operculum; at
this time sidewise movement of the larvae
commenced. Two chambered air bladder was seen at
this stage. After 7 days the colour of the post-larvae
was lemon yellow and they attained 4.0-4.5 mm
length. By this time the yolk was completely
absorbed and the larvae began wandering in search of
Metamorphosis from post larva to fry stage took
place after 15 days. Most of the fry were lemon
yellow in colour whereas some of them showed black
and orange colouration. At this stage the length of the
fry ranged between 7-8 mm and they gradually
resembled the adults in external features. The koi fry
have only one fin, encircling the posterior end of the
body. As they grow they developed paired fins,
mouth and other organs. The young koi swim up to
the surface and take two or three gulps of air, which
they force into their swim bladder.
After 35 days of hatching the fingerling stage was
noticed. At this stage the fingerlings ranged between
15-17 mm in length, with 8 branched rays in the
dorsal fin and 7-9 in the caudal fin. Fins were well
98 TAIWANIA Vol. 52, No. 1
developed with 17-18 pectoral fin rays, 17-21 pelvic
fin rays and 5-6 anal fin rays. They are entirely
covered by scales and appeared just like an adult.
Mouth is terminal with well-developed jaws and
teeth. Changes in the pattern of the entire structure of
an organ in relation to the environment are decisive
for evaluating the developmental patterns of species
(Balon, 1999).
The high fecundity, short embryonic period and
fast development of the fish suggest that koi are
suitable species for commercial culture. The breeding
technology discussed in the present paper may be
taken as the base material for breeding this wonderful
The authors are grateful to Indian Council of
Agricultural Research, Department of
Biotechnology, Department of Science and
Technology, Ministry of Environment and Forest,
University Grants Commission and Council of
Scientific and Industrial Research for the
infrastructure provided under various projects to
establish Centre for Aquaculture Research and
Extension at St. Xavier’s College. Thanks are also
due to Rev. Dr. A. Antonysamy , S.J., Principal of St.
Xavier’s College, Palayamkottai for providing the
necessary facilities to carry out this study.
Balon, E. K. 1985. The theory of saltatory ontogeny
and life history model revisited. In: Balon, E. K.
(ed.), Early life histroy of fishes developments in
EBF 5. ISBN90-6193-514-8. W. Junk Publ.
Dordrecht, Netherlands. pp.13-28.
Balon, E. K. 1999. Alternative ways how to become a
definitive phenotype or a juvenile (and on some
persisting linguistic offences). Environ. Biol.
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Cataudella. 1992. Embryonic and larval
development of the thick-lipped mullet (Chelon
labrosus) under controlled reproduction
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and L. G. Ross. 2002 Observations on spawning,
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and catfish H. Fossilis using Ovaprim and HCG.
Veterinaraski. Arhiv.72: 51-56.
Haniffa, M. A, M. Nagarajan, K. Marimuthu and A.
Jesu Arockiaraj. 2003. Embryonic and larval
development of spotted murrel, Channa
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fishes. copeia 4: 260.
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ornamental fishes and farming technologies,
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pp. 31, 50-60, 91.
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March, 2007 Haniffa et al.: Cyprinus carpio 99
M. A. Haniffa(1,2), P. S. Allen Benziger(1), A. Jesu Arockiaraj(1), M. Nagarajan(1) and P. Siby(1)
(收稿日期:2006 127 日;接受日期:2006 412 )
摘 要
錦鯉 (Cyprinus carpio) 人工繁殖是將成熟的雌魚以肌肉注射的方式注射一劑
ovaprim (每公斤魚體重注射 0.3 mL)。在 26-28℃的溫度下,注射六小時後即會產卵。受
精後的卵呈透明狀具黏性,直徑在 0.9 mm 1.10 mm 之間。73 小時後仔魚即會孵化,
魚苗體長 2.7-2.9 mm,身體呈透明狀,頭卵圓型,卵囊相當完整,尾巴很短。卵黃在三
天內會被吸收在這期間仔魚口部發育完全後會開始覓食20 天後仔魚可長到 10 mm
12 mm35 天後,稚魚體長 30-35 mm,此時的錦鯉除了尚未性成熟外,樣子已和成
1. Centre for Aquaculture Research and Extension (CARE), St. Xavier’s College, Palayamkottai 627 002, Tamil
Nadu, India.
2. Corresponding author. Email:;
... Ikan hias yang bisa ditemukan diberbagai tempat salah satunya ikan hias jenis Koi (Cyprinus carpio), kesuksesan budidaya ikan Koi sangat perlu diperhatikan pada saat usia larva. Saat larva berumur 3 hari setelah menetas, larva ikan Koi akan mulai mencari makan walaupun kantung kuning telurnya masih ada, sehingga saat ini cenderung dianggap sebagai periode dasar bagi larva untuk bertahan hidup (Haniffa et al., 2007). Morfogenesis larva pada hari ke-3 hampir selesai dan terus berkembang pesat. ...
... Panjang tubuh larva saat ini akan mencapai (2,5-5,8 mm) yang berhasil berenang dan mencapai ukuran mulut yang cocok untuk mencari mangsa (0,27-0,5 mm). Studi menunjukkan bahwa tingkat daya tahan larva ikan hias terbaik akan dicapai ketika larva diberi pakan alami yaitu mencapai 85-95% dibandingkan dengan pemberian pakan buatan, dimana tingkat daya tahan tubuh untuk larva ikan yang diberi pakan buatan hanya mencapai angka persentase 60% (Haniffa et al., 2007). ...
... Perbedaan suhu lingkungan di tempat yang berbeda membuat ikan menyesuaikan diri dengan berbagai macam ketahanan suhu. Kisaran temperatur yang ideal untuk keberadaan ikan Koi adalah antara 26-30˚C (Haniffa et al., 2007). Suhu ideal untuk menunjang pertumbuhan ikan hias berkisaran antara 25-27˚C (Kelabora, 2010). ...
Ikan hias yang terkenal dikalangan masyarakat umum salah satunya ialah ikan hias jenis Koi. Namun dalam proses budidaya ataupun pembesaran salah satu hal yang sering menjadi perhatian pada saat perkembangan ikan Koi adalah suhu yang dapat mempengaruhi tingkat pertumbuhan dan daya tahan tubuh serta timbulnya berbagai penyakit. Analisis ini dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui seberapa besarnya pengaruh suhu terhadap laju perkembangan dan daya tahan hidup ikan Koi. Metode rencana eksplorasi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) dengan 3 perlakuan, dimana setiap perlakuan tersebut diulang sebanyak 3 kali. Dengan perlakuan yang digunakan adalah P¹ (28?C), P² (30?C) dan P³ (32?C). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa laju perkembangan yang paling menonjol terdapat pada perlakuan P¹ dengan pertumbuhan panjang 2,9 cm dan pertambahan berat 8 g, kemudian disusul oleh P² dengan pertumbuhan panjang 1,8 cm dan pertambahan berat 5,6 g. dan perkembangan paling sedikit terdapat pada perlakuan P³ dengan pertumbuhan panjang 1,3 cm dan pertambahan berat 3,1 g. Nilai daya tahan hidup ikan Koi selama pemeliharaan di setiap perlakuan rata-rata 100%. Parameter pendukung kualitas air yang didapat adalah pH pada kisaran 6,9-8,5 dan DO berkisaran 5,27-7,76 ml/L. Perbedaan suhu secara signifikan mempengaruhi laju perkembangan dan tidak signifikan terhadap daya tahan hidup ikan Koi.
... Among ornamental fishes, koi is a tropical freshwater variant that belongs to the Cyprinidae family. Koi carp attains maturity around 200-250 g (Haniffa et al., 2007). Common carp attain maturation from 3 months in the tropics to 5 years in temperate regions (Fernández-Delgado, 1990), with males maturing earlier (Fernández-Delgado, 1990;Mc Crimmon, 1968). ...
... Hormone administration to the fishes was carried out by administering synthetic hormone, Ova VH @ 0.5 ml/kg body weight, late in the evening, maintaining a sex ratio of 1: 2 (Female: Male) to ensure higher fertilization rates (Fig. 2e). All the injected fishes are released into the spawning tank (Fig. 2f), Eichhornia (Haniffa et al., 2007), shredded happas stripes and threaded filamentous ropes were used as egg collectors (Fig. 2g). ...
... The observation can be positively correlated with the study by Sahoo et al. (2020), wherein experimental koi matured and could be induced bred after four weeks of feeding farm formulated diets. The total egg count depends on the size of brood fish, and the fertilized eggs colour are yellowish-white in common carp and koi carp (Balon, 1995;Haniffa et al., 2007). Fecundity was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in T4 (120,522 ± 11,949) than Control (C) (77,858 ± 3930) and treatments, T5 (104,194 ± 5600), T6 (109,532 ± 10,827). ...
The present study to identify the best lipid source and optimum level of incorporation in the maturation diet of koi was carried out in 2 experimental trials. The first trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of selected lipid sources viz., commercial vegetable oil, fish oil, palm oil and groundnut oil on the reproductive performance of koi. The first trial was undertaken for 105 days and fed 35% crude protein diets and 7% lipid. The lipid sources used were Fish oil (T1), Palm oil (T2) and Groundnut oil (T3) and Commercial vegetable oil as the Control (C). The reproductive performance of the First trial experimental fish was assessed by the following factors viz., Gonadosomatic Index (GSI), fecundity, fertilization rate, hatching rate, and survival rate. GSI was found to be maximum in T2 (10.4 ± 2.80%) followed by T3 (10.15 ± 2.10%) and minimum in C (9.89 ± 1.22%). Maximum fecundity was observed in T3 (61,985 ± 2388) followed by other treatment animals viz. T1 (55,160 ± 5988), T2 (52,839 ± 4636) and C (47,832 ± 1658). GSI was observed to be positively correlated with fertilization rate as observed by maximum fertilization rate (58.58 ± 2.35%) and hatching rate (50.91 ± 1.53%) in T3. Maximum survival rate was observed in T3 (9.34 ± 0.78%) followed by T1 (8.40 ± 0.64%), C (8.05 ± 0.61%) and T2 (7.97 ± 0.44%) during the one-month nursery phase. The second trial was conducted until the animals in any treatment showed signs of good maturity, which was a maximum of 60 days. The best-performed lipid source, from the first trial, i.e., groundnut oil was taken and diets formulated at different lipid levels viz., 5% (T4), 7% (T5) and 10% (T6) with commercial vegetable oil (7%) as control diet (C). From the reproductive performance of the second trial experimental fish, it could be observed that T4 diet-fed fishes have shown significantly (p < 0.05) best reproductive performance compared to other dietary treatments. Thus, it could be concluded that groundnut oil performed better than other lipid sources, and the optimal level ranged from 5%–7% with quick subsequent maturation in 45 days after one spawning.
... The findings of this study were similar to the yolk absorption period of rohu, Labeo rohita incubated at 24−31°C (Woynarovich and Horváth, 1980), silver perch, Bidyanus bidyanus (Sulaeman and Fotedar, 2017) and captive red scorpionfish, Scorpaena scorfa (Maricchiolo et al., 2016). Meanwhile other studies showed that the yolk sac is completely reabsorbed by the larvae within 2-3 DAH for hybrid lemon fin barb (Zakaria et al., 2018), Scophtalmus maximus (Cunha and Planas, 1999), Cyprinus carpio (Haniffa et al., 2007), H. malcolmi (Ogata et al., 2010), and Mystus nemurus (El Hag et al., 2012). Jafari et al. (2009) found that larval temperate carp, Rutilus frisii kutum, takes 20 days to completely reabsorbed its yolk sac. ...
... Previous studies showed the complete larval development of H. malcolmi takes between 14-30 DAH with TL of 8.5-11.5 mm (Ogata et al., 2010) while C. carpio takes 35 DAH to achieve the postlarval stage at 15−17 mm in TL (Haniffa et al., 2007). Jafari et al. (2009) reported that R. frisi kutum takes 60 DAH to complete its larval stage at 29−31 mm in total length. ...
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Hybrid Malaysian mahseer is a crossbreed between the male Malaysian mahseer, Tor tambroides and female silver barb, Barbonymus gonionotus through induced breeding. The study was carried out to observe the morpho-histological development of the F1 hybrid Malaysian mahseer larvae for the entire duration of its larval stage. Newly hatched larvae were reared in three 120 L aquaria at a stocking density of 5 larvae per liter. Larval development was observed daily from 1 to 9 DAH (day after hatching) and at 2-day intervals until 25 DAH by means of light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and histology. Newly hatched larvae had tiny body with closed mouth and simple gut formation. The hybrid larvae commenced exogenous feeding by 3 DAH using the taste buds and neuromasts to detect the presence of foods. Larval eyes were underdeveloped in early stage. They became fully functional as early as 9 DAH with larval TL and BW of 8.36 ± 0.24 mm and 4.3 ± 0.14 mg, respectively. By 7 DAH the stomach and intestinal tract were completely developed while complete tissue layers (mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa) were visible in the larval gut by 18–21 DAH indicating the end of the larval stage. The post larval stage of the hybrid Malaysian mahseer was short and completed by 21–25 DAH when the scales fully covered its body. The rapid completion of larval stages and morphological features took after the maternal brood-fish, Barbonymus gonionotus but with larger scales. These positive attributes in larval development could be of interest to the aquaculture industry.
... In present experiment, the recorded prolificacy was 7460 eggs/kg female BW. Haniffa et al. (2007) performed a study in which spawning of koi carp was induced by intra-peritoneal injections of Ovaprim at a dose of 0.3 mL/kg body weight and the spawning was noticed 6 hours after the injection, at a temperature variation range of 26-28 o C. In the present study, the spawning was noticed 12hours after fertilization, at a water temperature of 22°C. Changes in structure emphasize the thresholds between embryonic, larval and post-larval development from the onset of cleavage or epiboly, or at the time of organogenesis, respectively. ...
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The present research aims to investigate the effects of using carp pituitary extract on spawning performance parameters of koi carp. The experiment was performed during the breeding season (may, 2020). The stimulation of koi carp sexual maturation was performed by injecting the breeders with carp pituitary suspension, at a water temperature of 22 o C. A single injection with carp hypophysis, 3 mg/kg body weight (BW) for female and 2 mg/kg BW for male, was used for spawning induction, thus, resulting a successful ovulation. The eggs treatment was performed by applying 5.8 ml malachite green/100 liters of water. The following developmental stages of koi carp were observed and characterized: embryonic, hatchling, larval, post larval, fry and fingerling. The recorded prolificacy was 7460 eggs/kg female BW, considering that the koi carp female was at the 3 rd deposit during the year 2020. The hatching started 72 hours after fertilization. Results of the current study indicate the successful induction of koi carp spawning by using carp pituitary extract.
... The sex ratio followed for the breeding of koi carp was two males and one female (Haniffa et al., 2007). The fish were released into cement tanks along with nylon filaments for hiding purposes as well as holding the adhesive eggs (Haniffa & Sridhar, 2002). ...
Adult koi carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) were fed with feed supplemented with vitamin C at 200 mg/kg feed (T1), 400 mg/kg feed (T2) and 600 mg/kg feed (T3), and vitamin E at 200 mg/kg feed (T4), 400 mg/kg feed (T5) and 600 mg/kg feed (T6) at ad libitum for 60 days. Control (without vitamin inclusion) was also maintained. Observations were made on the growth performance, GSI and biochemical composition of gonads such as crude protein, crude fat, cholesterol and carotenoid once in 15 days. At the end of the experiment, fertilization was done to record the fertilization and hatching rate. The difference in the values was noticed among the male and female koi carp. Fish supplemented with vitamin E at 200 mg/kg feeexhibited higher growth in both male and female fish, and the fertilization rate and hatching rate were also higher in that group, and the values were significantly different (p < 0.05) and showed linear and quadratic trends. Inclusion of vitamin C at 600 mg/kg feed had shown higher lipid and carotenoid contents of female koi carp (p<0.05). Hence, the results revealed that supplementing vitamin C and E in the diet is necessary for the successful reproduction of koi carp.
... Koi carp is popular worldwide due to its hardy nature and adaptation to different environment and water conditions. The first maturity of koi carp reported at the average weight of 200-250 g (Haniffa et al., 2007). Best suited temperature range for koi carp growth and reproduction is 26-28 o C. The broodstock development of koi carp requires separate rearing of male-female with proteinases feed (30-35% protein feed twice a day). ...
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Cyprinus carpio commonly referred as Koi carp is one of the most traded fish in the ornamental aquaculture industry. The study describes the effect of different tank colour on growth and survival of koi carp spawn to fry by rearing them in different coloured tank at stocking density of 3 numbers/litre for 45 days. The initial weight and length of spawn was 3.68 ± 0.012 mg and 7.23 ± 0.163 mm respectively. Adlibitum feeding was done with commercial feed (powder) and live food twice daily. The highest mean length and weight after 45 days of rearing were recorded in green colour tank whereas lowest in red colour tank. The SGR was however lowest in orange colour tank. It may be due to the lowest stress level and better vision for feed intake in green colour tank as compared to others. This study concludes that the green is the best suitable colour for tanks use for koi carp larval rearing.
... It is very noticeably limitation for fish seeds production, because local vegetation season (water temperature 18 o C and higher) lasts only 5.5 -6 months (April -October). In Uzbekistan, common carp embryonic development lasts longer than in tropical climate, but faster than in other zones with temperate climate (Makeeva, 1992;Haniffa et al., 2007, Khanom et al., 2018. ...
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Embryonic development of cultured form of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) was studied; objects were introduced to Uzbekistan (Central Asia) in the early 1960s. More than 10 generation changes were taken place in local conditions. Artificial reproduction by using gonadotropic stimulation of ripening and eggs incubation is main method to provide reproduction of the species in the country. Embryonic development passed normally. A larva hatching occurs 3 days after fertilization for common carp and 32 hours for silver carp at water temperature 22-23 o C, transition to exogenous feeding-7 days for common carp and 5 days after fertilization for silver carp.
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FA161, an 8-page illustrated fact sheet by Roy P. E. Yanong, Carlos Martinez, and Craig A. Watson, explains for ornamental fish producers the mode of action and considerations for the use of ovaprim, a hormone product used as a spawning aid. Includes references. Published by the UF Program in Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, December 2009. FA161/FA161: Use of Ovaprim in Ornamental Fish Aquaculture (
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Koi carp {Cyprinus carpio rubrofoscus (Linnaeus, 1758)} is a brightly coloured fish native to Asia and Europe. They are called living jewels and swimming flowers for their physical beauty. A detailed study was conducted emphasizing, the induced breeding techniques, breeding behavior and early life history of Koi carp (embryonic and larval stages) including nursery rearing etc. at National Freshwater Fish Brood Bank (20.18'.2" N 85.50'.59"E), Kausalyaganga, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. The fertilized eggs of Koi carp were found to be adhesive, demersal and spherical in nature. The diameter of the fertilized egg capsule ranged between 0.8 to1.0 mm while the yolk sphere ranged from 0.6 to 0.8 mm. The hatchlings ranged between 2.0 and 2.5 mm in length. A female weighing one kilogram will give approximate 23,985 nos of spawn in the happa breeding method. The survival of spawn in the nursery rearing was varying between 27% to 32% and the size also varies between 35 mm to 42 mm. The fry growth varies from 61-80 mm and the survival from fry to fingerling was varying from 57-62%. The successful induced breeding of Koi fish may reduce the uncertainty and unavailability of fish seed/fry, may increase the large scale production for export purpose and may be a potential sector for meeting the national demand and help to increase foreign exchange earnings. The present study will certainly paves the way for the start-ups to take up commercial production and marketing of Koi carp in the days to come.
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Induced breeding experiments of spotted murrel, Channa punctatus (Bloch) were conducted in mature males and females by administrating a single intramuscu-lar injection of ovaprim at a dosage of 0.3ml/Kg body weight. Spawning was observed 23-24 hrs after the injection at ambient temperature and the fertilized eggs were buoyant, non-adhesive, and straw yellow in colour with diameter ranging between 0.9mm and1.10 mm. Incubation period was 24-25 hrs. The hatchlings were transparent and measured 2.7-2.9mm, with a large oval head, a well-defined yolk sac and short tail and the larvae attained free normal move-ment when 36 hrs old. The yolk got fully absorbed within 3 days and by this time mouth formation was complete and the larvae started feeding. The post larvae were observed to start aerial respiration on 17 th day. After 20 days the length of fry ranged between 7.5 and 7.8mm and resembled the adult in its external features. Length of the fingerlings ranged from 18.3-21.0mm after 35 days and appeared just like an adult in all respects except sexual maturity.
Induced spawning of the spotted murrel (Channa punctatus) and catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) was successfully carried out using ovaprim and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Breeders were administered a single intramuscular injection of the hormones at varying dosages. Fecundity in C. punctatus was 3273 ± 75 for ovaprim and 1253 ± 126 for HCG, whereas in H. fossilis it was 6692 ± 790 for ovaprim and 82922 ± 5432 for HCG. Successful spawning of C. punctatus was observed at 0.3 and 0.5 ml/kg body mass for ovaprim and at 2000 and 3000 IU/kg body mass for HCG. For H. fossilis successful spawning was observed at 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 ml/kg body mass for ovaprim and 1000, 2000, and 3000 IU/kg body mass for HCG.
Larvae from artificially bred grey mullet were reared in the laboratory and survival rates of 0.2 %, 5 % and 5 % achieved in three of six trials. Food consisted of wild zooplankton and Anemia nauplii. Feeding began on the fifth day, when the yolk sac was depleted, and intensified on the ninth day. The rate of yolk absorption and feeding intensity were reflected in the growth curve. Larval survival was not affected by withholding food from the larvae till the seventh day from hatching. Two critical periods associated with high larval mortality were apparent on the 2nd–3rd and 8th–11th days after hatching. These were preceded by an increase in specific gravity of larvae followed by passive sinking to the bottom of the rearing tank. Larval length increased from 2.63 mm at hatching to 17.69 mm at the end of the 42-day larval period. The larvae survived on benthic diatoms therefter. Maximum survival rates were achieved at 22°C. (Oceanic Institute Contribution No. 101).
Zingel streber eggs contained a relatively large yolk (1·63–1·83 mm diameter after activation) and were strongly adhesive. The egg envelope was thick and not transparent. Embryos hatched very late–from 14 to 19 days after activation. Embryonic development was long (23 days at mean water temperature 14·3°C). The circulatory system appeared early, being characterized by a complex anastomosing vitelline system and by well-developed segmental vessels. This suggests that Z. streber embryos can exploit available oxygen sources very efficiently, unlike Gymnocephalus spp. whose respiration efficiency does not increase dramatically until the first larval step. Skeletal development is also described and discussed. High investment into the quality of sexual products, relatively fast development of sense organs and swimming abilities, way of spawning, long embryonic period, short duration of two vulnerable steps, and early development of spiny structures on the head provide the embryos and larvae with relatively efficient protection against predators. On the other hand, low fecundity together with highly specialized habitat requirements make Z. streber a vulnerable species that is very sensitive to perturbations in its environment.
The grey mullet (Mugil cephalus Linnaeus) is widely distributed in the temperate and tropical zones of the world. It is fairly resistant to low temperature and is an omnivorous fish. In addition, it is euryhalic and can be stocked in both brackish and freshwater ponds. Therefore, the grey inullet is expected to play a very important role in future productivity as a result of efficient utilization of water area.The grey mullet is one of the commercially important fishes in Taiwan. Every year, 700 000 to 1 000 000 mullets are caught from the coastal waters of the central and south coast of western Taiwan in the season from December through February. Dried mullet roe is a gourmet food of very high price. Mullet fingerlings are collected from the estuarine waters along the west coast during the period from December through March, but there are unpredictable fluctuations in occurrence and abundance of the natural fingerlings. To ensure an adequate source of supply of fingerlings for culture operations, experiments on artificial propagation were gegun at Sanwei, Kaohsiung, in 1963, but were discontinued in the year 1967. From 1968 on, the experiments were carried out in the Tungkang Marine Laboratory. So far the experiments have been carried out for a total of 9 years.Experimental results, such as initial success of induced spawning in 1963, record of two fingerlings reared to stocking size in 1968, production of 21 688 fingerlings in 1973 when preliminary techniques of mass propagation were established, and unsolved problems, are summarized in this paper.
Lack of knowledge of early and juvenile development often makes it difficult to decide when a fish becomes a juvenile or, for that matter, a definitive phenotype. According to the established life-history model, a fish develops naturally in a saltatory manner, its entire life consisting of a sequence of stabilized self-organizing steps, separated by distinct less stabilized thresholds. Changes are usually introduced during thresholds. In principle, there are two ways to reach the juvenile period: by indirect or by direct development. Indirectly developing fishes have a distinct larva period that ends in a cataclysmic or mild remodeling process, called metamorphosis, from which the fishes emerge as juveniles. During metamorphosis, most temporary organs and structures of the embryos and larvae are replaced by definitive organs and structures that are also possessed by the adults. In contrast, directly developing fishes have no larvae. Their embryos develop directly into juveniles and do not need major remodeling. Consequently, the beginning of their juvenile period is morphologically and functionally less distinct than in indirect development. The life-history model helps to find criteria that identify the natural boundaries between the different periods in the life of a fish, among them, the beginning of the juvenile period. Looking at it from a different angle, when ontogeny progresses from small eggs with little yolk, larvae are required as the necessary providers of additional nutrients (feeding entities similar to amphibian tadpoles or butterfly caterpillars) in order to accumulate materials for the metamorphosis into the definitive phenotypes. Directly developing fishes start with large demersal eggs provided with an adequate volume of high density yolk and so require no or little external nutrients to develop into the definitive phenotype. These large eggs are released and develop in concentrated clutches. It therefore becomes possible and highly effective to guard them in nests or bear them in external pouches, gill chambers or the buccal cavity. Viviparity is the next natural step. Now the maternal investment into large yolks can be supplemented or replaced by direct food supply to the developing embryos like, for example, the secretion of uterine histotrophe or nutrient transfer via placental analogues. When the young of guarders and bearers start exogenous feeding, they are much larger or better developed than larvae of nonguarders and the larva period in the former is reduced to a vestige or eliminated entirely. In the latter case, the juvenile period begins with the first exogenous feeding. Such precocial fishes are more specialized and able to survive better in competitive environments. In contrast, altricial forms retain or revert to a life-history style with indirect development and high fecundity when dispersal is advantageous or essential. Fishes become juveniles when the definitive phenotype is formed in most structures, either indirectly from a larva via metamorphosis or directly from the embryo.
This paper describes the embryonic and larval developmental stages of Chelon labrosus, a prominent species among the Mugilidae, a family of high interest in the ecological management of coastal extensive aquaculture systems. Its high commercial value makes it the most important mullet in the Italian northern Adriatic “vallicoltura”. The success of induced reproduction techniques enabled us to describe its developmental stages, which were recorded by camera lucida drawings and presented as developmental tables. Histological and scanning electron microscopy observations were also carried out. Development may be divided into four periods: embryonic, pre-larval, larval and juvenile, each one characterized by typical anatomical and physiological features. At hatching, C. labrosus larvae are rather underdeveloped, in comparison with other marine farmed species, but the sense organs develop rapidly as well as the mouth. At 12 days the larva already has a juvenile head on a larval body. The juvenile stage is reached precociously, at 60 days, so that C. labrosus had a high performance in the rearing trials which were carried out.
Xavier's College, Palayamkottai 627 002, India *For correspondence. e-mail: haniffacare@hotmail
  • St
St. Xavier's College, Palayamkottai 627 002, India *For correspondence. e-mail:
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