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Two Sides of the Same Coin? The Legal and Illegal Trade in Small Arms

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... Arms transfer regulations can be complex, and can be broken inadvertently by exporting companies. Even if they are involved in breaking national laws, military or intelligence personnel involved in state-sanctioned trafficking may not be prosecuted if doing so is not in the national interest (Marsh 2002). National laws and regulations may be unclear or non-existent in contexts of state collapse or where there is contested sovereignty between different sides involved in civil wars. ...
... 3 There is some blurring in the line between civilian and military weapons, particularly with some types of firearms that are not designed for fully automatic fire which may be used by both military forces and civilians (e.g., pistols and sniper rifles). 4 This categorization builds upon Haug (2001) and Marsh (2002). 5 This trade is elsewhere known as the 'grey market' (Marsh 2002). ...
... 4 This categorization builds upon Haug (2001) and Marsh (2002). 5 This trade is elsewhere known as the 'grey market' (Marsh 2002). 6 This form of trade is elsewhere known as 'covert arms supplies.' ...
Book
The Routledge Handbook of Smuggling offers a comprehensive survey of interdisciplinary research related to smuggling, reflecting on key themes, and charting current and future trends. Divided into six parts and spanning over 30 chapters, the volume covers themes such as mobility, borders, violent conflict, and state politics, as well as looks at the smuggling of specific goods – from rice and gasoline to wildlife, weapons, and cocaine. Chapters engage with some of the most contentious academic and policy debates of the twenty-first century, including the historical creation of borders, re-bordering, the criminalisation of migration, and the politics of selective toleration of smuggling. As it maps a field that contains unique methodological, ethical, and risk-related challenges, the book takes stock not only of the state of our shared knowledge, but also reflects on how this has been produced, pointing to blind spots and providing an informed vision of the future of the field. Bringing together established and emerging scholars from around the world, The Routledge Handbook of Smuggling is an indispensable resource for students and researchers of conflict studies, borderland studies, criminology, political science, global development, anthropology, sociology, and geography.
... Black market merupakan transfer senjata ilegal yang dilakukan oleh perorangan, organisasi kriminal, atau aktor non-negara seperti kelompok pemberontak dan dianggap ilegal berdasarkan hukum nasional atau internasional (Nicholas Marsh, 2002). Senjata yang diekspor akan digunakan dalam tindakan kejahatan kemanusiaan seperti genosida, konflik bersenjata, pelanggaran hak asasi manusia, atau kejahatan terorganisir (Marsh, 2002). ...
... Black market merupakan transfer senjata ilegal yang dilakukan oleh perorangan, organisasi kriminal, atau aktor non-negara seperti kelompok pemberontak dan dianggap ilegal berdasarkan hukum nasional atau internasional (Nicholas Marsh, 2002). Senjata yang diekspor akan digunakan dalam tindakan kejahatan kemanusiaan seperti genosida, konflik bersenjata, pelanggaran hak asasi manusia, atau kejahatan terorganisir (Marsh, 2002). Sedangkan gray market, dalam transaksinya terdapat suatu persetujuan dari pemerintah untuk melakukan transaksi senjata berdasarkan informasi yang salah (Small Arms and Human Rights: The Need for Global Action, 2003). ...
... Kegiatan transfer senjata yang legal dapat dialihkan menjadi kegiatan transfer senjata secara ilegal dengan beberapa cara, seperti: melanggar sistem lisensi ekspor, seperti memberikan sertifikat pengguna senjata yang dipalsukan; melakukan pencurian dari gudang senjata militer, yang sering dilakukan oleh personel militer untuk keuntungan finansial; melakukan pembelian dari toko senjata resmi oleh warga sipil yang kemudian dijual kembali ke lembaga lain (Marsh, 2002). Dalam penelitian ini alasan Iran memblokir sebuah konsensus dalam sidang Arms Trade Treaty yang diselenggarakan tahun 2013, karena isi dari proposal dalam sidang perjanjian tersebut bertentangan dengan kepentingan Iran. ...
... As regards the revenues generated by ITF, estimates are calculated on the assumption that their share corresponds to between 10% and 20% of the licit market (Cukier 2008;Marsh 2002;UNODC 2010). At global level, the estimate produced by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in 2010 is the one most commonly cited. ...
... From a legal perspective, the "grey market" can be defined as those transactions that are carried out through legal means, but the individuals involved in the transactions exploit legal loopholes or elude laws and policies that are intended to control the arms trade. This is facilitated by the fact that arms sales by governments do not generally require an export licence (Marsh 2002). "Grey" arms transfers are authorised by governments. ...
... "Grey" arms transfers are authorised by governments. The actors involved in the trade, however, are aware that they run the risk of breaching both international and national laws because they divert arms from legal to illicit channels and recipients (Glatz and Lumpe 2007 Studies have shown that the "grey area" in the international arms trade is considerably larger than the black market, and thus poses a greater threat to international peace and security (Marsh 2002;Peterson 2012). Arms transfers within the "grey area" often involve SALW, and given the opacity of the market, they are very hard to track. ...
... 8 The distinction between licit and illicit SALW is often blurred. The current framework does not sufficiently address the fact that SALW almost always originate in legal possession before being diverted to illicit possession, hence controlling illicit SALW requires control of legal SALW as well (see Garcia 2011, 49;Marsh 2002;Small Arms Survey 2002;Stavrianakis 2011). Similarly, the focal role of states in legal SALW regulation has limited the reach of international regulations in the critical areas of state-to-state transfers and civilian firearms possession. ...
... "Light weapons" are designed for use by two or three persons, such as heavy machine guns, hand-held and mounted grenade launchers, portable antiaircraft and anti-tank guns and rocket systems, recoilless rifles, and mortars (UNGA 2005, II). 2. There is a long list of scholarly work that has identified uncontrolled SALW proliferation as a global security threat, and/or control of SALW proliferation as a global security initiative. See, for example, Atwood (2006), Bourne (2011), Bromley andGriffiths (2010), Cooper (2011), Cooper andMutimer (2011), Garcia (2006), Efrat (2010), Garcia (2006;2009;), Hughes (2004, Kartchner (1996), Krause (1999;2011), Schroeder andLamb (2006), Laurence and Stohl (2002), Lock (1999), Marsh (2002), Rotfeld (2001), and Wallacher and da Silva (2008). 3. ...
Article
This article examines the potential of the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) to strengthen international control over global small arms and light weapons (SALW) proliferation. Research was based primarily on existing scholarly work on SALW control, the ATT, and arms control generally, as well as on observations of the third and fourth sessions of the ATT Preparatory Committee. The first section of this article analyzes the value of the ATT to strengthen international SALW control, looking at the development of SALW control as a global security initiative, the existing system of SALW control, its weaknesses, and how the ATT could strengthen it. The second section examines the challenges and opportunities that face the ATT with respect to negotiations, implementation, monitoring and verification, and compliance. The article argues that the ATT, while not a perfect instrument of SALW control, presents significant opportunities to increase transparency and promote a "responsible arms trade," thereby reducing the negative effects of SALW proliferation on human suffering, peace, security, and sustainable development. Moreover, the partnership that has developed between small-and medium-power states and civil society can help to address the challenges that the ATT faces from weak state capacities and control-averse states.
... Or in other cases, perhaps weapons and/or materiel which are not permitted for sale on the international arms market are discovered being traded by brokers. In other words, arms brokers are believed to not only play an important role in the licit arms market, but are also thought to play a crucial role in transferring arms from the licit to the illicit arms market and are also suspected of aiding governments with their covert or 'grey' arms transfers 8 . ...
... Outside the regional systems established in Europe and Africa and United Nations Security Council (UNSC) arms embargoes, regulation of interstate SALWs" transfer is also weak. At international level, it is believed that weighty areas of small arms control are been ignored, some of the so-called powerful states especially the United States obstinately in the 2001 Small Arms Conference, vehemently worked against the implementation of the agreement on the regulation of civilian firearms and the ban of transfer of SALWs to non-state actors (Marsh, 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
Fundamental to the independence of a state is the functionality of its border control. Within the internal and external environment of the West African sub-region are the Transnational Syndicates whose activities threaten the region‟s security sustainability. Using mixed method approach, this paper explores the impact of small arms proliferation on West African regional security. The paper also highlights some of the structural factors that make proliferation possible, compounding security challenges in the region. It also attempts to assess the effort of the regional body (ECOWAS) in combating the threat and concludes that reviewing of obsolete laws regulating the proliferation of SALWs, training and strengthening the law enforcement agencies along borders and knowledge based joint cross-border research programmes that would accentuate informed security policies would be the antidote. Keywords: Independence, Securitization, Sustainability, Africa, Policy
Article
Full-text available
End of the Cold War had contributed to the plentitude of firearms within the Southeast Asia region which led to the increase of small arms and light weapon (SALW) smuggling activity. For decades till today, most countries in this region continue to face internal armed conflicts. Malaysia strategic location, situated at the world’s busiest sea lane trades had resulted in rampant cross border crime of SALW smuggling activities. Malaysia’s strict firearms law disallows the possession of SALW without a license. In spite of such strict SALW legislations, these smugglings continues. What are the factors that contribute to the increase of SALW smuggling into Malaysia? The main objective of this article is to scrutinise the external factors that promote the increase of SALW smuggling into Malaysia. This study employs a qualitative method with primary data obtained through preliminary and formal interviews with Malaysian and Thailand security agencies, crime desk journalist, non-governmental organizations, smugglers, former separatist member, former Thai residents, informers and prisoners of SALW related. Whilst secondary data was acquired via credible research. The study found that the national factors and non-national factors have influenced the increase of SALW smuggling into Malaysia.
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https://www.routledge.com/Gun-Studies-Interdisciplinary-Approaches-to-Politics-Policy-and-Practice/Carlson-Shapira-Goss/p/book/9781138904262
Article
Kurzfassung Der Artikel setzt sich mit der Rolle der Bundesrepublik im internationalen Handel mit konventionellen Waffen auseinander. Dabei werden drei immer wieder zu vernehmende Behauptungen anhand der vorhandenen statistischen Daten und wissenschaftlichen Analysen überprüft: (1) Deutschland sei drittgrößter Exporteur von Waffen und Rüstungsgütern; (2) Deutschland sei weltweit der zweitgrößte Exporteur von Kleinwaffen; und (3) deutsche Rüstungsexporte würden zur Entstehung, zur Eskalation und Verlängerung von Kriegen sowie zu Rüstungswettläufen beitragen. Der Beitrag gelangt zu dem Ergebnis, dass keine dieser Behauptungen einer kritischen Prüfung standhält. Bedauerlich ist nur, wie sehr falsche Behauptungen und Unterstellungen selbst von seriösen Medien übernommen werden und in den politischen Diskurs eingehen.
Gunsmoke and mirrors: financing the illegal trade Running Guns: the global black market in small arms, op. cit: 158. 22. See
  • Rt Naylor
RT Naylor, " Gunsmoke and mirrors: financing the illegal trade, " Running Guns: the global black market in small arms, op. cit: 158. 22. See " Illicit Transfers " op. cit: 167. 23. Report of the Disarmament Commission, United Nations A/51/42, 1996, available at <http:// www.un.org/Depts/dda/CAB/rep5142.pdf>.
Government Gun-Running to Guerillas " in Running Guns: the global black market in small arms, op. cit. and Michael Klare and David Anderson A scourge of guns: The diffusion of small arms and light weapons in Latin America, Federation of American Scientists/ Arms Sales Monitoring Project
  • Lora Lumpe
  • Lucy Mathiak
Lora Lumpe and Lucy Mathiak, " Government Gun-Running to Guerillas " in Running Guns: the global black market in small arms, op. cit. and Michael Klare and David Anderson A scourge of guns: The diffusion of small arms and light weapons in Latin America, Federation of American Scientists/ Arms Sales Monitoring Project, Washington, 1996.
Information from "Government Gun-Running to Guerillas
  • Mohammad Yousaf
  • Mark Adkin
Mohammad Yousaf and Mark Adkin, The Bear Trap Afghanistan's Untold Story, Afghan Books, available online in full at <http://www.afghanbooks.com/index1.htm>. 27. Information from "Government Gun-Running to Guerillas" op. cit: 67.
Cited in A scourge of guns The diffusion of small arms and light weapons in Latin America op
  • John Ross
John Ross, Rebellion from the Roots: Indian Uprising in Chiapas, Common Courage Press, Monroe, 1995. Cited in A scourge of guns The diffusion of small arms and light weapons in Latin America op. cit: 62.
List of Sanctions Regimes & Arms Embargoes Export Control Organisation
  • See
See " List of Sanctions Regimes & Arms Embargoes, " Export Control Organisation, at <http:/ /files.fco.gov.uk/und/sanctions/list.pdf>.
Arms and Ethnic Conflict
  • John Sislin
  • Fredrik Pearson
John Sislin and Fredrik Pearson, Arms and Ethnic Conflict, Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham, 2001: 40.
Countries" should not be used synonymously with 'states' as the database registers exports to politically autonomous regions that fall short of statehood (such as Greenland). Information from the NISAT online database of small arms transfers
  • See
See "Legal Transfers" Small Arms Survey 2001, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2001: 145 for a commentary on the various estimates. Also see Small Arms And Light Weapons: General Facts produced by the Small Arms Working Group available at <http://fas.org/asmp/campaigns/ smallarms/sawg/facts.htm>. 3. "Legal Transfers" op. cit. 4. "Countries" should not be used synonymously with 'states' as the database registers exports to politically autonomous regions that fall short of statehood (such as Greenland). Information from the NISAT online database of small arms transfers, regulations and production, available at <www.nisat.org>.
Running Guns: the global black market in small arms, Zed Books, London, 2000. 14. Finland and Sweden being notable examples. There have also been several unsuccessful attempts to introduce such legislation into the U.S. See NISAT online database op. cit. 15. NISAT online database op
See "The UN Firearms Protocol addressing the trafficking problem," IISS Strategic Comments Volume 7 Issue 6, July 2001 available at <http://www.iiss.org/mem/full/sc/01/sc0706un.pdf> for more commentary on the protocol. 13. "Whats legal? Whats illegal?" by Emanuela-Chira Gillard in Lumpe ed. Lumpe ed. Running Guns: the global black market in small arms, Zed Books, London, 2000. 14. Finland and Sweden being notable examples. There have also been several unsuccessful attempts to introduce such legislation into the U.S. See NISAT online database op. cit. 15. NISAT online database op. cit. 16. They are Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Slovenia.
Shining a light on Small Arms Transfers the record of state transparency
  • Langvandslien Haug
Haug, Langvandslien, Lumpe, and Marsh, Shining a light on Small Arms Transfers the record of state transparency, Small Arms Survey Occasional Paper 4, 2002.
Running Guns: the global black market in small arms
  • Rt Naylor
RT Naylor, "Gunsmoke and mirrors: financing the illegal trade," Running Guns: the global black market in small arms, op. cit: 158.