Development of negative skin friction on driven piles in soft Bangkok clay

Canadian Geotechnical Journal (Impact Factor: 1.33). 01/2011; 29(3):393-404. DOI: 10.1139/t92-044


This paper describes the results of short-term pullout tests and long-term full-scale measurements of negative skin friction on driven piles in Bangkok subsoils. Two instrumented cylindrical (hollow) prestressed concrete piles were fully equipped with two independent load-measurement systems, load cells, and telltale rods. Pore pressures and ground movements in the vicinity of the piles were monitored throughout the period of investigation. The effect of bitumen coating on negative skin friction was also studied. The long-term behaviour of driven piles was compared with the estimated values obtained from short-term pullout tests and soil strength data. It was found that the negative skin friction can be predicted well by the effective stress approach using values of β between 0.1 and 0.2. The load–settlement and load–transfer behaviour were numerically modelled to acquire a more comprehensive understanding of negative skin friction developed on driven piles. A settlement-controlled concept is also introduced for piles subjected to negative skin friction, on the basis of these findings. Key words : consolidation, downdrag, driven pile, embankment, finite elements, pore pressures, pullout, settlements, soft clay.

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    • "Consequently, downward movements of a consolidating soil relative to an embedded pile develop to negative skin friction (NSF), accumulating to downdrag and dragload (Bjerrum et al. 1969; Endo et al. 1969; Fellenius 2006). Several methods for the prediction of NSF in single piles employ a two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) elastic– plastic continuum model using finite element procedures for the soil and pile in a coupled analysis (Indraratna et al. 1992; Jeong et al. 1997; Comodromos and Bareka 2005). Alonso et al. (1984) used the load-transfer method to predict the NSF on single piles in an uncoupled analysis with the classical Terzaghi (1943) assumptions of one-dimensional (1D) consolidation theory and an elastoplastic and bilinear load-transfer function for the soil–pile interface. "
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    ABSTRACT: The development of negative skin friction (NSF) on single piles is investigated based on an uncoupled method of analysis with the Mikasa (1963), generalized nonlinear consolidation theory in terms of finite strain and the nonlinear load-transfer method. Predicted results are compared with results based on the conventional linear consolidation theory with infinitesimal strains. It is found that predicted development of dragload using the conventional consolidation theory is slightly greater and conservative compared to that using the nonlinear consolidation theory based on effective stress (β method). Effective stress predictions using the conventional theory are larger due to the faster dissipation of excess pore pressures, with the assumption of constant coefficient of consolidation and permeability. However, since the relative displacements required to mobilize the ultimate skin friction are small, and piles are usually installed near the final stages of soil consolidation, the differences in the predictions for the development of dragload on piles between the two consolidation theories are overshadowed. Using the uncoupled model for pile NSF, it is therefore found that the most significant factor for the estimation of dragload and downdrag is the proper selection of the β value rather than the consolidation theory used.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Canadian Geotechnical Journal
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    • "Negative skin friction: Two full-scale tension piles were instrumented and initially driven in short lengths and then gradually extended in length (Indraratna et al., 1992; Phamvan, 1990). One pile was bitumen coated and the other pile was not. "
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    ABSTRACT: As a necessity to support an increasing magnitude of loads from tall buildings and long span bridges, the piling practice in the Bangkok Plain has moved several phases from driven pre-cast reinforced and prestressed concrete piles of smaller cross sections to spun piles and large diameter bored piles. The Chao Phraya plain in which the Bangkok city is located is low-lying and consists of a broad basin filled with sedimentary soils which form alternate layers of clay, sand, and clay. The upper clay layer is soft and highly compressible followed by a stiff clay layer extending to about 20 m or so and then followed by a layer of sand. Driven piles are normally taken down to this upper sand layer. However when the demand for a higher capacity arise, these piles cannot be extended in length due to construction problems and as such bored piles are needed to be taken down to as deep as 50 to 60 m. Below the upper clay layer there are eight interconnected aquifers from which ground water is pumped from deep wells. Thus in the design of piled foundations aspects such as the negative skin friction due to pile driving as well as deep well pumping are also needed to be considered. Some of the experiences gained over a period of 30 years in the study of piled foundations in the Bangkok Plain are briefly presented in this paper. Yes Yes
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2004
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents finite element analyses of negative skin friction on a single pile under various conditions. Negative skin friction is a common problem if a pile is designed in a highly compressible soil. There are two most important parameters in estimating the load caused by negative skin friction: (1) the distribution and magnitude of skin friction and (2) the location of the neutral plane. The neutral plane is the location where the pile and soil settle the same amount or have no relative displacement. Negative skin friction is a very complex phenomenon influenced by many factors. In this paper, a two-dimensional axisymmetric model is built in the finite element program, ABAQUS. The model is first verified with a known case history. A systematic parametric analysis is performed to investigate the influence on both the neutral plane and the magnitude and distribution of negative skin friction along the pile length of various influencing factors, including the consolidation time, the properties of pile/soil interface, the lateral earth pressure coefficient, pile-soil limiting displacement, the intensity of surcharge, and soil stiffness. Based on the analyses, it is found that the location of the neutral plane is significantly influenced by the consolidation time and the stiffness of bearing layer. The distribution and magnitude of negative skin friction is influenced mainly by the pile/soil interface, soil compressibility, and the surcharge intensity. Based on the field measurements from literature and this investigation, a simple design procedure is proposed for estimating the pile load caused by negative skin friction.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Acta Geotechnica
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