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Effects of cinnamic acid on polyphenol production in Plantago lanceolata



Ribwort (Plantago lanceolata) contains two main caffeic acid glycoside esters, plantamoside and verbascoside. These two polyphenols were investigated in the aerial and underground parts of in vitro cultured ribworts. For the first time, it is reported that, whatever the age of this plant, plantamoside and verbascoside are concentrated in the roots with plantamoside levels double those of verbascoside. When P. lanceolata was transferred into a medium containing 10−3 M (E)-cinnamic acid, this chemical stress induced a slow degeneration of the initial roots. These were superseded by neoroots whose morphology was atypical during the first eight days following their appearance. In the initial roots, (E)-cinnamic acid induced a temporary appearance of two cinnamic acid derivatives (NCD), but did not change the plantamoside and verbascoside levels. In the neoroots, high NCD levels were detected for only eight days. After the large decrease of these NCD, plantamoside and verbascoside appeared and increased. These NCDs have been identified as glucoside esters of ferulic and p-coumaric acids. These two compounds, which are absent from the traditional chemical profile of ribwort, probably arose from a (E)-cinnamic acid detoxification pathway.
PII: SOO31-9422(98)0021M
Phyochemrsrry, Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 697-702, 1998
6” 1998
Elsev~~ Science Ltd. All rnghts reserved
Printed in Great Britain
003l-9422/98/~see front matter
TLaboratoire de Botanique, Phytochimie et Mycologic, Facultt de Pharmacie, 15 Avenue C. Flahault 34060
Montpellier, Cedex 2 France and SLaboratoire de Chimie Therapeutique, Facultt de Pharmacie, 31 Avenue Monge 37200
Tours, Cedex France
in revised form 4 March 1998)
Key Word Index-Plantago
in vitro
culture; roots; caffeic acid
glycoside esters; plantamoside; verbascoside; (E)-cinnamic acid.
(Plantago lanceolata)
contains two main caffeic acid glycoside esters, plantamoside and
verbascoside. These two polyphenols were investigated in the aerial and underground parts of
in vitro
ribworts. For the first time, it is reported that, whatever the age of this plant, plantamoside and verbascoside
are concentrated in the roots with plantamoside levels double those of verbascoside. When
P. lanceolata
transferred into a medium containing lop3 M (E)-cinnamic acid, this chemical stress induced a slow degener-
ation of the initial roots. These were superseded by neoroots whose morphology was atypical during the first
eight days following their appearance. In the initial roots, (E)-cinnamic acid induced a temporary appearance
of two cinnamic acid derivatives (NCD), but did not change the plantamoside and verbascoside levels. In the
neoroots, high NCD levels were detected for only eight days. After the large decrease of these NCD, plan-
tamoside and verbascoside appeared and increased. These NCDs have been identified as glucoside esters of
ferulic and p-coumaric acids. These two compounds, which are absent from the traditional chemical profile of
ribwort, probably arose from a (E)-cinnamic acid detoxification pathway. 0 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All
rights reserved
In folk medicine, the aerial parts of
Plantago lan-
are used as an anti-inflammatory, anti-
bacterial, healing, diuretic and anti-asthmatic remedy
without toxicity [l-5]. For this reason, many authors
have studied the chemical composition of
P. lan-
leaves and isolated several active components
that could explain the numerous folk uses of this plant.
P. lanceolata
contains iridoids (catalpol, aucubin,
asperuloside) with laxative and diuretic activities [&
lo] and flavonoids (apigenin 7-O-glucoside, scu-
tellarein) that are anti-inflammatory [9-l 11. Caffeic
acid glycoside esters (CGEs), i.e. plantamoside
(=plantamajoside) and verbascoside, as well as the
minor lavandulifolioside, and isoverbascoside
12, 131
have antibacterial
14, 151, antifungal [16,17], antiviral
[18] and antioxidant [17, 19-211 activities and are
selective inhibitors of aldose reductase [17, 221, 5-
lipoxygenase [18] and protein kinase C [23, 241.
culture has never been used to modify
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed
the CGE profile of
P. lanceolata.
Therefore, in this
study, the time course of verbascoside and plan-
tamoside content was observed in the leaves and roots
in vitro
P. lanceolata.
In order to obtain
new pharmacologically active compounds, this plant
was cultured in a medium containing (E)-cinnamic
acid which has been shown to be integrated into the
polyphenol pathway [25, 261. Plantamoside and ver-
bascoside contents were then investigated. The tem-
porary changes in the
P. lanceolata
chemical profile
are reported and discussed below.
Time course
plantamoside and verbascoside contents
in the normal plant
Dried aerial and underground parts of
were investigated for caffeic acid derivatives using
TLC, every eight days from day 21 to day 70. Quan-
titative evaluation of plantamoside (P) and ver-
bascoside (V) was carried out using HPLC.
Whatever the age of the plants, the quantities of P
in the leaves were negligible (Fig. I), never exceeding
698 F.
FONS et 01.
Fig. 1. Time course of P and V contents
in the roots and leaves of
Plantugo ianceolata.
4.04mgg- dry weight. The levels of V were higher
than those of P and oscillated around an average value
of 8.71 mgg- dry weight from day 21 to day 70. P
content in the roots (Fig. 1) was always higher than V
content and the two curves fluctuated in the same way,
although the variations of the first component were
more marked. P and V levels reached a first maximum
around day 30 (43.9f2.5 and 32.3f2.2mggp dry
weight, respectively) and a second at day 56
(57.0 f 25.3 and 25.4 f 1.5 mg gg
dry weight, respec-
tively). In general, levels oscillated around average
values of 42.9 and 22.6mgg- dry weight, respec-
tively. Cumulated P and V content was always low in
the leaves (average value, 9.74mgg- dry weight). On
the other hand, cumulated P and V content in the
roots was age-dependent and much higher than in the
leaves (30.9 f 2.4 to 82.5 f 26.7 mg gg
dry weight on
day 42 and day 70 respectively, average value
58.0mgg- dry weight).
From day 21 until the end of the experiment (day
71) the average ratio P (roots)/P (leaves + roots) was
close to 0.93 (Fig. 2) which confirmed that P was
heavily stocked in the roots and that only very small
amounts are found in the aerial parts. The average
ratio V (roots)/V (leaves + roots) was 0.73 and showed
that the level of V in the roots was always higher than
in the leaves, although the values were more dispersed
than the P values, oscillating between 0.55 and 0.90
from day 2 1 to day 7 1. All these results indicate that
P is the major CGE in the roots of ribwort and they
highlight the importance of P and V storage in the
roots of
which has not previously been
Fig. 2. Ratio: CGEs (roots)/CGEs (leaves + roots).
Effects of cinnamic acid on polyphknol production in
Pluntago Lanceolata
reported. For this reason, only the roots containing
much higher levels of CGEs than the leaves were ana-
lysed during the experiment with (E)-cinnamic acid.
Time course of P and V contents in the roots of
fed with (E)-cinnamic acid.
Plants cultivated
in vitro
for 75 days following ger-
mination were transferred into MS culture medium
containing (E)-cinnamic acid. P and V levels in the
roots of these plants were then evaluated over 41 days
and compared with the control. (E)-cinnamic acid was
added at the minimum toxic concentration for the
plants (lO_jM on day 0). This concentration was
determined during a preliminary toxicity study on
whole plants (F. Fons, unpublished results). It was
chosen because it did not prevent the plant from living
and growing throughout the experiment, but induced
morphological and chemical profile modifications in
the roots. Although this acid was only ever detected
at negligible concentrations in these plants, their roots
gradually degenerated, darkened and, 41 days later,
withered completely. At the same time, new roots
(neoroots) appeared at day 8 and gradually super-
seded the initial ones. From day 8 to day 16, the
neoroots showed an atypical morphology while being
anisodiametric and thicker than the usual roots.
Thereafter, the neoroots became morphologically nor-
mal (isodiametic and thin). Hence the interest in com-
paring their chemical profiles with the control
throughout this period.
P and V contents were 63.6+ 13.3 and
29.3 f 12.5 mgg- dry weight respectively in the con-
trol roots on day 0 (Fig. 3). Both levels decreased
slightly after the plants were transferred, but no major
differences were noted between the contents of
stressed and control plants. Our results showed that
(E)-cinnamic acid was not integrated into the P and
V pathway.
It was also of considerable interest to study the P
and V contents in the neoroots, which appeared at
day 8 and which constituted almost the total mass of
the roots on day 41 in plants fed with (E)-cinnamic
acid. These neoroots were analysed from day 13
because, until this day, their biomass was too low. P
and V were absent in the neoroots from day 13 to day
19 and then increased up to 14.2& 5.2 and
20.5f8.3 mgg- dry weight respectively on day 41
(Fig. 3).
cinnamic derivatives.
The most striking chemical modifications detected
during the course of this experiment involved the tem-
porary appearance of two cinnamic acid derivatives
detected by TLC and HPLC analysis. Their con-
centrations from day 0 to day 41 were estimated from
peak areas as a fraction of their maximum con-
centrations, attained on day 11 (Fig. 4). These NCD,
which appeared on day 2 in the initial roots of
fed with (E)-cinnamic acid, were com-
pletely absent from the roots of the control plants.
The cumulated ratio of NCD increased in the initial
roots during the first week of the experiment
(0.27+0.00 on day 2, 0.87kO.17 on day 6) to reach
high concentrations throughout the second week
(highest value, 1.00+0.19 on day 11) and then
decreased from the third week to the end of the experi-
ment (0.13 f0.10 on day 41). These NCD were also
detected in neoroots at high levels from day 13
(0.75kO.53 and 0.95f0.59 on day 13 and 16 respec-
tively) but levels fell suddenly on day 19 (0.13 + 0.07).
From day 19 to the end of the experiment, low levels
were detected (0.04 on day 41). It is very interesting
to note that from day 19, when NCD levels in the
roots fell dramatically, P and V appeared and attained
the levels found in the controls. At the same time, the
morphology of these roots became normal.
The NCD were isolated and purified in order to
determine their structure. Total acid hydrolysis of
both components released a sugar which was ident-
ified as glucose by TLC and ClinistixN test (Ames).
Alkaline hydrolysis of both esters produced two mol-
ecules identified, using TLC and HPLC, as (E)-p-
coumaric acid and (E)-ferulic acid. Traces of the two
(Z)-isomers of each compound were also detected in
the crude extracts of plant roots using HPLC after
UV-exposure. The amounts of these two NCDs were
too small to allow full structural determination. The
(E)-cinnamic acid introduced into the culture medium
P. lanceolata
at 10m3 M can be considered as con-
stituting a toxic chemical stress for this plant. This
acid induced a progressive withering of the initial
roots, which were superseded by neoroots. These neo-
roots showed disturbed morphology and chemical
profile for eight days (no CGEs and high levels of
NCD). We can suppose that both cinnamic derivatives
(NCD), appearing temporarily during the experiment,
arose from a short detoxication pathway which was
the most efficient way to protect
P. Zanceolata
high levels of cinnamic acid. Following this, the dis-
appearance of these detoxication molecules allowed
the normal chemical and morphological root profiles
to be re-established.
Plant material and growth conditions.
Seeds of
P. lanceolata
L. (a gift from Dr. S. Puech,
Institut de Botanique, Montpellier, France) were ster-
ilized in 70% EtOH for 30sec, then in a commercial
solution of NaClO (3.6%) for 20min. The seeds were
then rinsed ( x 3) in sterile HZ0 and cultured in Mur-
ashige and Skoogs (MS) medium [27] with 1Ogll
agar under alternating 12hr light/dark. During the
growth experiments, the seedlings were grown without
transfer to fresh medium, in order to avoid stress-
induced variations in CGE content and were analysed
from day 21 to day 70. For the experiment with cin-
10 15 20 2s 30 35 40
% 30
Fig. 3. Time course of root CGEs contents during the experiment with trans-cinnamic acid, (a) CGEs contents in the roots
of control plants, (b) CGEs contents in the roots of stressed plants.
acid, after a first transfer into MS medium at CGEs extraction was carried out under the same
day 35, 75-day-old plants were subcultured in MS
medium containing 10-3M (E)-cinnamic acid dis- conditions for both experiments. 50 seedlings were
solved in 0.1% DMSO and the experiment run for a used for each extraction. Each experiment was carried
further 41 days. out in triplicate and the average value calculated.
Error values were not integrated into graphs to sim-
Effects of cinnamic acid on polyphtnol production in
Plantago Lanceolatn
0 I 0 2 4 6 8
11 13 16 19 23 28 31 34 41
Fig. 4. Time course of NCD ratio in both initial roots and neoroots during the experiment with (E)-cinnamic acid.
plify their appearance. Dried tissues (roots, leaves and
further neoroots) were separately weighed, ground in
a mortar, extracted at room temperature in 70%
MeOH (3 x 50ml/g dry weight) with magnetic agi-
tation (15 min), sonication (15 min) and then filtered.
The combined extracts were coned. to dryness under
vacuum and then analysed using TLC and HPLC.
The crude extracts were taken up into MeOH
(1 ml/lOOmg of dry organ) and submitted to TLC
on cellulose plates using: EtOAc-MeOH-H,O-C,H,,
(10:2:1.5:1) or 2% HOAc. CGEs were detected by UV
fluorescence after spraying with 1% 2-aminoethyl-
phenylborinate in MeOH. The MeOH extracts of
roots, leaves and neoroots used for TLC were diluted
10 times in 70% MeOH, filtered with a Millipore filter
(0.45 pm) and injected (20 pl) into an HPLC system
comprising a Kromasil RP-18 column (250 x 4.6 mm,
5 pm); mobile phase: MeCN-H,PO, (1:4) (pH 2.6);
flow rate 1 mlmin-. Quantitative analysis was per-
formed at 335nm and compared with plantamoside
(Rt:6.6 min) and verbascoside (Rt:8.8 min) standard
solutions isolated from
P. lunceoluta
Extraction and iden@cation of NCD
Dried roots of
P. lanceolata
fed with cinnamic acid
were extracted twice with 70% MeOH for 90min at
room temperature. The crude extract was coned under
vacuum and subjected to CC on polyamide with 30%
EtOH as eluent. A second purification was carried out
on a cellulose column with Hz0 to yield two NCDs.
Total acid hydrolysis of NCD: each NCD was dis-
solved in H20, 3M HCl was added (1: 1) and the mix-
ture heated to 100maintained for 5 hr. The cooled
solution was extracted 3 times with an equal volume
of EtOAc. The aq. layer was evaporated to dryness
and the residue taken up in 50% MeOH. The solution
was analysed using Clinistix (Ames) or precoated sil-
ica gel TLC plates, with two solvent systems: EtOAc-
H,O-MeOH-HOAc (13:3:3:5) and EtOAc-iso-PrOH-
H,O (2:7:1). Developed plates were sprayed with
naphthoresorcine-H,P0,, anisaldehyde-HOAc or tri-
phenyltetrazolium reagent and heated to 100”. D-glu-
cose was identified by direct comparison with a stan-
dard. Alkaline hydrolysis was carried out on an aq.
solution of NCD and 1 M NaOH (1: 1) heated for
45min at 50”. The solution was then acidified with
Dowex resin SOW, filtered and then analysed using
TLC (cellulose plates developed with 2% HOAc using
1% 2-aminoethyldiphenylborinate in MeOH or
diazotized p-nitroaniline acid as reagents). The same
solution was analysed using HPLC (conditions were
the same as those used for CGE analysis, see above)
and compared with standards of p-coumaric acid
(Rt: 10.3 min) and ferulic acid (Rt: 12.0 min).
are very grateful to Dr S.
Rapior and Dr M. P. Bonzom for their advice during
this work. We would like to thank Mr N. Wynn for
editorial assistance.
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... Plantamajoside has been identified in 34 plant species belonging to the order Lamiales [17]. The highest amounts of PM were detected in the root cultures of P. lanceolata [18] and in the roots of P. lanceolata [19] and P. media, which were grown in vitro [20]. However, no data are available regarding the PhEGs of underground organs of wild-grown Plantago species. ...
... The amounts of AO were significantly higher than those of PM in all analyzed underground organ samples of P. lanceolata and P. media. However, previous studies have confirmed the dominance of PM in the roots of these plants when grown in vitro [19,20]. Since the PhEG biosynthesis could be influenced by various stress stimuli (e.g., microbial attack) [18], we assume that interactions between wild-grown Plantago roots and microorganisms result in the change in the quantitative ratio of AO and PM, which are characteristic for roots grown in vitro under sterile conditions. ...
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A comparative phytochemical study on the phenylethanoid glycoside (PhEG) composition of the underground organs of three Plantago species (P. lanceolata, P. major, and P. media) and that of the fruit wall and seed parts of Forsythia suspensa and F. europaea fruits was performed. The leaves of these Forsythia species and six cultivars of the hybrid F. × intermedia were also analyzed, demonstrating the tissue-specific accumulation and decomposition of PhEGs. Our analyses confirmed the significance of selected tissues as new and abundant sources of these valuable natural compounds. The optimized heat treatment of tissues containing high amounts of the PhEG plantamajoside (PM) or forsythoside A (FA), which was performed in distilled water, resulted in their characteristic isomerizations. In addition to PM and FA, high amounts of the isomerization products could also be isolated after heat treatment. The isomerization mechanisms were elucidated by molecular modeling, and the structures of PhEGs were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) techniques, also confirming the possibility of discriminating regioisomeric PhEGs by tandem MS. The PhEGs showed no cytostatic activity in non-human primate Vero E6 cells, supporting their safe use as natural medicines and allowing their antiviral potency to be tested.
... Swiss female white mice were supplied from the animal house of the University of AL-Nahrain, Research center of Biotechnology. The ages ranged from (8)(9)(10)(11)(12) weeks, weight ranged from 23-27g. Mice divided into 8 groups in a plastic cage (6mice/cage), with water and standard pellets. ...
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This study gives an overview of the widely distributed herb plantain Plantago lanceolata and aqueous extraction of the plant, by study the effect of Plantago lanceolata aqueous extract on the hepatoprotective activity in albino female mice through measuring the three main liver enzymes aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) with the histological effect of extract on liver. Mice were separated into eight groups treated intraperitonially for seven days: (1) control, (2) CCl4 (0.02%), (3) aqueous extract (250 mg/kg), (4) aqueous extract (500 mg/kg), (5) CCl4 (0.02%) plus aqueous extract (250 mg/kg), (6) CCl4 (0.02%) plus aqueous extract (500 mg/kg),(7) aqueous extract (250 mg/kg) plus CCl4 (0.02%), and (8) aqueous extract (500 mg/kg) plus CCl4 (0.02%). Mice were killed, then the liver were histopathological examined and the serum levels of (AST), (ALT) and (ALP) tested. The results of histopathology indicated that CCl4 cause severe damage to the mouse liver tissues, however, the protective effects of aqueous extract on liver were observed when CCl4 combined with it. The analysis of the serum indicated a significant increase in the values of AST, ALT and ALP in mice treated with CCl4 and pre and post treatment of the animals with the CCl4.
... P. lanceolata, is a perennial acaulescent plant, and is among the widespread species growing in Turkey. Where, P. lanceolata aerial parts have been informed to have catharses, cytotoxic, ant-inflammatory, antibacterial, diuretic, anti-gout, anti-asthamtic and wound healing potential activities (Adams et al., 2009;Fons et al., 1998;Galvez, 2003;Oloumi et al., 2011;Shipochliev et al., 1981). According to literature, flavonoids were one of the most important classes' compounds in Plantago species, specially luteolin and its glycisodes (Kawashty et al., 1994). ...
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... Plantago lanceolata (PL) is one of the most important species within the Plantago genus, which contains approximately 275 species all over the world [6]. The bioactive components of P. lanceolata possess various pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, diuretic, antibacterial [7], hepatoprotective [8], and antioxidant [9] properties. P. lanceolata is currently used to treat throat and upper respiratory system conditions and is used topically for skin diseases as well [10]. ...
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Exposure to reactive oxygen species can easily result in serious diseases, such as hyperproliferative skin disorders or skin cancer. Herbal extracts are widely used as antioxidant sources in different compositions. The importance of antioxidant therapy in inflammatory conditions has increased. Innovative formulations can be used to improve the effects of these phytopharmacons. The bioactive compounds of Plantago lanceolata (PL) possess different effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and bactericidal pharmacological effects. The objective of this study was to formulate novel liquid crystal (LC) compositions to protect Plantago lanceolata extract from hydrolysis and to improve its effect. Since safety is an important aspect of pharmaceutical formulations, the biological properties of applied excipients and blends were evaluated using assorted in vitro methods on HaCaT cells. According to the antecedent toxicity screening evaluation, three surfactants were selected (Gelucire 44/14, Labrasol, and Lauroglycol 90) for the formulation. The dissolution rate of PL from the PL-LC systems was evaluated using a Franz diffusion chamber apparatus. The antioxidant properties of the PL-LC systems were evaluated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) assessments. Our results suggest that these compositions use a nontraditional, rapid-permeation pathway for the delivery of drugs, as the applied penetration enhancers reversibly alter the barrier properties of the outer stratum corneum. These excipients can be safe and highly tolerable thus, they could improve the patient’s experience and promote adherence.
... LA of control plant is more than that of tissue culture grown plants. It was found that GA3 has a significant effect on the root elongation as it promotes cell division and cell elongation [16]. Regarding this experiment, the root length was not much increased by the application of growth hormones. ...
... Apart from these properties, it has a disease healing (against dermatologic and respiratory, digestive, cardiovascular system diseases) property (Berit-Samuelsen, 2000). This plant has expectorant, antimicrobial, antiviral, antitoxin and diuretic (Leung and Foster 1996) propertities and is used effectively in the treatment of tumors (Fracoise et al, 1998). Traditionally herbal tea of plantago leaves is used for diarrhea, dysentery and as an antitussive. ...
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Plantago lanceolata (Plantaginaceae) is a perennial cosmopolitan species traditionally used for blood clotting and healing of wound. The powdered leaves were successively extracted with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol to give 1.55, 2.16, and 8.2%, yield, respectively. Silica gel column chromatography afforded one phenylpropanoid derivative named verbascoside. The structure of the compound was determined using spectroscopic methods (UVVis, IR, NMR). The extracts, and verbascoside were evaluated invitro for antibacterial activities by using the disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumania and Proteus miabilis. The promising inhibition zone (20 mm) was observed by verbascoside against S. aureus compared to standard Ciprofloxacin (23 mm). The radical scavenging activity of the methanol and ethyl acetate extract, and verbascoside compounds were 64.2%, 79.2 and 83.9, respectively suggesting that verbascoside displayed powerful radical scavenging activity indicating the potential of the plant as herbal remedies.
... The leaves of species of the Plantago genus are used externally to wash wounds and to treat skin infections, while crushed leaves have hemostatic (De Feo andSenatore, 1993), antifungal (McCutcheon et al., 1994), antibacterial (Moskalenko, 1986) (Chiang et al., 2003), immunomodulatory (Chiang et al., 2003), and antioxidant properties (Fons et al., 1998;Mahmood et al., 2011;Harput et al., 2012;Beara et al., 2012), as well as cytotoxic effect (Chiang et al., 2003;Beara et al., 2012). ...
Ethnopharmacological relevance: The geographical and ecological specificity of the Balkan Peninsula has resulted in the development of a distinct diversity of medicinal plants. In the traditional culture of the Balkan peoples, plants have medicinal, economic and anthropological/cultural importance, which is reflected in the sound knowledge of their diversity and use. This study analyses the traditional use of medicinal plants in the treatment of wounds and the pharmacological characteristics of the most frequently used species. Materials and methods: A detailed analysis of the literature related to ethnobhe uses of medicinal plants in the Balkan region was carried out. Twenty-five studies were analysed and those plants used for the treatment of wounds were singled out. Result: An ethnobotanical analysis showed that 128 plant species (105 wild, 22 cultivated and 1 wild/cultivated) are used in the treatment of wounds. Their application is external, in the form of infusions, decoctions, tinctures, syrups, oils, ointments, and balms, or direct to the skin. Among those plants recorded, the most commonly used are Plantago major, Hypericum perforatum, Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Calendula officinalis, Sambucus nigra, Tussilago farfara and Prunus domestica. The study showed that the traditional use of plants in wound healing is confirmed by in vitro and/or in vivo studies for P. major and P. lanceolata (3 laboratory studies for P. major and 2 for P. lanceolata), H. perforatum (5 laboratory studies and 3 clinical trials), A. millefolium (3 laboratory studies and one clinical trial), C. officinalis (6 laboratory studies and 1 clinical trial), S. nigra (3 laboratory studies) and T. farfara (one laboratory study). Conclusion: The beneficial effects of using medicinal plants from the Balkan region to heal wounds according to traditional practices have been proven in many scientific studies. However, information on the quantitative benefits to human health of using herbal medicines to heal wounds is still scarce or fragmented, hindering a proper evaluation. Therefore, further studies should be aimed at isolating and identifying specific active substances from plant extracts, which could also reveal compounds with more valuable therapeutic properties. Furthermore, additional reliable clinical trials are needed to confirm those experiences encountered when using traditional medicines. A combination of traditional and modern knowledge could result in new wound-healing drugs with a significant reduction in unwanted side effects.
The eye, nose, and throat (ENT)-related diseases are a great problem in the pediatric population, but the mortality is low, whereas complication rates are increasing in spite of the improvements in health care facilities. In children, middle ear infection is the most common disease, the reason being alterations in the eustachian tube anatomy, being straighter in children than adults. Nearly 42 million people (age >3 years) are facing a hearing loss, mainly because of otitis media, second only to the common cold as a cause of infection in kids, also the commonest cause of mild-to-moderate hearing impairment in industrializing countries. In the population above 5 years of age, nearly 16% suffer from this disorder and more than 55% of these cases occur in school-going children, generally from the lower socioeconomic class (Idu et al. 2008; Baldry and Hind 2008; Zumbroich 2009; Nepali and Sigdel 2012). Respiratory tract symptoms such as cough, sore throat, and earache are also frequent in children. Upper respiratory tract infections predispose a child to complications such as otitis media, tonsillitis, and sinusitis. Tonsillitis most often occurs in children, a condition rarely appreciated in kids below 2 years. Viral tonsillitis is more common in younger children, while tonsillitis caused by Streptococcus species typically occurs in children aged 5–15 years (Nepali and Sigdel 2012).
This chapter discusses the ethnopharmacological properties, phytochemistry, and culture conditions of the Plantago species. Plantago major L. (Fam. – Plantaginaceae) is used in treatment of respiratory tract inflammations, problems of digestive system, and skin irritations. The Plantago species is used as remedy for anticancer, antiviral, antiulcer, anti‐inflammatory, analgesic, expectorant, and diuretic activities. The aqueous extract P. major possesses prophylactic and chemotactic effects against mammary cancer of mice. The accumulation of verbascoside and plantamoside was estimated in transformed and non‐transformed hairy roots of P. lanceolata. The production of verbascoside was reported in lower concentration in both transformed and non‐transformed hairy roots, while plantamoside synthesis was much higher in transformed roots. Similarly, the production of plantamoside and verbascoside was enhanced by manipulation in P. ovata cell cultures.
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Plantago altissima L., Plantago lanceolata L., Plantago atrata Hoppe and Plantago argentea Chaix. were examined for iridoids. In all four species aucubin and catalpol were found. Globularin and methyl ester of the desacetylasperulosidic acid were isolated for the first time from Plantaginaceae plants (P. altissima and P. lanceolata). Asperuloside was found for the first time in P. altissima as well as dihydroaucubin in P. atrata.
The main iridoids, aucuboside and catalpol, were isolated from Plantago lanceolata L., P. major L. and P. media L. leaves. Their quantitative analysis were determinated by HPLC. Their respective contents were estimated according to the vegetative cycle.
Geopolitical theory is employed to address the question of why the Chinese Communist Party-state persists, despite Western pressures stemming from the suppression of student demonstrators in "Tienanmen Square" in 1989. As the theory postulates, macro dynamic forces revolving around the geopolitical processes are crucial to the resource mobilization and legitimacy of the state. The entire history of the Chinese Communist Party is reviewed in order to document the conclusion that changes in the geopolitical position of the Party are associated with periods of internal strength and weakness. Since 1979, the Chinese Communist Party-state has been increasingly favored by geopolitical circumstances, thereby facilitating its internal strength even in the face of Western pressures, potential for internal dissent, and collapse of the Soviet empire. As long as this favorable geopolitical trend continues, the Chinese Communist Party will likely exist as a ruling political force in China.
A suspension culture of Glycyrrhiza echinata converted benzoic acid into its glucosyl ester. Suspension cultures of Aconitum japonicum, Coffea arabica, Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii and Nicotiana tabacum, transformed benzoic acid into its gentiobiosyl ester in addition to the glucosyl ester. The suspension cultures of A.japonicum and G. echinata converted phenylacetic acid into the esters attached to the C-6 position of glucose, that is, 6-O-phenylacetyl-d-glucose and ethyl 6-O-phenylacetyl-β-d-glucopyranoside. That of D. cumminsii converted phenylacetic acid into the glucose ester and also into phenethyl β-d-glucopyranoside showing glucosylation after the reduction of the carboxylic group. These suspension cultures converted cinnamic acid into p-coumaric acid and its glucosyl ester and p-coumaric acid into its glucosyl ester. However, the conversion of caffeic acid was not observed. The suspension cultures of A.japonicum and C. arabica converted 3-phenylpropionic acid into its gentiobiosyl ester. On the other hand, the culture of D. cumminsii did not produce the glycosyl ester but instead 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid was formed, thus showing hydroxylation capability.
The structure of plantamajoside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from Plantago major subs major, is deduced from chemical, spectral and other physical evidence, to be 3,4-dihydroxy-β-phenethyl-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 →3)-4-O-caffeoyl-β-d-glucopyranoside. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration value has been evaluated for seven plant pathogenic bacteria and for E. coli (ML 30) and S. aureus (502 A) after preliminary investigations by the agar diffusion method.
Exogenously supplied [14C]cinnamic acid (1 mM) was rapidly taken up and metabolized by bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cell suspension cultures treated with fungal elicitor. Uptake of the cinnamic acid correlated with a reduction in extractable phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity and was accompanied by the metabolism of the acid by glycosidic conjugation and ring-hydroxylation. Formation of soluble metabolises was followed by the accumulation of wall-bound radioactivity in the cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions in the form of esterified cinnamates. A cytosolic uridine diphosphate glucose (UDPG): cinnamic acid glucosyl transferase with a Km toward cinnamic acid of 400, μM was identified in suspension cultures of both bean and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). This enzyme was induced by fungal elicitor in both species and by cinnamic acid in bean. The possible function of the glucosyl transferase is discussed.
A number of natural polyphenols (chlorogenic acid (9), cordigol (11), cordigone (12), danthrone (1), 1,5-dihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone (2), eriosematin (7), flemichin D (8), frutinone A (6), mangiferin (4), quercetin (5), 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone (3) and verbascoside (10)) were investigated for their redox properties using cyclic voltammetry. The antioxidant properties of these compounds were also examined in two models, namely lipid peroxidation in rat synaptosomes and AAPH-mediated oxidation of serum albumin. Compounds with a catechol group (9, 4, 5, 3 and 10) were oxidized below 0.4 V and inhibited lipid peroxidation with IC50 values between 2 and 8 μM. Compounds having one or more isolated phenolic groups and showing an oxidation potential between 0.45 and 0.8 V (11, 12 and 8) inhibited lipid peroxidation with IC50 between 7 and 9 μM, except 2 (0.45 V), danthrone (0.96 V) and eriosematin which showed no or modest antioxidant activity. Some of the investigated compounds also protected albumin from oxidation, but no structure-activity relationship was apparent, suggesting that other factors beside redox potential influence this activity.
Tre review presents a glossary of the iridoid glycosides, secoiridoids, bis-iridoids, and non-glycosidic iridoids. The following information is present for each compound, when available: structural formula, molecular formula, molecular weight, mp and [alpha]D values, uv, ir, 1H-nmr, 13C-nmr, and ms data, as well as mp and [alpha]D values for the correspondent acetate derivative. The natural source, the family and generic name, is given as well as the reference. A cross index and molecular weight tables are presented.