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Decentralisation by devolution in Tanzania: Reflections on community involvement in the planning process in Kizota Ward in Dodoma

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  • Teofilo Kisanji University (TEKU), Tumaini University (TU)

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This paper provides a discussion on Decentralization-by-Devolution (D-by- D) in planning process in Tanzania a focus being on Kizota ward in Dodoma. The paper provides findings on how grassroots level is involved in preparing the three years strategic plan and its implications towards solving socio- economic problems at grassroots level. The study employed a combined research design where case study design and mini -survey designs were used. Questionnaires, In-depth interviews and intensive documentary reviews were used for data collection purposes. The findings from the Kizota ward in Dodoma municipality revealed that although the government has done a commendable work in implementing D-by-D, its contribution in planning process at grassroots level is still minimal and ineffective. The mitaa residents were not involved in the planning process; rather they were involved in the implementation of the centrally made plans that did not include their priorities.
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Journal of Public Administration and Policy Research Vol. 1(7) pp. 133-140 November 2009
Available online http://www.academicjournals.org/jpapr
©2009 Academic Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Decentralisation by devolution in Tanzania: Reflections
on community involvement in the planning process in
Kizota Ward in Dodoma
L. Massoi1 and A. S. Norman2*
1Mzumbe University, Dar es Salaam Business School, P. O. Box 20266 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
2Faculty of Business and Economics, Tumaini University of Tanzania, P. O. Box 200 Iringa, Tanzania.
Accepted 19 October, 2009
This paper provides a discussion on Decentralization-by-Devolution (D-by- D) in planning process in
Tanzania a focus being on Kizota ward in Dodoma. The paper provides findings on how grassroots
level is involved in preparing the three years strategic plan and its implications towards solving socio-
economic problems at grassroots level. The study employed a combined research design where case
study design and mini –survey designs were used. Questionnaires, In-depth interviews and intensive
documentary reviews were used for data collection purposes. The findings from the Kizota ward in
Dodoma municipality revealed that although the government has done a commendable work in
implementing D-by-D, its contribution in planning process at grassroots level is still minimal and
ineffective. The mitaa residents were not involved in the planning process; rather they were involved in
the implementation of the centrally made plans that did not include their priorities.
Key words: Decentralization, devolution and grassroots involvement.
INTRODUCTION
Decentralization is highly linked with local government
system and has been practised in the country in varying
degrees since colonial times. Historically, the concept of
decentralization has never been a new concept in
countries across the globe. The term attracted attention
in the 1950s and 1960s when British and French colonial
administrations prepared colonies for independence by
devolving responsibilities for certain programs to local
authorities. In East Africa, decentralization has equally
become a buzzword following what is perceived the
failure of the top down approaches to development and
demand for new approaches on decentralization came to
the forefront of the development agenda alongside the
renewed global emphasis on governance and human-
centered approaches to human development in the
1980s. Discourse on decentralization in the 1980’s
associated decentralization with increased citizen’s
participation in decision making process (URT, 1998).
Today both developed and developing countries like
*Corresponding author. Email: adamsonnorman@yahoo.com.
Tanzania are pursuing decentralization policies (URT,
2000).
Soon after independence that is from 1961 to 1980,
Tanzania like many other developing countries set out
ambitious social and human resources development
plans including programmes generally aimed at the
eradication of poverty, ignorance and diseases in a
matter of two decades. It was during that period Tanzania
in 1972 adopted numerous top-down policies including,
Socialism-Arusha Declaration (1967) and the
decentralization policy (1972), which focused on decen-
tralizing key authorities and functions of government from
the centre to the grassroots level so as to enable
community to participate in decision making. The policy
reflected Nyerere’s strong conviction that people must be
directly involved in shaping the decisions that affect their
lives. The policy manifested itself in different two major
forms: deconcentration and devolution. During the
deconcentration period, rural development was centrally
coordinated and managed at the district and regional
levels (Max, 1991).
Tanzania has always seen decentralization as an ideal
approach to rural and urban development (Ngwilizi,
134 J. Public Adm. Policy Res.
2001)1. While central government administrative
structures improved through these decentralization
initiatives, actual participation by the rural and urban
populace in the development process was not realized.
This type of decentralization was more of decon-
centration than devolution of power through local level
democratic organs. Tanzania's ongoing administrative,
political and economic reforms of early 1990’s demanded
effective decentralization in which the involvement of the
people directly or through their democratically elected
representatives is given paramount importance. These
reforms include the civil service reform which started in
1992, which aims to achieve a smaller, efficient and
effectively performing public service (Mmari, 2005).
Following civil service reforms, in 1984 the Local
Government system was re-introduced, followed by its
reform in 1996, where it was accompanied by the
Decentralization by Devolution policy. The policy shifted
from the former centralized system to the decentralized
local governance system (Max, 1991). For that matter,
the local government Reform was used as a driving
vehicle of Decentralization by Devolution (D-by-D) policy
to strengthen the local government authorities with the
overall objective of improving service delivery to the
public (Ngwale, 2005). Thus, the transfer of power is
made through transferring power of the decision making,
functional responsibilities and resource from central
government to local government authority (URT, 2006).
However, there have been cases including lack of
involvement of stakeholders in planning process, on the
side of the human resources involved in the process
(Shukuru, 2006; Repoa, 2005). This paper aims at
exploring the extent in which D-by-D has been imple-
mented in planning process at the grassroots level with
concentration on people involvement in planning process.
That means to see the extent to which individuals at
grassroots level are involved in the preparation of the
strategic plan and see whether the human resources at
the grassroots’ level have the capacity to undertake
planning process.
THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES: CONCEPTS, FORMS
AND THEORY
Countries across the globe have opted for a
decentralised policy for diverse reasons. For Tanzania,
the aim was to bring government closer to the people
since in a decentralized system the decisions about
resource allocation and services should be more
responsive to local needs, usually because local people
can be directly involved in decision making or indirectly
1 A paper submitted by Hon. Hassan Ngwilizi, MP., Minister of State,
President's Office (Regional Administration and Local Government) to the
UNCDF Conference on Decentralisation and Local Governance in Africa,
Cape town, 26 - 30 March, 2001)
influence those decisions.
While decentralization and devolution may occur at the
same time, it is quite possible to decentralize admini-
strative functions without devolving the power to make
meaningful decisions (Fisher, 2007). The author (Fisher,
2007) further pointed out that in real devolution, those to
whom responsibilities are devolved should be allowed to
make a real input in setting up of objectives, rather than
being expected to meet objectives set by others. "Real
input" does not necessarily entail completely devolved
decision-making, but it implies some genuine possibilities
of affecting outcomes, as well as a willingness on the part
of those devolving authority to modify their objectives.
According to Fisher (2008), meaningful devolution
relocates not only administrative functions, but also the
power to make decisions and set objectives. However,
decentralization policies are part of vigorous initiatives to
support rural development (Fisher, 2008).
Moreover, Warioba (1999) pointed out that decen-
tralization refer to those tasks and activities which are not
done or executed from the centre. Warioba (1999)
proceeded by pointing out that decentralization is divided
into two main components:- Deconcetration - refers to
delegation of authority by the central government to the
field units of the same central government department,
that is giving decision making power to civil servants in
the regions, districts or/ and village (Warioba, 1999). This
form of decentralization is sometimes referred to as
administrative decentralization (Warioba, 1999). It is the
delegation of authority from the higher to lower echelons
within the bureaucracy, taken as a basis for development
and change. Devolution refers to transfer of decision
making power and much policy making powers
(especially development and social service policy) to
elected local representative authorities or units or to auto-
nomous public enterprise. This model of decentralization
is sometimes referred to as political decentralization.
Devolved local authorities have the power to make laws
of local nature and raise revenue needed to meet
development with very minimum interference from the
centre (Warioba, 1999).
Although most authors seem to link devolution with the
transfer of power to the local authorities, yet what
happened in Tanzania is the transfer of authority from the
central government to the local government, enabling the
later to pursue all matters regarding social, economical
and political development which were formerly being
done by the central government. For example, before
devolution the mandates to determine collection of
revenue on various agricultural products were vested on
the central government but after the reforms which paved a
way for devolution the mandate has been shifted to the
local government authority up to the village level2. Hence
2 See Article 146 (1) of the Constitution of the United Republic of
Tanzania
it can be narrated that decentralization by devolution
means transfer of authority- functional responsibilities,
and resources to all Local Government levels. This is
geared towards making them largely autonomous,
democratically governed and deriving legitimacy through
service they deliver to people in accordance to grassroots
level dwellers’ priorities as communicated to government
decision-makers. From the definition it can be reiterated
that the focus of the law and regulations governing
decentralisation by devolution focused on Mtaa level (in
case of urban authority) and village (in case of rural
authority) due to the fact that these are the lowest level of
authorities within the structure of local government hence
making it possible for the participation of the people at
the grassroots.
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
The main issue in this study was to explore the
implementation of planning process at the grassroots
level. Although Decentralised planning process requires
involvement of stakeholders in process, there have been
cases for non-involvement. This study intends to look into
the manner in which community is involved and identify
their implications.
Conceptual model
Community involvement in planning process
At the national level, planning guidelines are issued to
Prime Minister’s Office, Regional Administration and
Local Government as well as Regional Secretariats. The
main role of these institutions is to coordinate planning at
LGA. After receiving planning guidelines either from the
ministry responsible with planning/PMO-RALG or
regional secretariat, Local Government authorities com-
municate them to the wards. Furthermore, ward submits
the same guidelines to mitaa. In this regards, during
meeting through the use of O and OD mitaa priorities are
identified and included in the plan. mitaa plans are
submitted to ward level. The ward compiles the mitaa
plan and submits to the respective LGA. At this stage,
LGA compiles all wards plans and submits to the national
level and copy to Regional Secretariat and PMO-RALG.
At the national level, all LGAs’ plans are integrated to
form a national plan. The issue is to what extent this
process is reflected in Kizota Ward planning process.
METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
This section presents procedures used to generate outcomes. It
includes sources of data, collection methods, sampling procedures
and sample size. The data were collected at Kizota ward in Dodo-
ma municipality. Methods of data collection and instruments used
were interview, observation, documentation and questionnaires.
Massoi and Norman 135
Sampling procedures and sample size
In this study, units of inquiry included all residents of Kizota Ward in
Dodoma Municipality. There were a total 30 Wards in the
Municipality. Kizota was selected for study due to the fact that
despite being one of the oldest ward in Dodoma, it faces numerous
problems such as water, roads, trench and sewage system, hence
a need to realize peoples’ involvement in planning process. There
are six Mitaas consisting of 16,432 people at Kizota wards in
Dodoma Municipality. However, 44.36% of this population are
children aged between 0 - 15 years; hence the population of the
study was about 7289 residents (URT, 2003). Out of it, a sample of
729 persons was drawn, which is 10% of the total population aged
15 years and above. The sampling procedures based on
proportionate stratified sampling where by Kizota residents were
grouped into their respective 6 mitaa; random sampling was used in
selecting a total of 729 respondents in total out of 7289; and
Purposive sampling3 was used to gather information from the
selected key units.
STUDY FINDINGS
This part provides study findings. It includes findings on
people’s involvement in the strategic planning, human
resources utilisation in the planning process at local
government level and achievement attained to mention
but a few.
Involvement levels in preparing the three years
strategic plan
Community involvement at the planning process is
essential for successful implementation of the process.
Moreover, it matters the level of involvement. At the same
time involvement of the officers is much more crucial.
Community involvement level
Findings shown in Figure 1, 2 and 3 summarize
responses collected through questionnaire on community
involvement in preparing three years strategic plan.
Findings revealed that 52.2% respondents said that there
was no involvement in planning process.
Also, 80% of mitaa Executive Officers had the same
view. On the other hand, 35.3% residents asserted that
the extent of community involvement in planning process
was inadequate. Moreover, the same table shows the
summary of the findings from the interviewed Municipality
staff who indicated that about 66.7% of them had the
view that community involvement in planning process
was moderate and it was in most cases made through
involving their representatives (councillors). The
3By virtue of their positions and functions, Municipal Director, Municipal
Planning Officer, Municipal Treasurer, Municipal Engineer, Community
Development Officer, Human Resource Officer and Education Officer,
Mtaa executive officers and ward executive officers were purposively
included in the sample;
136 J. Public Adm. Policy Res.
Table 1. Mitaa social and economic problems.
Response by Mitaa respondents Frequencies Percent
Lack of passable roads, trenches, nearby Health facilities and Market 238 38.8
Too much contribution by mitaa’s residents for running primary school education 64 10.4
Lack reliable clean and safe source of water 33 5.4
Transport problems 39 6.4
High unemployment level, absence of nursery school 76 12.4
Price level of various commodities, e.g. electricity 30 4.9
Environmental pollution, lack of dump problems concerning HIV/AIDS 84 13.7
Security issues and lack of teamwork spirit in solving socio-economic problems 24 3.9
Poor performance of Local Government Authority 6 1.0
Lack of mitaa projects and sites for conducting businesses 20 3.3
Total 614 100.0
Source: Field data (2008).
52%
35%
13%
Non-participation
Very little
Moderate
Figure 1. Level of community involvement in preparing three years
strategic plan (%); response by Mtaa respondents. Source: Field
Data (2008).
20%
80%
No participation
Moderate
participation
Figure 2. Level of community involvement in preparing three
years strategic plan (%); response by Mtaa Executive Officers.
33%
67%
Unknown
Moderate
participation
Figure 3. Level of community involvement in preparing three years
strategic plan (%): Responses from interviewed municipal staff
WEOs.
respondents asserted that direct community involvement
was not practicable due to shortage of funds and time
constraints.
In addition, findings gathered from mitaa minutes for
meetings held in the respective mitaa, financial
contributions for building secondary schools was the
dominant agenda at all mitaa. Findings tally with findings
by Cooksey and Kikula who pointed out that there were
numerous problems related to bottom-up planning such
as unmotivated and untrained staff, lack of transport
facilities and poor communication (REPOA, 2007). Also it
pointed out that most of such funds were spent basing on
national level and donor prioritizing (REPOA, 2007).
Furthermore, the findings from this study coincide with
the study conducted by Chaligha and colleagues
(REPOA, 2005). However, these findings are contrary to
planning guidelines for village and mitaa that are aimed
at enhancing bottom-up planning as a way of
accommodating communities’ identified needs in
preparation of Municipality’s plans and budgets (URT,
2004).
Although ministries had to some extent decentralized
functions and devolved powers to LGAs, Dodoma
Municipality failed to decentralize its planning functions to
LLGL. The findings revealed that there was insignificant
community involvement in planning process at grassroots
community. In most case planning was undertaken by
few experts who did not include residents’ priorities,
hence leaving many problems unsolved.
This is reflected in Table 1 which shows responses
from mitaa residents collected through questionnaire on
mitaa socio-economic problems. As from the table,
38.8% respondents pointed out lack of passable mitaa
roads, trenches, nearby health facilities and market as
major socio-economic problems facing their respective
mitaa. Besides, 3.3% of them mentioned lack of mitaa
project and sites for conducting businesses as mitaa
socio-economic problems facing their ward. Also, 1%
asserted that poor performance of Local Government
was a source of problems.
Massoi and Norman 137
Table 2. Achievements made by involving the grassroots Community in planning process in percent.
Response by Mitaa residents Frequencies Percent
Unknown 169 27.5
Some of the community problems have been solved 13 2.1
Increase in the availability of service, e.g. Secondary education 149 24.2
Cultivates good relationship between residents and mitaa residents 10 1.6
No any achievement 248 40.3
Cleanliness of the mitaa 26 4.2
Total 615 100.0
Source: Field data (2008).
Table 3. Respondents views on grassroots involvement in solving the problems in percentage.
Response by Mitaa residents Frequencies Percent
Unknown 26 4.3
Solving residents complaints 168 27.9
Realizing development of mitaa (In areas of increasing ownership,
accountability, efficiency, improvement and sustainability 304 50.4
Development and the spirit of working together 105 17.4
Total 603 100.0
Source: Field data (2008).
People involved in planning process
According to the study, 80% mitaa executive officers argued
that there was no involvement because there were no
detailed mitaa plans and 20% of them had views that
Economic, Planning and Finance committee was involved
in planning process. Generally, findings correspond with
the study conducted by Chaligha and colleagues
(REPOA, 2005). They revealed that the depth of
implementation of bottom-up planning in the studied
council differed from one council to another (REPOA,
2005). Also in most cases, it was undertaken by few
experts who did not reach people (REPOA, 2005). They
considered it to be top-down rather than bottom-up.
Findings confirm that community involvement in
preparing the mitaa plans was still minimal.
Human resource utilization in the planning process
98.7% respondents revealed that they had never been
trained in relation to community involvement in planning
process. Only 1.3% respondents pointed out that they
were trained in matters related to community involvement
in planning process. On the other hand, all MEOs
confirmed that they had attended training twice and were
equipped with opportunities and obstacles for
development (O & OD) methodology. Results are similar
to those from Kikula (2005) as well as Chaligha and
colleagues (REPOA, 2005). On the basis of these
findings, the study substantiates that there was no
training provided to mitaa residents on community
involvement in planning that would afford them an
opportunity to be fully involved in planning process.
Hence, most mitaa residents stayed idle for most of the
time, implying poor utilization of human resources.
According to Table 2, 40.3% respondents argued that
there was no any achievement made as a result of
involvement of community in planning process. 27.5% of
them were aware of achievements that resulted from
community involvement in planning. However, 24.2%
respondents stated that community involvement in
planning process has lead to an increase in availability of
services such as secondary school education. Thus,
there are no remarkable achievements related to com-
munity involvement in planning process because most of
their priorities and problems remained unattended.
The study revealed that there was insignificant
community involvement in planning process at the
grassroots community. As a result, the respondents saw
it as ineffective with no or little realized positive impli-
cations to grassroots community. However, respondents
argued that implementing community involvement in
planning process would lead to an increased in
ownership of projects, accountability, sustainability,
effectiveness and efficiency in running such projects.
According to Table 3, 50.4% respondents had views
that community involvement in planning process would
result in realizing development of the mitaa. In relation to
it, they pointed out that it would lead to an increase in
ownership, accountability, sustainability, improvement,
effectiveness and efficiency in running the established
138 J. Public Adm. Policy Res.
illiciting commitmenOwnership leading toUnknown
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
.5
0.0
Frequency
Figure 4. Views of the municipal staff and WEO. Source: Field data (2008).
Table 4. Suggestions on improving involvement of grassroots community in planning process in percent.
Response by mitaa residents Frequencies Percentage
Workshop, meeting and training on involving mitaa residents 16 2.9
Grassroots level be consulted during planning process 71 13.0
Planning should start at mitaa level to include mitaa priorities 119 21.8
MEOS and mitaa residents be trained on participatory planning 107 19.6
Government should allow bottom up planning 187 34.3
Disbursing money directly to mitaa level for project implementation 45 8.3
Total 545 100.0
Source: Field Data (2008).
projects. Also, under such a situation, projects would be
established in accordance to residents’ needs and its use
will reflect value for money. Moreover, 27.9% respondents
argued that involvement of mitaa residents in planning
process would help to solve residents’ complaints and
problems, hence, contributing to poverty alleviation.
However, 4.3% respondents were unaware of possible
implications of involving mitaa residents. The study
corresponds with the findings by Braathen and
colleagues (REPOA, 2005). Also, Figure 4 presents
municipal staff and Executive officer view elicited through
interview. The findings in Figure 4 shows that 30% res-
pondents claimed that grassroots community involvement
would lead into community ownership of the project and
hence, its sustainability. The study substantiates almost
one third of the respondents had views that community
involvement at the mitaa level would bring about positive
implications.
SUGGESTIONS ON IMPROVING INVOLVEMENT OF
GRASSROOTS COMMUNITY IN PLANNING PROCESS
Table 4 shows responses related to suggestions concerning
the ways of improving the involvement of people at Low
level of Local Government in planning process.
According to findings on Table 4, 34.3% respondents
pointed out that in order to improve community
participation, the Government should emphasize on
bottom-up planning. Also, about 21.8% respondents
explained that in order to improve it, planning should start
at mitaa levels including their respective mitaa priorities.
Moreover, 19.6% respondents suggested that for
improving the community involvement in the process,
MEOs and mitaa residents should be trained on
participatory planning. In the same vein, Local
Government Authorities should allocate funds for projects
and running the offices because currently no funds are
allocated for the same. For example in case the service is
associated with writing letters, mitaa residents were
required to buy ruled papers for the same. According to
findings collected from MEOs revealed that LGAs should
allocate funds at Mitaas level for both running offices and
implementing various projects.
Also, MEOs, WEO and municipal staff suggested that
the government should change the manner in which it
allocates funds. More funds should be allocated according to
grassroots priorities.
Moreover, 2.9% respondents mentioned workshop,
meeting and training in community involvement on
planning as ways of improving community involvement in
planning process. Thus, in order to improve community
involvement in planning process, the government should
frequently train MEOs and mitaa residents on the same.
It should allocate adequate funds for running offices and
implementation of projects that reflect the priorities of
grassroots community. It is through community involve-
ment in planning process and disbursing adequate funds
for the projects would contribute to poverty alleviation.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The findings of this study justifies that, currently the
contribution of D-by-D in planning process at the
grassroots level is minimal and ineffective in mitaa of
Kizota ward within Dodoma Municipality. The failure
resulted from inability of the council to involve the
community in planning process that would include their
respective priorities. Moreover, the study revealed that
there has been poor utilization of human resource at the
grassroots level because the council failed to engage
mitaa residents in productive ways. Also, council plans
were in all cases prioritized over mitaa plans, hence
leaving most of the mitaa socio-economic problems
unsolved. Hence, there is a need to institute community
involvement in planning process as they would lead to an
increased ownership of projects, accountability,
sustainability, effectiveness and efficiency of the process.
The study concurs to a great extent with other studies
conducted in Makete and ludewa in Iringa region where it
was found that community involvement was being
hindered by irresponsiveness of the councils in creating
an enabling environment (TREECARE, 2005).
Despite the fact that D by D among other things calls
for community involvement in deciding matters affecting
their livelihoods including planning and setting their
priorities, the study noted numerous gaps as the mitaa
residents were not involved in the planning process;
rather they were involved in the implementation of the
centrally made plans that did not include their priorities
and as a result, efficiency in implementation becomes
minimum. Moreover, utilization of the human resources
available and their competence was also noted to be
insignificant. In that regard, it is recommended that
councils should ensure that they effectively involve the
community in setting their priorities and develop their own
plans – involve them in the planning process through
utilization of the available human resources at the grass
root levels.
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... The fourth argument is that decentralization simplifies bureaucratic procedures and increases sensitivity to local conditions, as needs are best known by local people. It is further argued that decentralization integrates and facilitates checks and balances concerning service provision in society (Winkler, 1994;Gaynor, 1998;Brosio, 2000;World Bank, 2003;Galiani et al., 2008;Gropello, 2007;Muriisa, 2008;Massoi and Norman, 2010;Demas and Arcia, 2015;Kigume and Maluka, 2018). Even in the most centralized systems, such as France, China, and Japan, there is a push to decentralize governmental activities and decision-making power (Mollel and Tollenaar, 2013). ...
... While outcomes resulting from decentralized policies have been heavily discussed and appreciated by different authors, see, for example Gaynor (1998), Winkler (1994), McGinn (1997), World Bank (2003, Massoi and Norman (2010), Mollel and Tollenaar (2013), and Kigume and Maluka (2018), much of the literature has greatly concentrated on decentralization policies in general without linking them with educational accountability through community participation in education and that of management by objectives. The study by Massoi and Norman (2010) in Tanzania was concerned with political decentralization by devolution. ...
... While outcomes resulting from decentralized policies have been heavily discussed and appreciated by different authors, see, for example Gaynor (1998), Winkler (1994), McGinn (1997), World Bank (2003, Massoi and Norman (2010), Mollel and Tollenaar (2013), and Kigume and Maluka (2018), much of the literature has greatly concentrated on decentralization policies in general without linking them with educational accountability through community participation in education and that of management by objectives. The study by Massoi and Norman (2010) in Tanzania was concerned with political decentralization by devolution. A recent study also by Kigume and Maluka (2018) in Tanzania focused on decentralization in the health sector. ...
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This study investigated the forms of decentralization and how they can bring about educational accountability in Tanzania. Open-ended questionnaires, interviews, focus group discussions and documentary reviews were methods for data collection. The findings indicate that the school committee as a representative organ of the community and parents in a decentralized educational management system, succeeded in improving the attendance rate, maintaining discipline, and controlling truancy among pupils. The findings also indicate that the teachers and school committee members appreciated the financial transparency in their schools. However, teachers commented that school committee members concentrated their attention on the Primary School Leaving Examinations (PSLE) and financial matters without ensuring that schools improve the environment in which education is provided for teachers to be accountable for the pupils' learning. Further, it was, found that financial contributions from the parents and community members were a challenge because of a lack of awareness of the importance of education for their children. It is argued in this paper that although financial contributions from the community members are necessary for the school development plans, the government needs to play a leading role in the provision of education to safeguard the poor and fight inequality in education.
... Similarly, the orientation and training provided for the SAC members helped in ensuring effective participation of community members during the prioritization and budgeting process which has been reported in many studies a major challenge in participatory budgeting [20,22,23]. These studies reported that most community members or their representatives, particularly in the rural areas could not participate fully in the planning process at the grassroots level because they have not been exposed to formal training in planning and budgeting process skills, knowledge and confidence [20,22,23]. ...
... Similarly, the orientation and training provided for the SAC members helped in ensuring effective participation of community members during the prioritization and budgeting process which has been reported in many studies a major challenge in participatory budgeting [20,22,23]. These studies reported that most community members or their representatives, particularly in the rural areas could not participate fully in the planning process at the grassroots level because they have not been exposed to formal training in planning and budgeting process skills, knowledge and confidence [20,22,23]. ...
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Participatory planning and budgeting aims to democratically allocate public money for local services, enabling communities to decide how public funds are spent and the monitoring of the services. This case study described the process and outcome of a pilot project on participatory planning and budgeting in the health sector in 6 project woredas (districts) in Somali region of Ethiopia. The Social Accountability Committee members were selected using the World Bank's framework on accountability. The community members represented by the actively participated in all stages of the planning and budgeting process leading to the development of woreda health Joint Action Plans (JAPs) which are community prioritized health activities. Eighteen (49%) of the 37 activities in the Joint Action Plans were included in the woreda annual health budget which ranged from 29% to 80% across the 6 woredas. In addition, during the first half of the fiscal year, implementation has started in 10 (56%) of the 18 JAPs activities budgeted in the annual health woreda plans and ranged from 0% to 75% across the 6 woredas. The study highlighted the feasibility of engaging the community in participatory planning and budgeting process which resulted in allocation of woreda annual health budget to some of the prioritized items in the Joint Action Plans. In the bid to ensure sustainability, government ownership and ensure citizens' participation, the fund for the participatory budgeting process should be included in Case Study Olusola et al.; ACRI, 22(1): 45-52, 2022; Article no.ACRI.84976 46 the woreda annual budget and proportion of the annual budget should be designated to the implementation and monitoring of the Joint Action Plans through appropriate legislation.
... They constitute a unitary governance system based on elected councils and committees and professional administration (7). Reference (8) in Tanzania, there was a limited performance of political leaders to enable the participation of communities in development programmes. Hence, following several reforms of local government leadership brings about a clear question of the need to examine and understand their capacity to the role, there were established to play part under the Act N0. 7 and 8 that re-introduced the Rural and Urban Local Government Authorities respectively since 1984. ...
... The local Government in Zanzibar is expected to contribute to social development including sanitation, street lighting, birth and death issues, water supply, healthcare, and primary education (6). Despite many strategies and policies implemented to promote local governments for improved service provision, little is known over the factors that contribute to the limited performance of local political leaders in Tanzania (8) and (12). This study filled the gap to assess the factors that contribute to the status quo among local political leaders. ...
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Local governments are the nucleus of development practice everywhere. The paper examined the effectiveness of local government political leaders over their roles in Zanzibar Tanzania. A cross-sectional design was employed using a mixed approach in informing the study process with a 47 sample size. Purposive and systematic sampling methods were used in selecting local leaders and community members respectively. Questionnaire survey and key informant interview were used among other methods. Revealed that majority of local political leaders had completed form four level of education. It was found that the local political leaders had a low level of practices (2.4) in the implementation of their roles including the planning, monitoring, feedback, and health and education roles. Furthermore, there was a low level of practice in community sensitisation, advocacy, resource mobilisation, and needs communication to authority. This informs low capacity and understanding of roles in practice. It was concluded that the local political leaders had a low level of practice in the implementation of their roles. Recommended for the need to reform the qualifications and procedures for recruitment of local political leaders through democratic practice of elections.
... Other studies have also shown that one of the causes of the problem of transparency in Tanzania is the lack of commitment on the part of public officials and contradictions between laws/regulations and policies (Tidemand 2015). Besides, most of the LGAs structures appear to not properly working due to little flow of information from higher levels of local governments to the lower levels in relation to resources available and results achieved (Kessy & McCourt 2010;Kessy 2008;Massoi & Norman 2009;Mdee & Thorley 2016). What is important is not only about the presence of the structures and the flow of information, but also the form in which the information is presented and made available matters. ...
... These findings provide further evidence that the challenges facing LGAs in Tanzania seem to be multiplying. For example, some scholars have noted that there are several problems and challenges which LGAs are encountering in the delivery of services in their areas of jurisdiction in Tanzania (Liviga 2012;Massoi & Norman 2009;Mdee & Thorley 2016;Mmari 2005;Ng'eni & Chalam 2016;World Bank Group & African Economic Research Consortium 2015). ...
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Transparency is an essential tool of local governance which enables the local citizens to hold local institutions accountable for their performance, to foster trust in government, minimize corruption and improve local service delivery. Accountability and transparency have been on the top of agendas in all the local government reforms in Tanzania. For transparency to work properly, it needs effective structures of implementation. Within the local government system in Tanzania, the structures of transparency are present but appear to be not working as they should do. This paper seeks to assess the extent to which the problems of transparency have persisted under the new phase of local government reforms and how they are likely to impact on local service delivery in Tanzania. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to examine the extent to which fiscal transparency in local governments in Tanzania is practised and how this has played a greater role in service delivery. The study used a case study of purposively selected local councils in Tanzania to examine the dynamics of fiscal transparency and service delivery. The findings show that there is little flow of information from higher levels of local governments to the lower levels in relation to resources available and results achieved. The information received from the councils is sometimes opaque or fuzzy in the sense that it does not reveal all about what their leaders do or what important decisions have been made about their councils. The study concludes that the importance of accountability and transparency attached to service delivery in any country is essential for good practice in local governance. Hence, instruments for accountability and transparency at the local levels must be enhanced to enable public institutions and public officials to be responsive to the citizens.
... In their study on Decentralization by Devolution: Reflection on community involvement in the planning process in Tanzania, reference [20] used the case of Kizota Ward in Dodoma Municipality and found that planning was undertaken by few experts who did not include the residents' priorities, hence, leaving many problems unsolved. It was found that 38.8% of respondents pointed out among others lack of market as a major socioeconomic problem facing their respective streets. ...
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The paper explored the challenges of local markets development in the Dodoma city. It contends that there are managerial challenges related to local markets development that require the attention of actors to benefit from local goods and services. Using a 90 sample size acquired by systematic random sampling procedures, the study employed the cross-sectional design. The qualitative and quantitative data were generated using observation, documentary review, and interviews with sellers, and buyers of Majengo, Sabasaba, and Bonanza Markets. The study found that the markets experience long distance from sources of goods beyond Dodoma region like Shinyanga and Mbeya regions. The existing scarcity of goods in the wet season also contributes to periodical high cost of goods in the city markets. Markets were faced with poor solid and liquid waste management and storage problems despite valuable revenue generated from them. It concluded that markets have a great contribution to the Dodoma city and the general livelihood of the public yet they had received poor infrastructural development, management and high prices of goods resulting from a periodical scarcity. It was recommended that there is need for the Dodoma city authorities to use effectively the Public-Private Partnership in the management of markets and allow the private sector to build and maintain market centres in the wards. This will redistribute the population by establishing other urban market centres that will add on revenue to own source of the Dodoma City adequately and be able to sustain the availability of goods in the markets.
... Citizens often use village meetings to inform leaders about the state of local government performance and complain when it is unsatisfactory (Lawson and Rakner, 2005). However, the Village Assembly does not have legislative or executive powers, and several studies of rural Tanzania have found that the "grassroots" contribution of the Village Assembly to village decisionmaking is minimal and ineffective (Norman and Massoi, 2010). ...
... Beginning in 1972, Tanzania adopted decentralization policies focused on decentralizing key authorities and functions of government from the national level to the periphery to improve community participation in decision making, as found in other countries [15]. Along with other civil service reforms in the 1990s, civil registration services were decentralized to the district level, where all births and deaths could be registered by the District Administrative Secretary [16]. However, this did not impact coverage, even after making birth registration compulsory in 2009, because birth certification rates according to the DHS and Census remained only 13% [12,13]. ...
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Background In Tanzania only an estimated one-quarter of births are registered and certified. Birth registration uses a centralized system with geographic and cost barriers for families. A pilot decentralized birth registration system has been trialled in 11 of 26 regions, substantially increasing registration points, and enabling notification, registration and certification to occur in one step. Objective This study compares completeness of birth registration and certification and achievement of key birth registration milestones in two districts where the birth registration system decentralized and two districts with the existing centralized system. Methods Registration, notification, census and survey data were used to estimate birth registration completeness and quantify achievement of key registration milestones for births in 2012–16. These were compared between districts of Mbozi (decentralized in 2013) and Iringa (decentralized in 2016) and districts of Dodoma and Kibaha which remained centralized. Results For births that occurred from 2012 to 2016, completeness of birth registration/certification (by early 2017) was higher in districts that decentralized (Iringa 60%; Mbozi 52%) than remained centralized (Kibaha 36%; Dodoma 20%). Introduction of the decentralized system saw completeness for births registered within 12 months of occurrence increase in Iringa from 1% in 2014 to 67% in 2016, and in Mbozi from 15% in 2012 to 36% in 2013 before falling and subsequently increasing to 53% in 2016. In contrast, completeness in centralized districts did not increase. Although a higher proportion of births are notified in centralized than decentralized districts, registration and certification occurs for all notified births in decentralized districts but only one-third in centralized districts. Conclusions Benefits of a decentralized system are more proximate registration points and the merging of notification, registration and certification steps. The findings, while demonstrating the immediate impact of the decentralized system on completeness, also show that continued efforts are necessary to sustain these improvements.
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Decentralisation of primary school management in Tanzania has mainly been implemented by the Primary Education Development Programme (PEDP). This programme has shown some successes in enrolment expansion and some improvements in classrooms, teachers' houses and pupils' latrines construction. The increase in enrolment, however, has resulted into crowded classrooms that make teaching a big challenge. In this study, the visited primary schools in Dar es Salaam and Mbeya faced a massive shortage of desks and classrooms and teaching and learning materials that affected the whole process of teaching and learning. Data indicate that there had been some improvements of pupils' performance in Primary School Leaving Examination (PSLE) in the beginning of the PEDP implementation (2002-2006). Recently, the available evidence suggests a declining trend of the pass rate in this examination for three years consecutively from 2007-2009. While involvement of the community in the school development plans may be important, there is a need for the government to intervene where it seems to be some problems in order to safeguard the pupils. I argue in this paper that, what is regarded as free education for all in primary schools is likely to create more harm than what is expected. For Tanzania to achieve its vision of 2025 that stresses on the learned society and preparation of people who are conscious about their own environment and be able to solve their problems encountered in their daily life class size has to be controlled and the provision of teaching and learning materials is vital.
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Journalists are unable to provide reports that are entirely true and objective as they deploy rhetorical strategies aimed “at persuading others to adopt [their] same point of view” (Thomson 1996 cited in Richardson [2007]. Analysing Newspapers: An Approach from Critical Discourse Analysis. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 65). Using one of Zimbabwe’s leading daily newspapers, NewsDay (Southern Edition), this article analysed the framing of the contentious issue of devolution of power provided in the country’s constitution drafted in 2012. The underlying assumption being that understanding how the issue of devolution was framed “is of vital importance to how the public and policy makers will respond to this kind of governance” (Agwu and Amu [2013]. “Framing of Climate Change News in Four National Daily Newspapers in Southern Nigeria.” International Conference on Climate Change Effects, 1–8, Impact World 2013, Potsdam, 1). The paper used discourse analysis to analyse the 10 purposively selected stories published between June 2010 and July 2012. Positioned within qualitative approach, the paper concludes that the NewsDay Southern Edition actively participated in the debates on devolution as a political actor through various techniques such as argumentation and rhetoric, thereby putting it on the public agenda. In particular, the publication pursued a pro-devolution agenda to galvanise readers to embrace this administrative framework as the best available model in the place of a unitary system, which was blamed for stifling development and democracy.
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Purpose This paper explores budgetary practices in a Tanzanian university after decentralization. Methodology Data were collected through interviews, document analysis, and observation. Moreover, Bourdieu's theory was used in open and axial coding procedures for data analysis. Findings The findings show that decentralized budgeting was a disillusionment. Administrators failed to transfer financial authority to resource recipients. Budgetary practices were shaped by the social structure/budget cycle (field), resources possessed by budgetary actors (capital) and the sincerity patterns of actors in budgetary practices (habitus). Most resource recipients had insincerity in budgeting habitus deploying subversive strategy, while the minority had sincerity in budgeting habitus, deploying submissive strategy. On the other hand, administrators had sincerity and insincerity in budgeting habitus, deploying conservative strategy. Practical implications In order to enhance effective decentralization, resource recipients should be provided with adequate financial resources and budgeting skills. Furthermore, they should be trusted and recognized. Moreover, in order to shape budgeting strategies and practices towards achieving organizational objectives, managements should identify and work on internal, external and technical budgetary constraints. In addition, they should promote sincerity in budgeting habitus as habitus can be created, altered, and reproduced through knowledge. Originality/Value This is the first paper to investigate budgetary practices in a university setting, employing all Bourdieu's six theoretical concepts. It contributes to Bourdieu's theory by introducing a submissive strategy. In addition, it introduces “episteme” concept as the opposite of “doxa.” Moreover, the paper responds to the call by Deering and Sá (2018) to investigate what guides budgetary practices in a university setting. The paper has also demonstrated the role of approval organs and subordinates which were neglected in prior studies. It proposes a theory of budgetary practice in a University setting when budgeting is decentralized. It thus responds to the call to investigate and theorize the role of actors in calculative practices (such as budgeting) in a University setting (Argento et al. , 2020; Aleksandrov, 2020; Grossi et al., 2020; Ozdil and Hoque, 2017).
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