Seven new records of fishes (Teleostei: Perciformes) from coral reefs and pelagic habitats in Southern Mindanao, the Philippines

Article (PDF Available)inMarine Biodiversity Records 6(e95) · June 2013with912 Reads
DOI: 10.1017/S1755267213000614
Abstract
Seven coral reef-associated and deep-water fish species were found on a local fish market in Samal Island in the Davao Gulf, constituting the first records for the Philippine archipelago. The specific geographical distributions of Eumegistus illustris (Bramidae), Paracaesio kusakarii (Lutjanidae), and Saloptia powelli (Serranidae) are greatly enlarged by these observations. The first records of Ariomma brevimanum (Ariommatidae), Brama orcini (Bramidae), Aulacocephalus temminckii (Serranidae), and Pseudanthias fasciatus (Serranidae) confirm the Indo-Pacific-wide distributions of these species. In contrast to the other records, A. brevimanum and B. orcini were encountered regularly and length weight relationships, not earlier provided in the scientific literature, were calculated. We also measured the largest specimen ever for B. orcini (Total Length of 420 mm). These observations substantiate the uniqueness of the poorly-studied fauna of the southern Philippines and underline the importance of marine Philippine fauna within the Coral Triangle.

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Available from: Arthur R. Bos
Seven new records of fish (Teleostei:
Perciformes) from coral reefs and pelagic
habitats in southern Mindanao, the
Philippines
arthur r. bos
1,2,3
and girley s. gumanao
4
1
Department of Biology, School of Sciences and Engineering, The American University in Cairo, PO Box 74, New Cairo 11835,
Egypt,
2
John D. Gerhart Field Station, The American University in Cairo, Kafr El-Gouna, Egypt,
3
Department of Marine Zoology,
Naturalis Biodiversity Center, PO Box 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands,
4
Research Office, Davao del Norte State College, New
Visayas, 8105 Panabo, Philippines
Seven coral reef-associated and deep-water fish species were found in a local fish market on Samal Island in the Davao Gulf,
constituting the first records for the Philippine archipelago. The specific geographical distributions of Eumegistus illustris
(Bramidae), Paracaesio kusakarii (Lutjanidae) and Saloptia powelli (Serranidae) are greatly enlarged by these observations.
The first records of Ariomma brevimanum (Ariommatidae), Brama orcini (Bramidae), Aulacocephalus temminckii
(Serranidae) and Pseudanthias fasciatus (Serranidae) confirm the Indo-Pacific-wide distributions of these species. In contrast
to the other records, A. brevimanum and B. orcini were encountered regularly and lengthweight relationships, not earlier
provided in the scientific literature, were calculated. We also measured the largest specimen ever for B. orcini (total length of
420 mm). These observations substantiate the uniqueness of the poorly-studied fauna of the southern Philippines and under-
line the importance of marine Philippine fauna within the Coral Triangle.
Keywords: Ariommatidae, biodiversity, Bramidae, Celebes Sea, Coral Triangle, Davao Gulf, Lutjanidae, Serranidae
Submitted 6 April 2013; accepted 10 June 2013
INTRODUCTION
Seas surrounding the more than 7000 islands of the Philippine
archipelago host the highest biodiversity of marine fauna in
the world, including the teleost fish (Tittensor et al., 2010).
For decades, the Philippine marine fish have been intensively
studied covering topics such as taxonomy and distribution
(e.g. Herre, 1953), populations dynamics in Marine
Protected Areas (MPAs) (e.g. Russ & Alcala, 1996) and biodi-
versity (e.g. Carpenter & Springer, 2005; Bos, 2011). However,
the vast majority of ichthyological studies were conducted in
the northern (Luzon) and central seas (Visayas) of the
country, which form the epicentre of marine species diversity
within the Coral Triangle (Hoeksema, 2007; Sanciangco et al.,
2013). A much lower number of studies has been carried out
in the southern Island of Mindanao (especially along the
western and southern shores), as this region has suffered
under scenes of political unrest. For that reason, the develop-
ment of a research infrastructure has been hampered and
knowledge about Mindanao’s natural resources is limited.
The Davao Gulf, a large bay located in south-eastern
Mindanao bord ering the Celebes Sea, is one area of which
little biological information is known. Therefore, it may not
be surprising that recent studies have revealed unique ecologi-
cal phenomena (Bos et al., 2008a; Bos, 2012) as well as first
records (Bos & Smits, 2013) and new taxonomic descriptions
of fish species (Motomura et al., 2001). The chance of observ-
ing first records or discovering new species is thus relatively
high along the coasts of Mindanao as earlier predicted by
Carpenter & Springer (2005).
Networks of MPAs have been created to conserve species
diversity, but knowledge of spatial distributions of many
species remains incomplete (Dalleau et al., 2010; Weeks
et al., 2010). Furthermore, climate change impacts marine bio-
diversity through changes in species distributions (e.g. extinc-
tions or invasions; Cheung et al., 2009). For these reasons, it is
of utmost importance that new records of fish species, contri-
buting to expanding geographical distributions, are reported.
The present study describes new records of fish found in a
local market on Samal Island and discusses their specific
range extensions. It further provides morphometric data and
describes, when appropriate, lengthweight relationships
and the seasonality of occurrence.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
All fish were found at the local fish market in Pen
˜
a Plata on
Samal Island, which is located in the Davao Gulf, the
Philippines (see figure 1 in Bos et al., 2008b; Bos et al.,
2013). Pen
˜
a Plata market is the main fish market on Samal
Corresponding author:
A.R. Bos
Email: arthurrbos@yahoo.com
1
Marine Biodiversity Records, page 1 of 6. # Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 2013
doi:10.1017/S1755267213000614; Vol. 6; e95; 2013 Published online
Page 1
Island, where artisanal fishermen sell their catches. Freezing
capacity at Pen
˜
a Plata market is very limited assuring that
the majority of fish are sold within 24 hours. Furthermore,
fish found on Pen
˜
a Plata market were considered to originate
from waters surrounding Samal Island, as deliveries from
other areas rarely occurred (Bos & Gumanao, 2012).
The Pen
˜
a Plata market was frequently visited (N ¼ 139) at
irregular interval s between 4 March 2009 and 25 May 2011.
Species identification was usually done on the spot, but repre-
sentatives of unidentified species were photographed to
support later identification. Additional photographs were
made of fins and other conspicuous character istics.
High-resolution photographs were used to count spines,
rays, scales, etc. allowing identification with data provided in
FishBase (Froese & Pau ly, 2012). Specialized literature
(given in each section below) and/or expert opinions (see
Acknowledgements) were used to confirm the identifications.
Standard length (SL), total length (TL) and, when appro-
priate, fork length (FL) were measured at 5 mm accuracy.
Specimens with a SL ,100 mm were measured at 1 mm accu-
racy. Specimens were weighed on a digit al scale at 1 g accu-
racy. Lengthweight relationships (W ¼ a
.
L
b
; where a is
the incept and b the slope of the log-transformed data) were
calculated if more than ten specim ens per species were found.
RESULTS
systematics
ARIOMMATIDAE
Ariomma brevimanum (Klunzinger, 1884)
Driftfish (Figure 1)
material examined
Specimens of Ariomma brevimanum were regularly encoun-
tered on the Pen
˜
a Plata market. Measurements were con-
ducted during 7.9% of all visits, but vendors indicated that
this species was available on the market more frequently.
Specimens (37 in total) were measured on 2 July 2009 (3 speci-
mens), 5 October 2009 (1), 10 February 2010 (11), 19
February 2010 (2), 26 February 2010 (5), 5 March 2010 (2),
16 April 2010 (4), 3 September 2010 (3), 1 December 2010
(2), 14 December 2010 (3) and 18 May 2011 (1). Standard
length of the specimens ranged from 115 to 475 mm, FL
ranged from 130 to 510 mm, TL ranged from 145 to
590 mm and the weight ranged from 37 to 1756 g.
diagnosis
The anterior dorsal fin had 1112 slender spines; the first 35
spines were black, whereas the remaining fin had a grey
colour. The post erior dorsal fin had 15 soft rays and a grey
colour. The caudal fin was generally grey, had a dark edge
and the tips of both lobes were black. The dorsal and caudal
fins had a light yellow shine in some specimens. The anal
fin had two spines, 14 15 rays and was white in colour. The
pectoral fins had 23 rays, were black, but became gradually
white toward their ventral sites. The pelvic fins had one
spine, five rays and were white. 5253 scales were counted
along the lateral line. Larger specimens had a dark edge at
the dorsal posterior end of the ope rculum. The body was
elongated and rounded with a general silver appearance.
The nape and the dorsal areas were darkened. Most specimens
had a black marking at the posterior, dorsal edge of the eye.
remarks
Ariomma brevimanum is known from Japan, Guam,
Indonesia, Fiji, Hawaii, Tuvalu, the Ryukyu Islands and the
Red Sea (Froese & Pauly, 2012). In January 2012, this
species was observed in Hurghada, Egypt, which also consti-
tuted a new national record (A.R. Bos, personal observation).
Parameters of the lengthweight re lationships for SL, FL and
TL are given in Table 1. This species grows to a maximum of
800 mm TL (Masuda et al., 1984).
BRAMIDAE
Brama orcini Cuvier, 1831
Bigtooth or bigbelly pomfret (Figure 2A)
material examined
A total of 32 specimens of Brama orcini were found on the
Pen
˜
a Plata market during 7.2% of all visits. Specimens were
measured on 30 October 2009 (7 specimens), 19 February
2010 (3), 7 June 2010 (2), 29 June 2010 (1), 26 August 2010
(2), 12 October 2010 (3), 23 November 2010 (3), 26
November 2010 (1), 11 February 2011 (6) and 27 April
2011 (4). Standard length of the specimens ranged from 155
to 285 mm, FL ranged from 185 to 330 mm, TL ranged
from 240 to 420 mm and the weight ranged from 126 to 663 g.
diagnosis
Dorsal fin rays 0 + 3336; anal fin rays 0 + 2830; pectoral
fin rays 20 22; lateral line scales 52 54. Scales without
Table 1. Ariomma brevimanum (Ariommatidae) and Brama orcini
(Bramidae): parameters of the lengthweight relationships for standard
length (SL), fork length (FL) and total length (TL) are shown. Intercept a,
slope b, correlation coefficient r
2
and the total numbers of observations
(N) are provided per species.
Species Length Length-
range (cm)
abr
2
N
Ariomma
brevimanum
SL 11.547.5 0.0394 2.7774 0.993 37
FL 13.051.0 0.0290 2.7991 0.997 37
TL 14.559.0 0.0281 2.6950 0.996 37
Brama orcini SL 15.528.5 0.0936 2.6289 0.974 32
FL 18.533.0 0.0497 2.7116 0.979 32
TL 24.042.0 0.0660 2.4396 0.921 32
Fig. 1. Ariomma brevimanum (Ariommatidae) found at the Pen
˜
a Plata
market, Samal Island, Philippines on 5 March 2010 (photograph: A.R. Bos).
2 arthur r. bos and girley s. gumanao
Page 2
spines. Body silvery white in colour. A black band along the
back from above the eye to the caudal peduncle. Most speci-
mens had a bright white spot at the anterior base of the
dorsal fin (Figure 2A); a characteristic not found in earlier
descriptions. Dorsal and caudal fins dark. Anal fin silvery
white as body; fin base covered with scales. Pectoral and
pelvic fins translucent.
remarks
Brama orcini is known as an epipelagic species and generally
found at depths ranging from 1 m to 100 m (Last & Moteki,
2001). Mundy (2005) reported specimens as deep as
1229 m. Brama orcini is known from tropical and sub-tropical
seas in the Indo-Pacific with records from Japan, Papua New
Guinea, Hawaii, the Maldives and Australia (Froese & Pauly,
2012). Parameters of the length weight relation ships for this
species are presented in Table 1.
BRAMIDAE
Eumegistus illustris Jordan & Jordan, 1922
Brillant pomfret (Figure 2B)
material examined
Two specimens of Eumegistus illustris were found at the Pen
˜
a
Plata market on 28 September 2010 (415 mm SL, 510 mm FL,
600 mm TL and a weight of 2593 g) and 16 May 2011
(370 mm SL, 445 mm FL, 510 mm TL and a weight of 1784 g).
diagnosis
Dorsal fin rays 0 + 33; anal fin rays 0 + 23 24; pectoral 1 fin
rays 20; lateral line scales 50. Body colour dark brown. Dorsal
and anal fins with black margin. Forked caudal fin with inter-
rupted bla ck margin.
remarks
Eumegistus illustris is known to live in relatively deep water up
to 520 m (Mundy, 2005) like most other representatives of the
Bramidae (Carvalho-Filho et al., 2009). It is mainly known
from the Pacific Ocean with records from Japan, Taiwan,
Hawaii, Fiji, China, Re
´
union, Australia, Ryukyu and Tuvalu
(Froese & Pauly, 2012). The maximum length for this
species is 550 mm SL (Last & Moteki, 2001).
LUTJANIDAE
Paracaesio kusakarii Abe, 1960
Saddleback snapper (Figure 3)
material examined
One specimen of Paracaesio kusakarii was found at the Pen
˜
a
Plata market on 25 March 2010 with a SL of 180 mm, a FL of
210 mm, a TL of 240 mm and a weight of 221 g.
diagnosis
Dorsal fin rays X + 10; anal fins rays III + 8; pectoral fin rays
16; lateral line scales 49. Bod y silvery with four brown almost
vertical bands and dark brown on the dorsal side of the head
(Abe, 1960). Dark-tipped scales form longitudinal lines,
especially below the lateral line. The fins are grey to whitish;
the margin of the dorsal fin yellow. Most of the caudal fin
yellow, but upper seven fin rays of dorsal lobe white.
remarks
Paracaesio kusakarii is found at depths ranging from 100 to
310 m (Anderson & Allen, 2001), but is usually found at
125 to 250 m (Froese & Pauly, 2012). Paracaesio kusakarii is
known from the western Pacific (Ryukyu Islands to north-
eastern Australia and east to Samoa). The maximum length
for this species is 600 mm SL (Anderson & Allen, 2001).
SERRANIDAE
Aulacocephalus temminckii Bleeker, 1854
Goldribbon soapfish (Figure 4A)
material examined
One specimen of Aulacocephalus temminckii was found at the
Pen
˜
a Plata market on 16 May 2011 with a SL of 230, a TL of
265 mm and a weight of 236 g.
diagnosis
Dorsal fin rays IX + 12; anal fin rays III + 9; pectoral fin rays
14; pelvic fin rays I + 5; lateral line scales 79. Colour of the
Fig. 2. Brama orcini (A) and Eumegistus illustris (B) of the Bramidae found at
the Pen
˜
a Plata market, Samal Island, Philippines on 11 February 2011 and 16
May 2011 respectively (photographs: A.R. Bos).
Fig. 3. Paracaesio kusakarii (Lutjanidae) found at the Pen
˜
a Plata market,
Samal Island, Philippines on 25 March 2010 (photograph: A.R. Bos).
seven new fish from mindanao 3
Page 3
body dark blue with a bright yellow band from snout, through
the eye, along the back to the caudal fin. Proximal end of
dorsal fins bright yellow being part of the band. Caudal fin
base bright yellow. Proximal end of first rays of pelvic fin
yellow. Thin yellow line along the margin of the maxilla. Fin
rays (except in pectoral fins) dark blue and tissue translucent
to grey.
remarks
Aulacocephalus temminckii is an inhabitant of coral reefs with
a depth distribution of 20 350 m. It is widely distributed in
the Indo-Pacific from the Red Sea and South Africa to New
Zealand and Japan, and further east to French Polynesia
(Khalaf & Zajonz, 2007). The maximum length known for
this species is 400 mm TL (Lieske & Myers, 2002).
SERRANIDAE
Pseudanthias fasciatus (Kamohara, 1954)
Striped anthias or one-stripe anthias (Figure 4B)
material examined
One specimen of Pseudanthias fasciatus was found at the Pen
˜
a
Plata market on 10 February 2010 with a SL of 87 mm, a FL of
103 mm, a TL of 144 mm and a weight of 25 g.
diagnosis
Dorsal fin rays X + 16; anal fin rays III + 7; pectoral fin rays
17; lateral line scales 44. Body brightly orange with a red stripe
(and white margins) from the opercular flap to the caudal fin
base. Scales have dark spots dorsal of the red stripe, whereas
scales ventral to the red stripe have oran ge spots forming
narrow lines. The fins are orange in colour.
remarks
Pseudanthias fasciatus is typically found in coral reef habitats,
but may reach depths up to 150 m (Myers, 1999). This species
is known from the Red Sea to southern Japan and the Great
Barrier Reef. Recently it was reported from Tonga (Randall
et al., 2004). The maximum length known for this species is
210 mm TL (Randall et al., 1996).
SERRANIDAE
Saloptia powelli Smith, 1964
Golden grouper (Figure 4C)
material examined
One specimen of Saloptia powelli was found at the Pen
˜
a Plata
market on 12 April 2011 with a SL of 390 mm, a FL of
460 mm, a TL of 480 mm and a weight of 1691 g.
diagnosis
Doral fin rays VIII + 11; anal fin rays III + 8; pectoral fin rays
14; lateral line scales 76. Body generally yellow. Dorsal side
lighter in colour with some areas turning rose (Figure 4C).
Some reddish blotches/blushes on the head and above the
eye. Fins yellow.
remarks
This species is known to inhabit dept hs in the range of 140
367 m (Heemstra & Randall, 2001). It is found from the
Ryukyu Islands to the Great Barrier Reef, east to the
Mariana Islands and Society Islands, and west to Taiwan
(Heemstra & Randall, 2001). The maximum length known
for this species is 500 mm TL (Heemstra & Randall, 2001).
DISCUSSION
Ariomma brevimanum, a representative of the Ariommatidae,
is generally considered a rare species, but has been locally
caught in large quantities in Japan (Last, 2001). During the
present study many specimens were observed, but their occur-
rence did not follow a seasonal pattern. Vendors indicated that
specimens of A. brevimanum are available on the market rela-
tively frequently and that we only measured a small fraction
during our visits. This means that A. brevimanum is an impor-
tant food fish in Samal Island and that there must be, similarly
as in Japan (Last, 2001), a large population that supports its
fishery in the Davao Gulf. The specimens measured on the
Pen
˜
a Plata market were of moderate size (Masuda et al.,
1984) and constitute the first record of A. brevimanum in
the Philippine seas. This observation confirms its
Indo-Pacific-wide distribution and may suggest that other
localized populations of this species support subsi stence fish-
eries. Brama orci ni, one of the two representatives of the
Bramidae found on the fish market in Pen
˜
a Plata, also has
an Indo-Pacific-wide distribution. The 32 specimens consti-
tute the first recor d of Brama orcini in the Philippines and
provide a new maximum size of 420 mm TL. The maximum
length known for this species was 350 mm TL (Eschmeyer
Fig. 4. Aulacocephalus temminckii (A), Pseudanthias fasciatus (B) and
Saloptia powelli (C) of the Serranidae found at the Pen
˜
a Plata market, Samal
Island, Philippines on 16 May 2011, 10 February 2010 and 12 April 2011
respectively (photographs: A.R. Bos).
4 arthur r. bos and girley s. gumanao
Page 4
et al., 1983). The observations of B. orcini at the Pen
˜
a Plata
market do not suggest a seasonal pattern of occurrence in
the Davao Gulf. According to the vendors, this species is reg-
ularly sold on the market and should be considered a food fish
for this region. The two specimens of Eumegistus illustris
(Bramidae) found in Samal Island constitute the first record
of this species in the Philippines and further expand its distri-
bution area in western direction. According to the vendors, this
species, as well as the following species to be discussed, are very
uncommon in the Pen
˜
a Plata market and do not play an
important role in the local fishery. Last & Moteki (2001) ques-
tioned an earlier observation of E. illustris in Guam, but con-
sidering the relative nearness of Guam to the Philippines
that observation may be valid. The specimens observed in
Samal Island were relatively large considering the maximum
known size of 550 mm SL (Last & Moteki, 2001).
A medium-sized specimen of Paracaesio kusakarii
(Lutjanidae), found during the present study, constitutes the
first record in the Philippines. Paracaesio kusakarii was
thought to be distributed east of the axis formed by
southern Japan and north-east Australia. However, one
single observation from Singapore had already suggested a
distribution in western direction (Anderson & Allen, 2001),
which is confirmed by the present record.
The two serranids Aulacocephalus temminckii and
Pseudanthias fasciatus are widely distributed in the
Indo-Pacific re gion (Froese & Pauly, 2012), but had never
been recorded in the Philippines. Both species were rep-
resented by only one specimen of moderate size (Lieske &
Myers, 2002). One moderate-sized specimen of Saloptia
powelli, the third representative of the Serranidae, constitutes
another first record in the Philippine seas. This is the most
western record at the latitude of the Davao Gulf (Heemstra
& Randall, 2001) further expanding the distribution area of
this species.
The seven newly recorded fish that are presented in this
study provide new knowledge about their specific distri-
butions and give an indication about their original distri-
butions or possible range extensions. In either case, this
information is important when it comes to conservation
efforts for the species in question or, in a broa der sense, for
the entire Indo-Pacific biodiversity. The marine biodiversity
of the Philippine archipelago increases with every new
record and may be much higher than previously assumed.
Past predictions had already indicated that the core of
Indo-Pacific marine biodiversity must be in the Philippines
(Hoeksema, 2007; Sanciangco et al., 2013). The present
study and other recently described species and new records
from the Philippines (e.g. Randall & Allen, 2010; Uiblein &
McGrouther, 2012; Bos & Smits, 2013) underline the impor-
tance of the Philippine fauna as part of the marine biodiversity
within the larger Coral Triangle. Therefore, it must be empha-
sized that increased efforts are needed to help conserve the
abundance of marine life in the Philippines.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We thank B. Mueller, S. Nitza, M. Saceda-Cardoza and the
vendors of the Pen
˜
a Plata market for supporting the fieldwork.
We further ackn owledge K. Carpenter (Old Dominion
University), J. Randall (Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum),
S. Kuang-Tsao and L. Yun-Chih (Academia Sinica), who
confirmed some identifications, and M. Madison (National
Conservation Training Center), who provided a copy of
Herre (1953). This research received no specific grant from
any funding agency, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
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Correspondence should be addressed to:
A.R. Bos
Department of Biology
School of Sciences and Engineering
The American University in Cairo
PO Box 74, New Cairo
11835, Egypt
email: arthurrbos@yahoo.com
6 arthur r. bos and girley s. gumanao
Page 6
    • "Researchers have long neglected the biota in the southern islands of the archipelago due to continued political unrest (e.g., Russ & Alcala, 1996; Carpenter & Springer, 2005; Bos, 2011). In recent years however, new records of fishes have been observed in the Davao Gulf (Bos & Gumanao, 2013; Bos & Smits, 2013) and a new fish species Polydactylus longipes (Motomura et al., 2001) was described. Furthermore, unique ecological discoveries, such as a previously unknown corallimorph predator of the crown-of-thorns sea star Acanthaster planci (Bos et al., 2008; 2011b) and a commensal relationship between fishes and the mushroom coral Heliofungia actiniformis (Bos, 2012)—so far unique to the Davao Gulf—were reported. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goatfish, Upeneus nigromarginatus new species, is described based on 5 specimens (151–196 mm) purchased at a fish market in Panabo City, Mindanao, Philippines. This species is diagnosed by the following counts and external morphology: dorsal fin rays (VIII, 9–10), pectoral fin rays (16), lateral line scales (36–37), total number of gill rakers (25–26), and anal fin rays (I–II, 6). When compared to congeners, U. nigromarginatus new species has a relatively deeper body (31.1–34.8% in SL vs. <30% in SL), shorter snout (7.1–9.0% in SL vs. >9.6 % in SL), and longer pectoral fin (27.7–29.1% in SL vs. <25 % in SL). Upeneus. nigromarginatus new species, has neither stripes on the body, nor bands on the caudal fin. However, a black band borders the distal edges of both the first and second dorsal fins, and at the posterior edge of the upper lobe of the caudal fin; hence the proposed common name ‘black-margined goatfish’. The posterior edge of the ventral caudal lobe has a white margin. The comparisons of a fragment of the Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I (COI; 28 specimens representing 10 Upeneus species) and 34 morphometric parameters (Principle Component Analysis; 56 specimens representing 5 genera and 12 mullid species) supported the description of U. nigromarginatus new species.
    Full-text· Article · Oct 2014 · The Raffles bulletin of zoology
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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During 139 visits between March 2009 and May 2011, it was found that the availability of reef fishes at a local fish market in the Philippines was highly affected by the lunar cycle. The number of vendors selling reef fishes was significantly lower (13·4%) during third lunar quarters (full moon periods) than during the first, second and fourth lunar quarters (40·2, 25·0 and 30·0%, respectively). It is recommended that the influence of the lunar cycle on fish availability is considered when designing sampling strategies for catch surveys.
    Full-text· Article · Nov 2012 · Journal of Fish Biology
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