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We examined hope as a potential resiliency factor for the daily strains of raising children with disruptive behavior disorders. In light of the motivational component of hope theory, initiating and sustaining effort toward goals (i.e., agency), we were interested in hope's relation to constructs addressing self-esteem, familial functioning, and stress. Two hundred, fifty-two parents of children with externalizing disorders completed self-report questionnaires. Significant associations were foundamong hope and parental and familial functioning indices (e.g., warm and nurturing parenting styles, cohesive and active family environment, adaptive coping strategies). Considering their conceptual overlap, we tested the unique predictive power of hope and optimistic attributions on indices of psychological functioning. Separate regressions indicated that hope significantly predicted psychological functioning beyond what was accounted for by social desirability, the severity of child symptoms, and optimistic attributions. Hope agency compared to hope pathways (i.e., perceived ability to generate strategies to obtain goals) accounted for the vast amount of variance in regression models. In contrast, optimistic attributions failed to predict any of the variables of interest. Treatment and prevention strategies are suggested with an integrated focus on both the disruptive behaviors of children and parental character traits.
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... Offering insight into this variability are parent expectations. Some parents appear to have more positive expectations, including elevated levels of optimism and hope, and these positive expectations appear to translate to better parenting (Baker et al., 2005;Kashdan et al., 2002;Loh et al., 2017) and child wellbeing (Jones et al., 2002). Accordingly, parents who endorse higher levels of pessimism and hopelessness appear to be atrisk of poor parent and child-level problems. ...
... Two contrasting, albeit related, indicators of parental expectations are hopelessness and optimism (Chang et al., 1994;Kashdan et al., 2002). Parent hopelessness, which is the anticipation of bad outcomes, engenders a sense of helplessness to control outcomes (Abramson et al., 1989;Cohen et al., 2017). ...
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Low-income parents are more likely to have a child with disruptive behaviors. Furthermore, these parents are likely to struggle with low expectations about the future, which can interfere with treatment response to even the most effective treatments. The purpose of this study was to explore correlates of low-income parents’ expectations, specifically hopelessness and optimism, in families with clinic-referred disruptive young children. Using baseline data from an intervention trial (Jones et al., 2021), we used a multi-informant approach to test whether parenting behaviors, child misbehavior, and parental daily stressors were related to parent hopelessness and optimism. Results based on the Everyday Stress Index indicated that only daily stressors, particularly those related to relationships and responsibilities, were related to parent feelings of hopelessness and optimism. Results were interpreted through transactional and ecological systems theories, particularly the Family Stress Model (Conger & Conger, 2002), as well as a low-income parent’s self-efficacy as a caregiver. Clinical implications are discussed.
... When conceptualizing parenting through the lens of Snyder et al. (1991) hope theory, hopeful parents are able to set meaningful goals, identify strategies to reach their goals, and find ways to stay motivated to use these strategies when they encounter challenges and barriers in their approach to parenting. Furthermore, hope may act as a buffer against negative cognitive and emotional states related to parenting (Kashdan et al., 2002). Hopeful parents reported more psychological adjustment during parenting, specifically when presented with stressful situations including having a child diagnosed with a serious illness (Horton & Wallander, 2001;Venning et al., 2007), having an infant born with a low birthweight (Nordheim et al., 2018), navigating the adoption process (Levanon-Simyoni, 2009), and caring for children with intellectual disabilities (Lloyd & Hastings, 2009). ...
... Past research suggests that hope is a protective factor for parents and children and that it promotes healthy coping, mental health, and family functioning (Kashdan et al., 2002;Nordheim et al., 2018;Venning et al., 2007). Furthermore, there is ample research demonstrating that even brief interventions are effective at enhancing hope (e.g., Sotoudeh Navroodi et al., 2018). ...
Article
The current project aimed to develop and validate the Hope for Parenting Scale (HFPS), a five-item self-report instrument that addresses hopeful thinking of parents. In Sample 1, 413 fathers of infants completed the HFPS. In Sample 2, 290 mothers and fathers of children age 0–18 completed the HFPS. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted using Sample 1 and the single factor solution suggested by EFA item loadings was examined using confirmatory factor analysis with Sample 2. Convergent validity was established via significant correlations to criterion measures of trait hope and paternal involvement with infants. Discriminant validity was established through significant correlations to a measure of depression, anxiety, and stress. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
... Bahkan khususnya para ibu dengan anak disabilitas banyak membutuhkan perawatan tubuh (Datta et al., 2002;Kermanshahi et al., 2008;Upadhyaya & Havalappanavar, 2008;Verma & Kishore, 2009). (Kashdan et al., 2002) menemukan bahwa hope secara signifikan berpengaruh pada fungsi psikologis orang tua dengan anak yang memiliki gangguan eksternalisasi. Hope yang tinggi membantu meningkatkan atribusi optimist orang tua tersebut. ...
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Adanya kebutuhan unik dari anak dengan disabilitas menghadapkan orang tua pada risiko permasalahan fisik dan mental dalam pengasuhan. Parental self-efficacy menjadi salah satu faktor penting untuk menurunkan distress psikologis dan perilaku maladaptif dalam pengasuhan. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor yang mempengaruhi Parental self-efficacy. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode systematic review menggunakan framework PICO dalam menentukan kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi. Pencarian artikel dilakukan pada 4 situs yaitu Proquest, SagePub, ScienceDirect, dan SpringerLink. Ditemukan 65 artikel yang selanjutnya diseleksi. Terdapat 6 artikel kuantitaif paling relevan yang di-review, sementara artikel kualitatif dan eksperimen dijadikan sebagai latar belakang dan bahan diskusi dalam artikel ini. Berdasarkan hasil systematic literature review yang dilakukan, diketahui bahwa faktor yang mempengaruhi Parental Self-Efficacy adalah jenis kelamin, kelelahan, pengalaman mengasuh anak dengan disabilitas, dukungan sosial, stres, stigma, dan keterlibatan orang tua. Diperlukan intervensi psikologis seperti program meditasi, mindfulness, dan Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) serta intervensi terkait knowledge orang tua
... İlgili alanyazın incelendiğinde psikolojik iyi oluşun yordayıcıları olarak bilişsel esneklik, bilinçli farkındalık ve umudun birlikte ele alındığı bir çalışmaya rastlanmamıştır. Psikolojik iyi oluşun en önemli yordayıcısının umut olmasının; umut düzeyi yüksek bireylerin sahip oldukları içsel güdülenme ile hedeflerine giden farklı yolları deneyimleme isteğiyle, geleceğe dair pozitif bakış açısıyla, bireyin stresle baş edebilmesine yardımcı olmasıyla ve hedefleri söz konusu olduğunda cesaretlendirici bir etkisinin olmasıyla ilişkilendirilebilir. Umudun psikolojik iyi oluşla pozitif ilişki gösterdiği ve anlamlı yordayıcısı olduğu farklı çalışmalar da mevcuttur (Kashdan vd., 2002;Khan, 2013;Şahin vd., 2012). Psikolojik iyi oluşu yordayan ikinci önem sırasına sahip yordayıcının bilinçli farkındalık olması bilinçli farkındalığın; kendini ve başkalarını kabule, diğerleriyle olumlu ilişkiler içinde olmaya, açık deneyimlemeye, kendini tanımaya ve bireyin kendisiyle iletişim kurmasına yardımcı olmasıyla ilişkilendirilebilir. Kendi güçlü ve zayıf yönlerinin farkında olan birey kendi gelişimi için doğru alanlara başvurabilir ve diğerleriyle pozitif ilişkiler kurabilir (Yiğit, 2012). ...
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Öz Bu çalışmada yetişkinlik dönemindeki bireylerin psikolojik iyi oluş düzeylerini yordamada bilişsel esneklik, bilinçli farkındalık ve umut değişkenlerinin rolü araştırılmıştır. Araştırmada ilişkisel tarama modeli kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın örneklemini kolay örnekleme yöntemiyle belirlenen ve Google Formlar aracılığıyla ulaşılan 354 kadın, 165 erkek olmak üzere 519 yetişkin birey oluşturmaktadır. Katılımcılara veri toplama aracı olarak “Psikolojik İyi Oluş Ölçeği”, “Bilişsel Esneklik Envanteri”, “Sürekli Umut Ölçeği”, “Bilinçli Farkındalık Ölçeği” ve “Kişisel Bilgi Formu” uygulanmıştır. Elde edilen veriler SPSS 22 istatistiksel analiz programı aracılığıyla Bağımsız Örneklem t Testi, Kruskall- Wallis Testi, Mann Whitney U Testi, Pearson Korelasyon Analizi ve Çoklu Doğrusal Regresyon Analizi kullanılarak test edilmiştir. Yapılan analizler sonucunda psikolojik iyi oluş puanlarının cinsiyet, medeni durum, çocuk sahibi olma durumu, çalışma durumu değişkenlerine göre anlamlı olarak farklılık gösterdiği bulgusuna ulaşılmıştır. Pearson Korelasyon Analizinden elde edilen bulgulara göre, psikolojik iyi oluş ile bilişsel esneklik, bilinçli farkındalık, umut arasında pozitif yönde anlamlı ilişkiler bulunmuştur. Regresyon analizi sonucunda umut ve bilinçli farkındalığın psikolojik iyi oluşun anlamlı yordayıcıları olduğu fakat bilişsel esnekliğin anlamlı yordayıcı olmadığı sonucu elde edilmiştir. Söz konusu bu değişkenlerin ortak etkilerinin psikolojik iyi oluş puanına ilişkin toplam varyansın %47’sini açıkladıkları tespit edilmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Psikolojik İyi Oluş, Bilişsel Esneklik, Bilinçli Farkındalık, Umut Abstract In this study, the role of cognitive flexibility, mindfulness and hope variables in predicting the psychological well-being of individuals in adulthood was investigated. Relational survey model was used in the study. The sample of the study consists of 519 adults, 354 females and 165 males, determined by the easy sampling method and accessed via Google Forms. “Psychological Well-Being Scale”, “Cognitive Flexibility Inventory”, “Dispositional Hope Scale”, “Mindful Attention Awareness Scale” and “Personal Information Form” were applied to the participants as data collection tools. The data obtained were tested by using Independent Sample tTest, Kruskall-Wallis Test, Mann Whitney U Test, Pearson Correlation Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis through SPSS 22 statistical analysis program. As a result of the analysis, it was found that psychological well-being scores differ significantly according to the variables of gender, marital status, childbearing status, employment status. According to the findings, positive significant relationships were found between psychological well-being and cognitive flexibility, mindfulness, and hope. Regression analysis determined that hope and mindfulness are significant predictors of psychological well-being, but cognitive flexibility is not a significant predictor. It was determined that 47% of the total variance explained the common effects of the mentioned variables to psychological well-being scores. Keywords: Psychological Well-Being, Cognitive Flexibility, Mindfulness, Hope
... Although many previous studies have reported severe problems among the parents of children with CP (6)(7)(8), some recent studies have revealed positive and promising attitudes in these parents. In other words, some parents have seemingly overcome their problems and returned to normal family life (9,10). Hope is generally regarded as a critical predictor indicating the parent's acceptance of their child's disability (11). ...
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Background: There is ample evidence indicating that the parents of children with cerebral palsy report the experience of hope, despite all problems to which they are exposed. Objectives: This study aimed to explain the factors facilitating hope regarding the experiences of parents having children suffering from cerebral palsy. Methods: This qualitative study was carried out using the content analysis method. The experiments of 17 parents (11 females and 6 males) having children with cerebral palsy were collected in in-depth unstructured interviews in 2019, and then content analysis was performed using Strauss and Corbin’s approach. The purposive sampling method was used as long as data saturation was reached. After that, the collected data were analyzed using the content analysis method. Results: In this study, several factors were extracted as facilitators of hope in parents of children with cerebral palsy. These effective facilitating factors were classified into four main categories: promising treatment, positive beliefs, motivational drivers, and support networks. Conclusions: Various factors can be effective in promoting hope in parents of children with cerebral palsy, the detection of which would help developing educational and counseling programs and providing support for such parents.
... Scheier and Carver (1985) suggest that outcome expectancies are the best predictors of behavior. On the other hand, other researchers seem to identify hope as a better predictor of psychological well-being in comparison to optimism (Bailey et al., 2007;Bryant & Cvengros, 2004;Kashdan et al., 2002;Holleran & Snyder, 1990;Magaletta & Oliver, 1999). Regardless these differences, it is very well established that these are two highly correlated constructs, allowing the use of optimism as a measure of convergent validity in some hope validation work (e.g., Bryant & Cvengros, 2004;Pacico et al., 2013). ...
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The present work focus on preliminary adaptation of Snyder’s Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS; Snyder et al., 1991a, b) for Italian adolescents. Members of the research team develop the Italian version of the ADHS engaging an completing a back-translation. The newly developed Italian version of the ADHS was then piloted with a subsample of adolescent to test its content validity and their understanding of its items and instructions. Once finalized, the Italian ADHS was included in a larger online assessment process launched in 2016 by the Istituto Toniolo di Studi Superiori. In this study we the data obtained by a sample of 3271 adolescents (45.1% male) ranging between 12 and 18 of age who completed this assessment. After a preliminary exploratory analysis of the data, a Confirmatory Factory Analysis (CFA) was completed to test the internal structure of the instrument, also exploring its gender invariance. Finally, an evaluation of its convergent validity was completed using the Life Orientation Test – Revised (LOT-R; Scheier et al., 1994). Our results show excellent model fit indices for a bi-dimensional structure of the ADHS, with Pathways and Agency as first order factors. A multigroup analysis of invariance showed the consistency of the structure across self-identified male and female adolescents. Finally, the Italian version of Snyder’s ADHS showed good convergent validity when explored in relationship with the LOT-R. This results show how the new Italian version of the ADHS can be used for clinical and research purposes.
... Kashdan [18] showed that optimism is influenced by several factors, such as strong relations between parents, adaptability of individuals (e.g., self-esteem), and familial functioning. ...
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The current study examined inconsistent discipline as a linking mechanism connecting parental guilt about work to adolescent psychological distress in military families. Military families may face tensions connected to competing demands of family and the military career, which can produce a sense of parental guilt. This guilt may contribute to poor parenting behaviors, such as inconsistent discipline, which can be detrimental for adolescents (e.g., leading to depression and anxiety). A structural equation model with data from 223 military families (i.e., active duty father, civilian mother, and adolescent) examined the associations among parental guilt, inconsistent discipline, and adolescent psychological distress. Active duty fathers' guilt and inconsistent discipline were related to their perceptions of adolescent psychological distress, whereas civilian mothers' guilt was indirectly related to both their own and their partner's perceptions of adolescent psychological distress through their inconsistent discipline. Inconsistent discipline is a parenting behavior related to parental guilt and adolescent psychological distress. More research is needed to better understand the nuances of military contexts for families. Inconsistent discipline is a specific, malleable parenting behavior with implications for prevention and intervention programs designed for military families as well as family‐related policies in the military.
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Considering that adults with Substance Use Disorder (SUD) experience many barriers and challenges in designing and living a satisfactory life, based on Life Design paradigm, this study aimed at analyzing the direct and indirect effect of career adaptability, through hope, on life satisfaction in a sample of individuals with SUD compared to a sample of individuals without SUD. In this study, a sample of 185 adults with and 185 adults without SUD was involved and different measures to assess career adaptability (Career Adapt-Abilities Scale-Italian Form; Soresi, Nota, & Ferrari; 2012), hope (The Adult Hope Scale) and life satisfaction (The Satisfaction with Life Scale) were used. Multigroup structural analyses were conducted to test the group differences in the direct and indirect effects model hypothesized. Results showed that career adaptability is indirectly, through hope, related to life satisfaction across two groups. These results have important implications for practice and emphasize the need to promoting career adaptability and hope in people with SUD to improve their life satisfaction that is an important diagnostic and outcome criteria in substance use disorder issues.
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Parenting and family stress treatment outcomes in the MTA study were examined. Male and female (579), 7–9-year-old children with combined type Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), were recruited at six sites around the United States and Canada, and randomly assigned to one of four groups: intensive, multi-faceted behavior therapy program alone (Beh); carefully titrated and monitored medication management strategy alone (MedMgt); a well-integrated combination of the two (Comb); or a community comparison group (CC). Treatment occurred over 14 months, and assessments were taken at baseline, 3, 9, and 14 months. Parenting behavior and family stress were assessed using parent-report and child-report inventories. Results showed that Beh alone, MedMgt alone, and Comb produced significantly greater decreases in a parent-rated measure of negative parenting, Negative/Ineffective Discipline, than did standard community treatment. The three MTA treatments did not differ significantly from each other on this domain. No differences were noted among the four groups on positive parenting or on family stress variables. Results are discussed in terms of the theoretical and empirically documented importance of negative parenting in the symptoms, comorbidities and long-term outcomes of ADHD.
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The relations of dispositional hope to various self-reported cancer-related coping activities were examined in 115 college women. Dispositionally high- as compared to low-hope women were more knowledgeable about cancer, and this relationship remained when the shared variances due to previous academic achievement, experience with cancer among family or friends, and positive and negative affectivity were removed. Additionally, high- as compared to low-hope women reported more hope-related coping responses in four separate imagined phases of cancer (prevention/risk, detection, temporal course, and impact), and these relationships remained when shared variances related to previous academic achievement, knowledge about cancer, experience with cancer, and negative affectivity were removed. Hope is discussed as means of maintaining a “fighting spirit” for coping with cancer.
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The influence of high versus low hope on problem-solving ability and on coping with stressful academic and interpersonal situations was examined in 211 college students. Consistent with Snyder's(1995) model, high-hope students were found to have greater problem-solving abilities than low-hope students. High-hope students were also found to employ less disengagement strategies than low-hope students for coping with stressful academic situations. No difference was found in the strategies used by high- and low-hope students for coping with stressful interpersonal situations. Separate hierarchical regression analyses indicated that hope was an important predictor of both academic and interpersonal life satisfaction independent of coping activities. Implications of the present findings for both theory and practice are discussed. (C) 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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This research sought to integrate C. S. Dweck and E. L. Leggett's (1988) model with attribution theory. Three studies tested the hypothesis that theories of intelligence-the belief that intelligence is malleable (incremental theory) versus fixed (entity theory)-would predict (and create) effort versus ability attributions, which would then mediate mastery-oriented coping. Study 1 revealed that, when given negative feedback, incremental theorists were more likely than entity theorists to attribute to effort. Studies 2 and 3 showed that incremental theorists were more likely than entity theorists to take remedial action if performance was unsatisfactory. Study 3, in which an entity or incremental theory was induced, showed that incremental theorists' remedial action was mediated by their effort attributions. These results suggest that implicit theories create the meaning framework in which attributions occur and are important for understanding motivation.