Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Intention Levels

Source: RePEc


Entrepreneurship is becoming a very relevant instrument to promote economic growth and development in different regional and national economies. However, social scientists have not still agreed on the determinants of the decision to become an entrepreneur. Therefore, there is some concern that policies may not be sufficiently efficient in achieving this objective. From a psychological point of view, the intention to become an entrepreneur has been described as the single best predictor of actual behaviour (Ajzen, 1991; Kolvereid, 1996). Hence, some studies have started to analyse the entrepreneurial intention and its determinants (Krueger et al., 2000) but however, methodologies and research instruments used so far differ widely. Then, the availability of a validated instrument to measure abilities, attitudes and intentions towards entrepreneurship could be of much help. In this paper, we use an Entrepreneurial Intention Questionnaire (EIQ), which has been recently validated, to measure entrepreneurial intentions in a sample of students from different Spanish universities. After a brief description of the characteristics and psychometric properties of the EIQ, most important results are discussed. In particular, we pay attention to the influence of different personal and family variables on the entrepreneurial intention level. These variables could be considered as belonging to the institutional environment of each territory. Differences in institutions -in a broad sense- may be a very relevant factor to explain divergent entrepreneurial activity levels. Results show how these external variables affect intention and, as a result actual entrepreneurial behaviour.

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Available from: Juan Carlos Rodríguez-Cohard
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    • "Students in both samples with entrepreneurial family background and/or a positive view (success) of their family's business experience expressed a higher intention to start own business. This result is in line with several authors' findings (e.g.,Liñán et al. 2005;Mueller 2006) that suggest that individuals coming from entrepreneurial families have higher tendencies to establish own businesses. This is an expected finding given that an entrepreneurial family provides youngsters with an opportunity to acquire certain business skills, confidence, experience and vision, all of which contribute to inclination to start a new business. "
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    ABSTRACT: Research confirms that intentions play an important role in the decision to start a new firm. But what factors influence intention? The purpose of this study is to investigate the antecedents to entrepreneurial behaviour with particular attention to social (experience and education), societal (economic and political climate), and personality factors. This study compares and contrasts U.S. and Turkish students based on surveys of 589 junior and senior students at one American and one Turkish university. The findings indicate that although they hold a positive attitude towards entrepreneurship, both U.S. and Turkish students show a low level of entrepreneurial intention. Confirming prior work, the findings also indicate that there is a statistically significant relationship among personality attributes of optimism, innovativeness, risk-taking propensity and entrepreneurial intention. In a new line of inquiry, experiential activities known to promote creative thinking—exposure to other cultures, new experiences and art events—were found to contribute to perceived innovativeness. Both U.S. and Turkish students expressed a need for more training and education on entrepreneurship to start a new business. As U.S. students perceived a high level of risk associated with entrepreneurship, Turkish students evaluated the economic and political conditions of home country quite unfavourably to start own business. JEL classification numbers: M00.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2016
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    • "In particular, a comparison of attitudes towards entrepreneurship between students from regions with different economic development statuses is conducted in the current study by assessing the differences in the perceived contribution of entrepreneurship to society as well as in the characteristics of entrepreneurs. The existence of role models and potential differences between the types of role models inspiring students may provide further insights into the attractiveness of entrepreneurial behaviour (Liñán and Chen, 2009) and its perceived feasibility (Liñán et al., 2005). Furthermore, entrepreneurial experience of students is considered, to have relationships with subjective norms across Spanish and Taiwanese cultures (Liñán and Chen, 2009) and perceived behavioural control in the Spanish sample. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – This paper aims to identify the differences between African and European students with regard to their entrepreneurial intentions, attitudes towards entrepreneurship, role models and entrepreneurial experience. It also aims to set the scene for future comparative research between developing and developed countries in the area of graduate entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach – A quantitative empirical research design was applied, using self-administered questionnaires. Questionnaires were distributed to first-year business students at universities in three African countries that are either developing (Uganda and Kenya) or emerging (South Africa) and four European developed nations (Finland, Germany, Ireland, and Portugal). Findings – The results indicate that students from developing/emerging economies are more likely to envisage future careers as entrepreneurs and are more positive towards entrepreneurship than their industrialised European counterparts, even though motivators for employment/self-employment are similar across the samples. The type of role models used and the extent of entrepreneurial experience varied between individual countries. Research limitations/implications – Limitations include the use of a convenience sample and its restriction on the use of statistics, a single data collection point and a sample across seven countries on two continents. Practical implications – The results lead to universal and country-specific recommendations relating to the improvement of student-oriented entrepreneurship activities within universities. Originality/value – The paper extends research on graduate entrepreneurship by providing an international comparison of entrepreneurship intentions, attitudes and experiences between developing/emerging and developed nations, leading to suggestions on how to foster an entrepreneurial spirit and assist new-venture creations for students.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Education and Training
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    • "From the definition of SN as a " perception of what important people in students' lives think about them in becoming self employed, weighted by the strength of the motivation to comply with them " (Krueger et al., 2000), this paper theorises ME generation's are less likely conform to their lecturers' expectation to become self-employed. This proposition is aligned with previous studies that revealed low SN to comply with lecturers' expectation with respects to self-employment intention (Scholten et al., 2004; Liñán et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of undergraduates' specialised entrepreneurship programmes in Malaysian universities that have been made available to “ME generation” students. By analysing the antecedents and predicting self-employment intention, the paper evaluates the impact of such programmes upon the employability value of undergraduates who are part of the ME generation in a developing country such as Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach – A census survey was conducted on final and penultimate year students from major public and private universities in Malaysia. From these data, analyses of variables that affect self-employment intention were performed, and the prediction of self-employment intention was obtained. Findings – The results show that the students do not perceive self-realisation as their most salient beliefs and perceived that their entrepreneurship lecturers' expectations towards them to become self-employed are not highly influential and need to be complied with. However, they believed that specialised entrepreneurship education (SEE) contributes to increasing entrepreneurial self-efficacy and subsequently towards their self-employment intention, and thus increases their employability value. Research limitations/implications – This research only studies students' self-employment intention in their respective universities and not their actual behaviour. Results from the paper are limited in ability to demonstrate “actual” outcomes that result from the interaction of the antecedents in universities' confinement. Practical implications – The paper provides an important analysis of the current status of entrepreneurship students in Malaysian universities. The findings provide insight on the development of effective entrepreneurship programme deliveries and methodologies. Originality/value – The paper provides a basis to improve the effectiveness of SEE in Malaysian universities and in turn produce highly employable graduates.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · Education and Training
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