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Padrão alimentar da dieta vegetariana Eating pattern of vegetarian diet

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ResUMo Esta revisão reúne diversos estudos que avaliam os fatores que influenciam a adesão ao vegetarianismo, bem como o padrão alimentar e recomendações do guia vegetariano. Para tanto, foi realizado um levantamento bibliográfico mediante consulta às bases de dados Medline (National Library of Medicine, USA) e Lilacs (Bireme, Brasil), nas quais foram selecionadas publicações científicas em português e inglês, a partir dos seguintes termos: vegetariano, dieta vegetariana e vegetarianismo. Durante séculos o vegetarianismo tem sido difundido. Ao longo da história, grandes médicos, cientistas e filósofos seguiram a prática da alimentação vegetariana fundamentada em diferentes concepções. O crescente número de vegetarianos atribui aos profissionais da Saúde, sobretudo nutricionistas, a responsabilidade de conhecer os princípios da dieta vegetariana na expectativa de que, com base em evidências científicas, eles possam direcionar adequadamente sua conduta com respeito a essa dieta, bem como adequar esse padrão alimentar às necessidades nutricionais do indivíduo. ABsTRACT This literature review examines several studies that evaluated the factors that influences the adoption of vegetarianism, as well as the eating pattern and recommendations of the vegetarian food guide. A search on databases such as Medline (National Library of Medicine, USA) and Lilacs (Bireme, Brazil) allowed us to find scientific studies published in Portuguese and/or English that had the following keywords: vegetarian, vegetarian diet and vegetarianism. Vegetarianism has been disseminated for centuries and many respected physicians, scientists and philosophers followed this practice based on different reasons. The increasing number of individuals that adopt the vegetarian diet impute to Health professionals, particularly nutritionists, the responsibility of knowing the principles of vegetarianism, in expectation of their proper management and adjustment of the vegetarian feeding behavior to the nutritional requirements of the individual.

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... Frente a esto, los evolucionistas defienden la inserción de proteínas animales en la dieta del hombre prehistórico (Australopithecus afarensis) que favoreció el desarrollo de su cerebro y que los ancestros del hombre moderno eran carnívoros-cazadores-recolectores. En la actualidad, el vegetarianismo se caracteriza como una dieta, o filosofía de vida, que influye en los ciudadanos en los diferentes continentes (1,2,3) . ...
... El predominio de adventistas entre los vegetarianos estudiados es debido a que la selección de los sujetos se inició dentro de estas iglesias. Los evangélicos adventistas son conocidos mundialmente por extender conceptos sobre vida saludable a través de clínicas, escuelas y hospitales y han sido comúnmente sujetos de investigaciones, debido a su estilo de vida diferenciado de la población general y facilidad para reunir a la población vegetariana en este medio (1) . ...
... La hipocalcemia puede estar causada por mala absorción, debido a la quelación por el ácido fítico, oxalatos, fosfatos y fibras (componentes abundantes en la dieta vegetariana) (1,9) y se evidención en 23,1% de los vegetarianos estudiados en la presente Investigación. La hipercalcemia, sin embargo, puede estar relacionada con la excreción inadecuada de calcio, ocasionada por insuficiencia en las suprarrenales y en las patologías renales. ...
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Objetivo: Evaluar los índices antropométricos, los niveles de presión arterial y resultados de análisis hematológicos de la población vegetariana del municipio de Ji-Paraná, Rondônia. Método: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo y cuantitativo, de corte transversal, con muestra compuesta por 65 personas vegetarianas. Resultados: Se identificó 61,6% de eutróficos, 69,2% con circunferencia abdominal dentro de los parámetros normales, 92,3% presentaron niveles de presión arterial normales y 26,2% fueron clasificados como anémicos. Más del 60% de los vegetarianos presentaron niveles plasmáticos de colesterol (Total y LDL) y calcio dentro de los parámetros normales. Lo mismo se observó en relación a los triglicéridos (81,4%), glicemia (96,9%), proteínas totales (93,9%) y albúmina (100%). Conclusión: Se concluye que la alimentación vegetariana diversificada puede proporcionar beneficios a la salud del ser humano. <br /
... Contestando, os evolucionistas defendem que a inserção de proteínas animais na dieta do homem pré-histórico (Australopithecus afarensis) que favoreceu o desenvolvimento de seu cérebro e que os ancestrais do homem moderno eram carnívoroscaçadores-coletores. Na atualidade, o vegetarianismo é caracterizado como uma dieta, ou filosofia de vida, que influencia cidadãos nos diferentes continentes (1,2,3) . É considerado vegetariano aquele que não ingere carne em sua dieta, podendo incluir ovos e derivados do leite. ...
... A predominância de adventistas entre os vegetarianos estudados é explicada, pois a seleção dos sujeitos iniciou-se dentro destas igrejas. Os evangélicos adventistas são conhecidos mundialmente por disseminarem conceitos sobre vida saudável, através de clínicas, escolas e hospitais e têm sido comumente sujeitos de pesquisas, devido ao seu estilo de vida ser diferenciado da população geral e facilidade por reunir a população vegetariana neste meio (1) . ...
... A hipocalcemia pode se causada por má absorção, devido à quelagem pelo ácido fítico, oxalatos, fosfatos e fibras (componentes abundantes na dieta vegetariana) (1,9) e foi evidenciada em 23,1% dos vegetarianos estudados na presente pesquisa. A hipercalcemia, no entanto, pode estar relacionada à excreção inadequada de cálcio, ocasionada por insuficiência nas supra-renais e nas patologias renais. ...
Article
Objective: The study aims to access the anthropometric indices, blood pressure levels and haematological analysis results vegetarian population of the municipality of Ji-Paraná, Rondônia, Brazil. Method: This descriptive and quantitative cross-sectional study has a sample size of 65 vegetarians. Results: The results of this study showed that 61.6% of the sample was of normal weight, 69.2% had a waist circumference within normal parameters, 92.3% had normal blood pressure levels and 26.2% were classified as anemic. More than 60% of the vegetarians in this study evidenced normal plasma calcium and cholesterol levels (total and LDL). Normal levels were also observed in relation to triglycerides (81.4%), glucose (96.9%), total proteins (93.9%) and albumin (100%). Conclusion: The conclusion of the study states that a diverse vegetarian diet can provide health benefits for humans.
... Antes de 1847 os que não comiam carne eram mais conhecidos como "pitagóricos" ou seguidores do "sistema pitagórico", em alusão ao matemático grego Pitágoras 1 . A dieta vegetariana, dependendo da inclusão ou exclusão dos derivados animais, recebe uma terminologia distinta, a qual se divide em subgrupos, como ovolactovegetariano, ovovegetariano, lactovegetariano, vegetariano estrito ou vegano. 2 6,7 . A produção científica atual considera que a dieta vegetariana possa prevenir morbidades e doenças não transmissíveis, além de proporcionar aumento na expectativa e qualidade de vida dos vegetarianos 4,6,8,9,10 . ...
... A dieta vegetariana, dependendo da inclusão ou exclusão dos derivados animais, recebe uma terminologia distinta, a qual se divide em subgrupos, como ovolactovegetariano, ovovegetariano, lactovegetariano, vegetariano estrito ou vegano. 2 6,7 . A produção científica atual considera que a dieta vegetariana possa prevenir morbidades e doenças não transmissíveis, além de proporcionar aumento na expectativa e qualidade de vida dos vegetarianos 4,6,8,9,10 . Dessa forma esse trabalho, se justificou, por poder fornecer dados epidemiológicos à equipe de saúde, particularmente aos profissionais da saúde, que conforme suas áreas de atuação possam promover a saúde de indivíduos vegetarianos. ...
... Ji-Paraná/RO, 2011. Revista Uruguaya de Enfermería Montevideo, noviembre 2017, Vol 12, N° 2. ISSN On line: 2301-0371 46 Fonte: Ji-Paraná/RO, 2011.A literatura enfatiza que são vários os motivos que levam os indivíduos a se tornarem um vegetariano, de saúde, questões éticas, ambientais e religiosas6 . Semelhante ao presente estudo, Leite e Botelho (2004) notaram em sua pesquisa com presença de vegetarianos, que esses atribuíram aspectos relacionados à saúde que contribuíram para aderirem a uma dieta sem carne (80% dos vegetarianos pesquisados) 3 . ...
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A dieta vegetariana é definida como aquela que exclui o alimento cárneo de sua alimentação, podendo incluir ou não ovos e derivados do leite. O trabalho objetivou identificar o conhecimento dos vegetarianos sobre a implicação da sua dieta sobre a sua saúde. A amostragem foi composta por 65 vegetarianos selecionados em igrejas adventistas. Os resultados apontaram que 50,8% dos vegetarianos eram do sexo masculino e 75,4% ovolactovegetarianos. Em relação aos benefícios da dieta vegetariana à saúde, 80,0% acreditavam que preveniria o câncer, 78,4% a diabetes, dislipidemias e obesidade, 72,3% cardiopatias e 53,8% relataram que a dieta aumentaria a inteligência. Quanto aos possíveis riscos e carências que a dieta vegetariana poderia ocasionar 80,0% afirmaram que não existiam. Conclui-se que os vegetarianos estudados possuíam bons conhecimentos sobre seu padrão alimentar. Principalmente em relação aos benefícios da sua dieta na prevenção de doenças. Todavia, percebe-se que os vegetarianos desconhecem os riscos que uma dieta vegetariana pode ocasionar quando não planejada e desequilibrada.
... Outros motivos ajudam a explicar a adesão a este padrão alimentar, que também pode ser enquadrado como um modelo de vida, nomeadamente no que diz respeito às questões relacionadas com a proteção, bem-estar e direito dos animais (17)(18)(19) . ...
... Nesta altura, é fundada a Sociedade Vegetariana de Portugal, que entre outras atividades se dedicaria à propaganda do naturista e à divulgação do vegetarismo, da educação física, da higiene e cura naturais. Nestes primórdios do movimento vegetariano em Portugal, um dos seus principais impulsionadores, Ângelo Jorge, defende a alimentação frugívora, considerando "que se os homens voltarem a ser frugívoros a questão social será resolvida"; e em "Irmânia", a utopia inventada pelo autor, ele tenta provar o seu ponto de vista, colocando em confronto os males da civilização moderna, carnívora por excelência, com a beleza, o pacifismo, a sageza e a vida fácil dos frugívoros(29,30) .No século XX e progressivamente, para além das questões morais e religiosas, o consumo de uma alimentação vegetariana passa a estar associado, cada vez mais, a um discurso de proteção ambiental e da biodiversidade, do bem-estar dos animais e fundamentalmente pelas questões de saúde associadas ao consumo de produtos de origem vegetal, que abordaremos em maior detalhe(19) . ...
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Dietary patterns consisting exclusively, or mostly, of plant foods seem to have been common knowledge and followed since as far as the classical antiquity, essentially on philosophical and religious grounds, but also for health reasons. Over the last decades, alongside with an increase of knowledge on nutrition and environmental sciences, there has been an increment on scientific evidence in favor of a greater presence of plant foods in our diet. Populations showing high or exclusive consumption of plant foods seem to be less prone to develop chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, certain types of cancers, diabetes and obesity. This dietary pattern, or 'diet', is not a uniform one, as it may consist solely of plant foods (strict vegetarian or vegan) but it can also include other elements such as eggs and dairy products (ovolactovegetarian). At its core there is usually fruit, vegetables, cereals, legumes, nuts and seeds, which should preferably be local ones, in season and minimally processed. The guidelines for a healthy vegetarian diet which are proposed in this document have been designed considering the healthy adult, which is why they should not be applied to other stages of a life cycle. The adequacy of this "diet" to the different stages of life, including childhood, adolescence, pregnancy, lactation, old age, and even to athletes, requires appropriate planning and monitoring. In order for this dietary pattern to be considered nutritionally adequate, factors such as the appropriate intake and bioavailability of certain nutrients such as protein, essential fatty acids, vitamin B12, vitamin D, iodine, iron, calcium and zinc and also caloric intake should be taken into account. Moreover, it is important to consider food diversity, the reduction in quantities of salt, sugar and saturated fats, and the adequate intake of water. In the case of vitamin B12, and due to the absence of nutritional sources in a vegan diet, it has to be provided through enriched foods or supplements. Although this food pattern is generally healthy and easy to adopt, particularly in countries like Portugal, where there is a varied and abundant offer of fruit, vegetables and other plant foods throughout the year, and where traditional cooking methods already include plant foods in their base, there is still considerable lack of information on the part of health and education professionals, associated with poor-quality information on online formats, a situation which this manual aims at improving.
... O indivíduo que segue a dieta vegetariana pode ser classificado de acordo com o consumo de subprodutos animais (ovos e laticínios): ovolactovegetariano é o vegetariano que utiliza ovos, leite e laticínios na alimentação; lactovegetariano é o vegetariano que não utiliza ovos, mas faz uso de leite e laticínios; ovovegetariano é o vegetariano que não utiliza laticínios mas consome ovos; vegetariano estrito ou vegetariano puro é aquele que não utiliza nenhum derivado animal na sua alimentação; vegano é o indivíduo vegetariano estrito que recusa o uso de componentes animais não alimentícios, como vestimentas de couro, lã e seda, assim como produtos testados em animais [2]. Nota-se que a restrição à carne tem diversas vertentes e as consequências que pode causar também são variadas [3]. ...
... Atualmente, existem muitas controvérsias no que diz respeito aos reais benefícios das dietas vegetariana e vegana. Contudo, já é sabido que essas dietas implicam em deficiências de vitaminas A (retinol), B12 (cianocobalamina), D, cálcio (Ca), zinco (Zn) e ácido fólico, se não acompanhadas corretamente [3]. ...
... Outro ponto importante é a relação de costume quanto às orientações de dietas tradicionais compostas por carnes ou derivados animais e certa resistência frente a demanda da alimentação sem esses insumos, o que resulta em prejuízo na relação entre cliente vegetariano e profissional (ALVES; NEGRI, 2016). Portanto, cabe aos profissionais nutricionistas buscarem informações e se atualizarem sobre a temática a fim de atenderem satisfatoriamente a demanda crescente desse público (COUCEIRO et al., 2008). ...
... Outro ponto importante é a relação de costume quanto às orientações de dietas tradicionais compostas por carnes ou derivados animais e certa resistência frente a demanda da alimentação sem esses insumos, o que resulta em prejuízo na relação entre cliente vegetariano e profissional (ALVES; NEGRI, 2016). Portanto, cabe aos profissionais nutricionistas buscarem informações e se atualizarem sobre a temática a fim de atenderem satisfatoriamente a demanda crescente desse público (COUCEIRO et al., 2008). ...
... Os lactovegetarianos são os que consomem leite e seus derivados; os ovolactovegetarianos consomem leite, seus derivados e ovos. Além disso, vem surgindo um novo grupo denominado semivegetariano, que são aqueles que consomem carnes brancas e excluem as vermelhas 3 . ...
Article
Introduction: Currently the vegetarian population is increasing significantly, and it is recommended thathealth professionals have the necessary knowledge of the subject and about possible risks and benefits ofthis type of diet. Vegetable protein sources contain lower protein content than animal and presents limitingamino acids. Therefore, vegetarians need to consume proteins in larger quantities. Objectives: To assesprotein intake and compare it to nutritional needs of vegetarian college students of University of Itauna(MG). As secondary objective was research the nutritional status and the motives and claimed benefitsfor adopting a vegetarian diet. Methods: An analysis of protein intake through a quantitative questionnaireof food frequency containing food that have protein was performed. Protein concentration of thefood was assessed using a food composition table (TACO) and the table of portion sizes and comparedaccording to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) as age, sex and weight. Results: The study included 30vegetarians. Of these, 56.7% were classified as semi-vegetarians, 40.0% ovolactovegetarians and 3.3%lacto-vegetarians. On protein intake, 76.7% of participants had adequate intake, and of this total, 66.7% were semi-vegetarians and 88.2% ovolactovegetarians. Regarding nutritional status, 63.6% of subjects were classified as normal,23.3% as undeweight grade I and 13.3% as overweight. Conclusion: Protein intake was reached by most of those surveyed.There was more appropriate level for semi-vegetarianism adherents. However, it is important to have a specific nutritionalcounseling for each type of vegetarian diet.
... Embora o consumo de carne tenha se consolidado na pré-história da humanidade, cerca de 8% da população brasileira (IBOPE, 2012) se abstêm conscientemente do consumo de proteína animal. O vegetarianismo genericamente refere-se à pessoa que não consome nenhum tipo de carne, contudo a dieta pode englobar distintos padrões de composição, recebendo denominações específicas dependendo da inclusão de itens, tais como os lactovegetarianos que consomem leite e laticínios e os ovolactovegetarianos, que incluem os ovos (Couceiro et al., 2008). Atualmente o vegetarianismo tem sido abordado em estudos exploratórios (Worsley e Skrzypiec, 1997;Curtis e Comer, 2006;Bezerra et al., 2007;Greene-Finestone et al., 2008;Herzog e Golden, 2009;Robinson-O'Brien et al., 2009;Ruby e Heine, 2011;Menzies e Sheeshka, 2012;Haverstock e Forgays, 2012), nos quais os vegetarianos podem ser categorizados como saudáveis ou como éticos, sendo os primeiros motivados pelos aspectos nutricional e médico, visando à saúde física, mental e/ ou espiritual (Lira, 2013). ...
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This article discusses the relationship between the social concern with the cruelty to animals and voluntary abstinence from meat consumption. Through a quantitative evaluation of scientific texts and conceptions of citizens, this study brings a reflection guided by different views about the factors that promote that consumption, often implying a vulnerability that requires the incorporation of new paradigms leading to conscious choices about the reality involved in the system of animal production. Although the diet is based on numerous biopsychosocial factors, the access to information, especially regarding scientific knowledge about animal consciousness, added to the consolidation of bioethics, contributes to the strengthening of a critical awareness about the treatment of animals, and potentially constitutes a stimulus for the decision to abstain from meat consumption. Vegetarianism, in its various expressions, does not always represent simply a nourishment habit, but a change of conduct aimed at a better interaction with nature, regardless of the academic area of training. Such a change can go beyond the aspect of animal welfare, reaching other spheres of abuse of subjects vulnerable to economic interests. Thus, changing ethical conceptions requires a rational decision that should be performed by consolidated ethical principles and intermediated by a dialogue promoted by sciences such as Environmental Bioethics, which proposes to mediate complex, globalized and plural issues to seek consensual solutions for all involved in this and in the future generations.
... Muitas são as razões que levam os indivíduos a adotarem um estilo de alimentação não convencional. Os principais motivos estão relacionados à saúde, à ética, aos direitos dos animais, ao meio ambiente, à fome, à economia e à religião [1]. O movimento vegetariano expandiu-se consideravelmente no século XIX, com a formação de grupos de incentivo, publicação literária favorecendo a dieta vegetariana e a abertura de restaurantes promotores deste tipo de alimentação. ...
Article
A relevância nutricional da abóbora confere, a essa matéria prima, potencialidade de uso no desenvolvimento de novos produtos visto que é inserida com êxito em diferentes ambientes de alimentação. Dessa forma, o objetivo desse trabalho foi utilizar as ferramentas de qualidade como estratégia para elaborar um plano de produção de um embutido vegetariano a base de abóbora. Para tal fim, as ferramentas da qualidade (brainstorming, fluxograma, teoria dos obstáculos, folha de verificação, diagrama de Ishikawa e o ciclo PDCA) foram utilizadas. Como resultados, 24 matérias primas foram sugeridas e para aquela escolhida, a abóbora, outras 20 possibilidades de processamento foram anotadas. Disso, o embutido vegetariano foi o produto escolhido para ser produzido. Um fluxograma com 20 etapas foi proposto. Nesse, 5 parâmetros foram observados como responsáveis pela estabilidade microbiológica do produto. Um problema de reprocessamento foi observado durante a elaboração do produto. As possíveis causas foram apontadas no diagrama de causa e efeito e, ao final, o ciclo PDCA foi estruturado para continua avaliação do processo. Por fim, o emprego das ferramentas de qualidade é uma estratégia importante para a elaboração de novos produtos alimentícios.Palavras-chave: tecnologia de alimentos, dieta vegetariana, controle de qualidade.
... Atualmente a adoção da dieta onívora vem perdendo espaço para a dieta vegetariana, processo impulsionado pelo crescimento da consciência ambiental, especialmente a partir da segunda metade do século XX, e por diversos outros fatores como, cuidados com a saúde, ética aos direitos dos animais, economia e espiritualidade (Couceiro et al. 2008 A dieta onívora é caracterizada pelo consumo de variados grupos alimentares, incluindo-se a carne bovina, muitas vezes principal fonte de proteína neste tipo de dieta. Alguns estudos vêm apontando uma relação entre o excesso no consumo desse tipo de carne a um aumento do aparecimento de algumas doenças crônicas. ...
... The source of the nutrients that are part of the formula is an important aspect to be taken into consideration due to the number of individuals with restrictions, such as food allergies and intolerances, or the increased number of vegetarians, especially strict vegetarians/vegans. Interest and adherence to vegetarianism has been growing [46,47]. According to a 2016 survey, approximately 3.3% of American adults are vegetarians and about 46% of these are vegans [48]. ...
... Essa concepção vem de encontro aos interesses do público com intolerância alimentar bem como o vegano, cuja alimentação preconiza a saúde, o meio ambiente, a economia e outros fatores relacionados e atrelados a um estilo de vida saudável (COUCEIRA, SLYWITCH;LENZ, 2008;BALSARINI;BUENO, 2017). ...
... Outro ponto importante é a relação de costume quanto às orientações de dietas tradicionais compostas por carnes ou derivados animais e certa resistência frente a demanda da alimentação sem esses insumos, o que resulta em prejuízo na relação entre cliente vegetariano e profissional (ALVES; NEGRI, 2016). Portanto, cabe aos profissionais nutricionistas buscarem informações e se atualizarem sobre a temática a fim de atenderem satisfatoriamente a demanda crescente desse público (COUCEIRO et al., 2008). ...
... Outro ponto importante é a relação de costume quanto às orientações de dietas tradicionais compostas por carnes ou derivados animais e certa resistência frente a demanda da alimentação sem esses insumos, o que resulta em prejuízo na relação entre cliente vegetariano e profissional (ALVES; NEGRI, 2016). Portanto, cabe aos profissionais nutricionistas buscarem informações e se atualizarem sobre a temática a fim de atenderem satisfatoriamente a demanda crescente desse público (COUCEIRO et al., 2008). ...
... Existem diferentes tipos de dietas vegetarianas: i) ovolactovegetariana: exclui o consumo de qualquer tipo de carne e inclui ovos, leite e derivados; ii) lactovegetariana: exclui carnes e ovos e permite o consumo de leite e derivados; iii) ovovegetariana: exclui carnes e leite e derivados, mas inclui consumo de ovos; iv) vegana ou vegetariana estrita: não inclui o consumo de nenhum alimento de origem animal, inclusive mel (Couceiro, Slywitch, Lenz, 2008). ...
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The present studyapproaches the existence of other nutritional rationalities which are distinct from the biomedical one and are often included in the so-called traditional and/or complementary medicine. The hypothesis is that these other eating rationalities are relevant in themselves, deserve to be studied and may contribute to promote Food Security,health education andthe enrichment of professional practices in Brazil's Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS - National Health System). The goal is to contextualize the interaction of these ideas and practices, and present the initial development of such hypothesis.The biomedical model, which isdominant in the area of nutrition, is revisited, and theneedto broaden this perspective is defended. The "medical rationality" category is combined with the notions of food chains and models, in order to perform aninitial mapping of therationalities andfood chainsunder focus.
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Resumo Este artigo trata da extração e caracterização de ácidos graxos essenciais ômega 3, a partir da Nannochloropsis oculata. O objetivo foi cultivar a microalga, extrair os lipídios, utilizando hexano e caracterizá-los por análises de infravermelho, cromatografia em camada delgada e índice de iodo. Os resultados demonstraram grande semelhança entre o óleo extraído da microalga e o óleo de peixe já comercializado, diferindo pela ausência de odor no óleo de microalga. Dessa forma, esse óleo de microalga poderá ser uma alternativa mais viável de suplemento alimentar para a indústria alimentícia, amenizando a deficiência nutricional de ω-3, principalmente para os vegetarianos. Palavras-chave: Microalga. Ômega 3. Extração. Abstract This article deals with the extraction and characterization of essential omega-3 fatty acids from Nannochloropsis oculata. The objective was cultivate microalgae, extract lipids, using hexane and characterize them by infrared analysis, thin layer chromatography and iodine index. The results showed a great similarity between the oil extracted from the microalgae and the commercialized fish oil differing by the absence of odor in the microalgae oil. Thus, this microalgae oil may be a more viable alternative food supplement for food industry, mitigating the nutritional deficiency of omega 3, especially for vegetarians. Keywords: Microalgae. Ômega 3. Extraction.
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A dieta vegetariana estrita é aquela que possui restrição alimentar de qualquer tipo de carne e produtos advindos de origem animal. Com essa exclusão de um dos grupos alimentares, os adeptos desse tipo de dieta podem ter dificuldades para atingir as recomendações nutricionais propostas para se manterem saudáveis. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar o perfil alimentar dos indivíduos adeptos do vegetarianismo estrito, comparando sua alimentação com as recomendações dietéticas do Guia Alimentar de Dietas Vegetarianas para Adultos, proposto pela Sociedade Brasileira Vegetariana. Foi avaliado o perfil alimentar de 15 indivíduos que praticam o vegetarianismo estrito, de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 18 a 60 anos. Foi aplicado recordatório alimentar de 48 horas (R48), sendo um dia de semana e outro no fi m de semana, e um questionário básico com informações pessoais. A idade média do grupo foi de 28 anos e o tempo médio de vegetarianismo estrito foi de 48 meses. O estudo apontou um consumo alimentar inadequado, principalmente dos grupos alimentares de verduras e legumes, frutas, oleaginosas e feijões, tendo maior consumo no grupo dos cereais.
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Introduction: Vegetarianism is the consumption of a diet predominantly composed of vegetables. However, a daily adequate intake of fruits and vegetables is necessary, as well as other food groups, because an unbalanced diet causes serious damage to the organism. Objective: To examine whether vegetarians consume fruits and vegetables according to the recommendation of the Adults’ Vegetarian Diets Food Guide. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 84 vegetarian adults churchgoers of the Seventh-day Adventist church. A food frequency questionnaire was applied. GraphPad Prism software was used for data analysis. Results: Consumption frequency of fruits and vegetables was higher among women and prevailed in individuals with less time of adherence to vegetarianism. For both sexes, it was found that consumption increased with age and education. Conclusion: The population studied consumes fruits and vegetables according to the recommendation of the Adults’ Vegetarian Diets Food Guide.
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We combined data from 5 prospective studies to compare the death rates from common diseases of vegetarians with those of nonvegetarians with similar lifestyles. A summary of these results was reported previously; we report here more details of the findings. Data for 76172 men and women were available. Vegetarians were those who did not eat any meat or fish (n = 27808). Death rate ratios at ages 16-89 y were calculated by Poisson regression and all results were adjusted for age, sex, and smoking status. A random-effects model was used to calculate pooled estimates of effect for all studies combined. There were 8330 deaths after a mean of 10.6 y of follow-up. Mortality from ischemic heart disease was 24% lower in vegetarians than in nonvegetarians (death rate ratio: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.94; P<0.01). The lower mortality from ischemic heart disease among vegetarians was greater at younger ages and was restricted to those who had followed their current diet for >5 y. Further categorization of diets showed that, in comparison with regular meat eaters, mortality from ischemic heart disease was 20% lower in occasional meat eaters, 34% lower in people who ate fish but not meat, 34% lower in lactoovovegetarians, and 26% lower in vegans. There were no significant differences between vegetarians and nonvegetarians in mortality from cerebrovascular disease, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, or all other causes combined.
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Iron and zinc are currently the trace minerals of greatest concern when considering the nutritional value of vegetarian diets. With elimination of meat and increased intake of phytate-containing legumes and whole grains, the absorption of both iron and zinc is lower with vegetarian than with nonvegetarian, diets. The health consequences of lower iron and zinc bioavailability are not clear, especially in industrialized countries with abundant, varied food supplies, where nutrition and health research has generally supported recommendations to reduce meat and increase legume and whole-grain consumption. Although it is clear that vegetarians have lower iron stores, adverse health effects from lower iron and zinc absorption have not been demonstrated with varied vegetarian diets in developed countries, and moderately lower iron stores have even been hypothesized to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Premenopausal women cannot easily achieve recommended iron intakes, as modified for vegetarians, with foods alone; however, the benefit of routine iron supplementation has not been demonstrated. It may be prudent to monitor the hemoglobin of vegetarian children and women of childbearing age. Improved assessment methods are required to determine whether vegetarians are at risk of zinc deficiency. In contrast with iron and zinc, elements such as copper appear to be adequately provided by vegetarian diets. Although the iron and zinc deficiencies commonly associated with plant-based diets in impoverished nations are not associated with vegetarian diets in wealthier countries, these nutrients warrant attention as nutritional assessment methods become more sensitive and plant-based diets receive greater emphasis.
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Advances in nutrition research during the past few decades have changed scientists' understanding of the contribution of vegetarian diets to human health and disease. Diets largely based on plant foods, such as well-balanced vegetarian diets, could best prevent nutrient deficiencies as well as diet-related chronic diseases. However, restrictive or unbalanced vegetarian diets may lead to nutritional deficiencies, particularly in situations of high metabolic demand. If some vegetarian diets are healthier than diets largely based on animal products, this constitutes an important departure from previous views on dietary recommendations to prevent disease conditions. Based on different paradigms, 3 models are presented depicting the population health risks and benefits of vegetarian and meat-based diets. This series of models encapsulates the evolution of scientific understanding on the overall effects of these dietary patterns on human health. Recent scientific advances seem to have resulted in a paradigm shift: diets largely based on plant foods, such as well-balanced vegetarian diets, are viewed more as improving health than as causing disease, in contrast with meat-based diets.
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A well-planned vegetarian diet has been stated to be adequate during pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to compare serum vitamin B-12 and homocysteine concentrations in pregnant women (n = 109) consuming vegetarian and Western diets and to evaluate the adequacy of current dietary reference intakes of vitamin B-12 for these women. Pregnant women adhering to vegetarian diets for at least 3 y, with subgroups of ovo-lacto vegetarians (OLVs; n = 27), low-meat eaters (LME, n = 43), and women eating an average Western diet (control group, n = 39), were recruited. Dietary vitamin B-12 intake, serum vitamin B-12, and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations were measured in wk 9-12, 20-22, and 36-38 of pregnancy. During pregnancy serum vitamin B-12 concentrations of ovo-lacto vegetarians (P < 0.001) and low-meat eaters (P = 0.050) were lower than those of the control group. We observed the combination of low serum vitamin B-12 concentrations and elevated plasma tHcy in 22% of ovo-lacto vegetarians, in 10% of low-meat eaters, and in 3% of controls (P = 0.003). In OLVs, serum vitamin B-12 predicted 60% of the plasma tHcy variation (P < 0.001), but in LMEs and controls only <10% (NS). Serum vitamin B-12 concentrations increased and plasma tHcy decreased sharply with increasing dietary intake of vitamin B-12 toward a cutoff point of 3 mug/d. Pregnant women consuming a long-term predominantly vegetarian diet have an increased risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Current recommended dietary intakes urgently need reevaluation.
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Observational studies suggest that a plant-based diet is inversely related to body mass index (BMI), overweight, and obesity. Our objective was to examine the BMI (kg/m(2)) and risk of overweight and obesity of self-defined semivegetarian, lactovegetarian, and vegan women. Data analyzed in this cross-sectional study were from 55459 healthy women participating in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Women were asked whether they considered themselves to be omnivores (n = 54257), semivegetarians (n = 960), lactovegetarians (n = 159), or vegans (n = 83), and this question was the main exposure variable in this study. In secondary analyses, we reclassified women as lactovegetarians on the basis of food intakes reported on the food-frequency questionnaire. The prevalence of overweight or obesity (BMI >/= 25) was 40% among omnivores, 29% among both semivegetarians and vegans, and 25% among lactovegetarians. In multivariate, adjusted logistic regression analyses, self-identified vegans had a significantly lower risk of overweight or obesity [odds ratio (OR) = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.69] than did omnivores, as did lactovegetarians (OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.85) and semivegetarians (OR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.62). Risk of overweight or obesity remained significantly lower among lactovegetarians classified on the basis of the food-frequency questionnaire (OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.78). Even if vegetarians consume some animal products, our results suggest that self-identified semivegetarian, lactovegetarian, and vegan women have a lower risk of overweight and obesity than do omnivorous women. The advice to consume more plant foods and less animal products may help individuals control their weight.
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We have reviewed, in brief, various aspects of human protein and amino-acid metabolism with particular reference to the assessment of protein and amino acid needs. The current requirements for protein and amino acids in various groups of healthy people were then summarized. Emerging from this discussion was the view that some plant protein foods, such as soy for example, are of much better nutritional value for humans than has been commonly appreciated. The figures for requirements were then compared with intakes characteristic of populations in the developed regions of the world. It is evident that these intakes greatly exceed the minimum physiologic need for most healthy individuals but little is known about the possible health benefit or otherwise of these intake levels of protein. Furthermore, also it was pointed out that consideration of different food proteins in relation to amino acid and nitrogen requirements constitutes an important, but only an initial, basis for evaluating the role of dietary protein and of various food protein sources in human nutrition and health. Different food protein sources influence, in various ways, the utilization of and possibly requirements for other nutrients. This complicates determination of requirements and the setting of rational and safe dietary allowances as well as of dietary guidelines for individuals and population groups. A further assessment of the role and impact of food proteins and their interrelationships with and interactions among other foods and essential nutrients, particularly with respect to the nutritional and metabolic status of free-living individuals and their long-term health, presents a difficult but exciting research challenge to nutrition and other health professionals.
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Host factors and dietary factors determine the absorption of zinc by an individual. There is evidence that the entrance of zinc into the body is regulated at the level of the intestinal mucosa by the adequacy of the host's zinc nutriture. Moreover, a variety of gastrointestinal diseases that interfere with the digestion of food, the secretion of zinc-binding ligand, or transmucosal absorption, per se, reduce the efficiency of zinc absorption. Zinc appears to be more available from breast milk than from cow's milk, and, in general, from foods of animal origin than from foods of plant origin. The task of nutrition researchers is to unravel further the mechanisms involved in normal absorption of dietary zinc in human beings and to pursue the identification of foods and to pursue the identification of foods andars to be more available from breast milk than from cow's milk, and, in general, from foods of animal origin than from foods of plant origin. The task of nutrition researchers is to unravel further the mechanisms involved in normal absorption of dietary zinc in human beings and to pursue the identification of foods and chemicals that enhance or inhibit zinc absorption.
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Plant protein foods contribute approximately 65% of the per capita supply of protein on a worldwide basis and approximately 32% in the North American region. These sources of protein are discussed in relation to their amino acid content, human amino acid requirements, and dietary protein quality. Mixtures of plant proteins can serve as a complete and well-balanced source of amino acids for meeting human physiological requirements. This short review ends with a list of series of myths and realities concerning the relationship between plant protein and human nutrition and a list of some nutritional issues of concern to the health professional and informed consumer.
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The adequacy of plant-based diets in developed and developing countries as sources of protein and amino acids for human subjects of all ages is examined. Protein quantity is shown not to be an issue. Digestibility is identified as a problem for some cereals (millet (Panicum miliaceum) and sorghum (Sorghum sp.)) and generally is poorly understood. Direct measurements of biological value in children are reviewed and scoring is considered. Various existing requirement values for amino acids and especially lysine are reviewed, and it is concluded that stable-isotope studies do not yet provide adequate alternative values of N balance data, which for lysine are robust after recalculation and adjustment. A new maintenance requirement pattern is developed, with higher values than those of Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (1985) but lower values than the Massachusetts Institute of Technology pattern (Young et al. 1989). Calculations of age-related amino acid requirements are based on most recent estimates of human growth and maintenance protein requirements, a tissue amino acid pattern and the new maintenance amino acid pattern. These values appear valid when used to score plant proteins, since they indicate values similar to or less than the biological value measured directly in young children. When used to score plant-based diets in India, no marked deficiencies are identified. All regions score > 1 for adults, whilst for children scores range from > 1, (Tamil Nadhu) from 6 months of age to 0.78 (West Bengal), rising to 0.9 in the 2-5 year old, consistent with reports that high-lysine maize supports similar weight and height growth to that of casein. Inadequate amino acid supply is not an issue with most cereal-based diets.
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To achieve adequate dietary calcium intake, several choices are available that accommodate a variety of lifestyles and tastes. Liberal consumption of dairy products in the diet is the approach of most Americans. Some plants provide absorbable calcium, but the quantity of vegetables required to reach sufficient calcium intake make an exclusively plant-based diet impractical for most individuals unless fortified foods or supplements are included. Also, dietary constituents that decrease calcium retention, such as salt, protein, and caffeine, can be high in the vegetarian diet. Although it is possible to obtain calcium balance from a plant-based diet in a Western lifestyle, it may be more convenient to achieve calcium balance by increasing calcium consumption than by limiting other dietary factors.
Article
To calibrate and compare intake of different fats and individual fatty acids as assessed with a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) against that estimated with (i) a series of dietary recalls and; (ii) the relative fat concentration in an adipose tissue biopsy. The FFQ was specially designed for use in a cohort of Seventh-day Adventists. In preparation for a large cohort study investigating the effect of diet on risk of colon, prostate and breast cancer. The association of adipose tissue fatty acids and dietary fat intake was assessed in 49 black and 72 white Seventh-day Adventists subjects using 8 different 24-hour recalls, a 200-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and adipose tissue biopsies from each subject. Pearson correlation between fatty acids in adipose tissue and dietary intake as assessed by multiple 24-hour recalls were as follows: Linoleic acid: 0.77 in black and 0.71 in white subjects, respectively; Linolenic acid: 0.68 (blacks) and 0.62 (whites); Total Polyunsaturated fat (PUFA): 0.78 (blacks) and 0.70 (whites); Total Monounsaturated fat (MUFA): 0.35 (blacks) and 0.03 (whites); Total Saturated fat (SFA): 0.46 (blacks) and 0.56 (whites). Correlations between fatty acids in adipose tissue and dietary intake as assessed by FFQ were: Linoleic acid: 0.61 (blacks) and 0.52 (whites), respectively; Linolenic acid: 0.29 (blacks) and 0.49 (whites); PUFA: 0.62 (blacks) and 0.53 (whites); MUFA: 0.07 (blacks) and 0.31 (whites), SFA: 0.21 (blacks) and 0.31 (whites). Our study confirms findings of others that 24-hour recalls are valid for assessing dietary intake of different types of fat. The FFQ we developed and used in this study gave reasonably valid measures of fatty acid intake in our population and is thus suitable for use in large cohort studies. It had validity comparable to that observed for other FFQs.
Article
High dietary protein intakes are known to increase urinary calcium excretion and, if maintained, will result in sustained hypercalciuria. To date, the majority of calcium balance studies in humans have not detected an effect of dietary protein on intestinal calcium absorption or serum parathyroid hormone. Therefore, it is commonly concluded that the source of the excess urinary calcium is increased bone resorption. Recent studies from our laboratory indicate that alterations in dietary protein can, in fact, profoundly affect intestinal calcium absorption. In short-term dietary trials in healthy adults, we fixed calcium intake at 20 mmol/d while dietary protein was increased from 0.7 to 2.1 g/kg. Increasing dietary protein induced hypercalciuria in 20 women [from 3.4 +/- 0.3 ( +/- SE) during the low-protein to 5.4 +/- 0.4 mmol/d during the high-protein diet]. The increased dietary protein was accompanied by a significant increase in intestinal calcium absorption from 18.4 +/- 1.3% to 26.3 +/- 1.5% (as determined by dual stable isotopic methodology). Dietary protein intakes at and below 0.8 g/kg were associated with a probable reduction in intestinal calcium absorption sufficient to cause secondary hyperparathyroidism. The long-term consequences of these low-protein diet-induced changes in mineral metabolism are not known, but the diet could be detrimental to skeletal health. Of concern are several recent epidemiologic studies that demonstrate reduced bone density and increased rates of bone loss in individuals habitually consuming low-protein diets. Studies are needed to determine whether low protein intakes directly affect rates of bone resorption, bone formation, or both.
Necessidades de energia y de proteínas: informe de una Reunión Consultiva Conjunta FAO/OMS/UNU de Expertos
  • Organização Mundial
  • Saúde
Organização Mundial da Saúde. Necessidades de energia y de proteínas: informe de una Reunión Consultiva Conjunta FAO/OMS/UNU de Expertos. Genebra: OMS;1985.
Nutrientes em situações especiais - Nutrientes e dietas vegetarianas In: Cozzolino SMF. Biodisponibilidade de nutrientes
  • N Miranda
  • Cozzolino
Miranda N, Cozzolino SMF. Nutrientes em situações especiais - Nutrientes e dietas vegetarianas. In: Cozzolino SMF. Biodisponibilidade de nutrientes. Barueri: Manole; 2005. p.820-47.
Vegetarian nutrition
  • J Sabaté
Sabaté J, editor. Vegetarian nutrition. Boca Raton: CRC Press; c2001.