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Development and potential of the cultivated and wild-harvested mushroom industries in the Republic of Korea and British Columbia

Authors:
  • National Institute of Forest Science (Korea Forest Research Institute)

Abstract and Figures

Inspired by collaborative work among researchers from the two jurisdictions, we explore the commercial mushroom industry in the Republic of Korea and British Columbia, Canada, searching for similarities and differences that may guide future development. First, we provide a history of forest mushroom use in both areas and summarize the development of the cultivated mushroom industry. Second, we describe the forest-harvested commercial mushrooms. We focus on pine mushroom (Tricholoma magnivelare) and provide an overview of the management in Korea of the closely related matsutake (Tricholoma matsutake) that could be translated to pine mushroom management in British Columbia. Generally, the cultivated mushroom industry in Korea is much larger and more diverse, reflecting local traditions of mushroom use. There is potential for expansion of the industries in both jurisdictions, especially in British Columbia, through the exploration and exploitation of novel native forest mushrooms and through the cultivation of additional exotic species with demonstrated market value.
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cult i vat e d a n d w i l d -h a r ve s t e d m u s h r o o m i nd us tr ies
JEM Vo l u M E 8, Nu M b E r 3 53
JEM — Vo l u M E 8, Nu M b E r 3
Berch, S.M, K.-H. Ka, H. Park, and R. Winder. 2007. Development and potential of the cultivated and wild-harvested
mushroom industries in the Republic of Korea and British Columbia. BC Journal of Ecosystems and Management
8(3):53–75.
url
: http://www.forrex.org/publications/jem/ISS42/vol8_no3_art5.pdf
Published by
FORREX
Forest Research Extension Partnership
Research Report
BC Journal of Ecosystems and Management
Development and potential of the
cultivated and wild-harvested
mushroom industries in the
Republic of Korea and British Columbia
Shannon M. Berch1, Kang-Hyeon Ka2, Hyun Park2, and Richard Winder3
Abstract
Inspired by collaborative work among researchers from the two jurisdictions, we explore the commercial
mushroom industry in the Republic of Korea and British Columbia, Canada, searching for similarities
and differences that may guide future development. First, we provide a history of forest mushroom use
in both areas and summarize the development of the cultivated mushroom industry. Second, we describe
the forest-harvested commercial mushrooms. We focus on pine mushroom (Tricholoma magnivelare) and
provide an overview of the management in Korea of the closely related matsutake (Tricholoma matsutake)
that could be translated to pine mushroom management in British Columbia. Generally, the cultivated
mushroom industry in Korea is much larger and more diverse, reflecting local traditions of mushroom
use. There is potential for expansion of the industries in both jurisdictions, especially in British Columbia,
through the exploration and exploitation of novel native forest mushrooms and through the cultivation of
additional exotic species with demonstrated market value.
k e y wo r d s : commercially harvested forest mushrooms, cultivated mushrooms, non-timber forest products,
ntfp
s.
Contact Information
1 British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Range, Research Branch, PO Box 9536, Station Provincial Government,
Victoria, BC V8W 9C4. Email: shannon.berch@gov.bc.ca
2 Division of Wood Chemistry and Microbiology, Korea Forest Research Institute, Mushroom Laboratory,
207, Cheongyangni-2 dong dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, Korea. Email: kalichen@yahoo.co.kr
3 Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre,
506 West Burnside Road, Victoria, BC V8Z 1M5. Email: rwinder@pfc.forestry.ca
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Introduction
Over the last 50 years, the abundance and
diversity of mushrooms marketed as food
and medicine around the world have steadily
grown. The mushroom industries of the Canadian
province of British Columbia and the Republic of
Korea (hereafter referred to as Korea) are similar
in some respects, yet very different in others. In
both areas, growth of the industry represents new
prospects, but also new challenges. For example,
the growing importance of mycological non-timber
forest products (
ntfp
s) such as pine mushrooms
(matsutake), chanterelles, and morels (see Table 1 for
scientific names) in British Columbia has resulted in a
commensurate need for reliable information to guide
the development of the wild-harvested commercial
mushroom industry (Forest Practices Board 2004).
Moreover, deregulation of the marketing of cultivated
commercial mushrooms in the province is creating
opportunities and challenges for that industry (B.C.
Ministry of Agriculture and Lands 2004) and a need
for further research and development.
On the other side of the Pacific Rim, much of the
forested land is recovering from the devastation caused
by the conflict on the Korean Peninsula in the 1950s.
This recovery will mean increased opportunities for
development of mushrooms as a forest resource in
Korea. Although much of the pertinent research on
developing mushroom industries should be done
locally, information from different jurisdictions with
ecosystems that overlap to some degree can point to
opportunities as well as precautions.
British Columbia and Korea are both economically
developed with significant exports of matsutake (pine
mushroom) and other mushrooms. They also have
some ecosystem similarities, but they have significant
differences in area, population, and forestry. Korea
has 10 times the population in 1/10th the land area.
The forested area of Korea is 1/10th and the value
of forest industry exports is 1/10 000th of that in
British Columbia. Forest ownership is mostly private
in Korea and mostly public in British Columbia
(Crown land). Conifers dominate more of the forests
of British Columbia, and the climate of Korea is on
average more clement. A relatively new jurisdiction,
British Columbia has a relatively young commercial
mushroom industry. Korea, on the other hand, grows
many more species commercially, and mushrooms
are historically a much more important feature of the
local diet.
In this report, we explore the similarities and
differences in commercial mushroom production in
these two areas and use this information to illustrate
some potential guideposts for future commercial
development of mycological forest products. The
first section focusses on commercially cultivated
mushrooms and the second on wild-harvested
mushrooms, especially pine mushrooms, or matsutake,
because they are a dominant aspect of the mushroom
industry in both areas.
Fungi are eukaryotic, heterotrophic, and
osmotrophic. They develop a rather diffuse, branched,
tubular body (radiating hyphae making up mycelia
or colonies), and reproduce by means of spores
(Kendrick 1985). The term “mushroom” describes the
reproductive structure or fruiting body of a fungus. “In
this sense a mushroom, like a potato or persimmon,
is not an organism, but a part of an organism” (Arora
1986:4). Commercial mushrooms are either produced
in cultivation or harvested from the wild, including
forests. The species produced in cultivation are all
decomposers (or saprobes) capable of completing their
life cycles on dead organic matter. Most of the forest-
harvested mushrooms are ectomycorrhizal and can
therefore form fruiting bodies only when growing with
living host trees. Others, such as fire-associated morels,
have more complex life cycles combining attributes of
decomposers and mycorrhizal fungi (Pilz et al. 2007).
We explore the similarities and
differences in commercial mushroom
production in Korea and
British Columbia and use
this information to illustrate some
potential guideposts for future
commercial development of
mycological forest products.
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t a b l e 1.
Mushrooms with commercial activity or potential in the Republic of Korea and British Columbia. Given the
state of knowledge about the native mushrooms in both jurisdictions, a “–” under “Native” could mean that the
species has not yet been reported.
Republic of Korea British Columbia
Native Wild- Cultivated Native Wild- Cultivated
Species Common namea harvested harvested
Agaricus bisporus button mushroom + +
Agaricus brasiliensis Brazilian blazei,
almond portobello +
Agrocybe aegerita swordbelt mushroom +
Amanita hemibapha
subsp. hemibapha + +
Armillaria mellea honey mushroom + +
Armillaria ostoyae and others honey mushroom + +
Auricularia auricula cloud ears + + + + +
Auricularia polytricha wood ears + + +
Boletus edulis king bolete + +
Boletus mirabilis admirable bolete + +
Boletus smithii Smith’s bolete + +
Boletus zelleri Zeller’s bolete + +
Calvatia gigantea giant puffball + +
Cantharellus cibarius chanterelle + +
Cantharellus cibarius
var. roseocanus rainbow chanterelle + +
Cantharellus formosus Pacific golden chanterelle + +
Cantharellus subalbidus white chanterelle + +
Chlorophyllum rachodes shaggy parasol + +
Clavulina cristata + + +
Clitocybe nuda blewit + +
Coprinus comatus shaggy mane + + + +
Cordyceps militaris caterpillar fungus + + + +
Craterellus cornucopioides horn of plenty + + + +
Craterellus tubaeformis winter chanterelle + + +
Dictyophora indusiata long net stinkhorn, veiled lady + +
Flammulina velutipes enokitake, velvet foot + + + + +
Fomes fomentarius amadou, tinder conk + +
Fomitopsis officinalis quinine conk + +
Ganoderma applanatum artist’s conk + + + +
Ganoderma lucidum reishi, ling chi + + + +
Ganoderma tsugae + + +
Gomphus clavatus pig’s ears + +
Grifola frondosa maitake, hen-of-the-woods + + +
Gyromitra esculentab false morelb + + +
Gyromitra gigasb snowbank false morelb + +
Hericium abietis conifer coral mushroom + +
Hericium erinaceus lion’s mane, pom pom + + + + +
Hericium ramosum comb hericium + + +
Hydnum repandum hedgehog mushroom + + + +
Hygrophorus russula Russula–like waxy cap + + +
Hypholoma capnoides clustered woodlover +
Hypholoma fasciculare sulfur tuft + +c
Hypholoma sublateritium red woodlover, kuritake +d
Hypomyces lactifluorum
on Russula lobster mushroom –– + +
Hypsizygus marmoreus + +
Hypsizygus ulmarius elm oyster mushroom +
Inonotus obliquus chaga + + +
Lactarius deliciosus saffron milkcap + +
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t a b l e 1.
Continued
Republic of Korea British Columbia
Native Wild- Cultivated Native Wild- Cultivated
Species Common namea harvested harvested
Lactarius rubrilacteus + +
Laetiporus conifericola chicken-of-the-woods +
Leccinum aurantiacum + +
Leccinum scabrum birch bolete + + +
Lentinula edodes shiitake + + + +
Lentinus lepideus train-wrecker + + +
Lycoperdon perlatum gemmed puffball + + +
Lyophyllum decastes fried chicken mushroom + + +
Macrolepiota procera parasol mushroom + +
Marasmius oreades fairy ring mushroom + + +
Morchella elata black morel + +
Morchella esculenta yellow morel + + + +
Phellinus spp. conks + + + +
Pholiota nameko nameko
Piptoporus betulinus birch polypore + +
Pleurocybella porrigens angel wings + + +
Pleurotus citrinopileatus golden oyster mushroom + +
Pleurotus cystidiosus abalone mushroom + +
Pleurotus djamor pink oyster mushroom + +
Pleurotus eryngii king oyster mushroom,
cardoncello + +
Pleurotus ostreatus oyster mushroom, hiratake + + + + + +
Polyozellus multiplex blue chanterelle + + + +
Ramaria botrytis + +
Ramaria campestris + +
Rhodophyllus crassipes + +
Russula virescens green-cracking russula + + +
Sarcodon aspratus + +
Sparassis crispa cauliflower mushroom + + + + +
Stropharia rugosoannulata king stropharia +
Suillus brevipes short-footed suillus + +
Suillus granulatus + + +
Suillus lakei Lake’s suillus + +
Suillus luteus slippery jack + + +
Suillus subolivaceus + +
Trametes versicolor turkey tail + + + +
Tremella foliacea brown witch’s butter + + +
Tremella fuciformis silver ear + +
Tricholoma caligatum booted tricholoma + +
Tricholoma magnivelare pine mushroom + +
Tricholoma matsutake matsutake + +
Tuber gibbosum Oregon white truffle + +
Verpa bohemica early morel + +
Volvariella volvacea paddy straw mushroom + + +
Wolfiporia extensa fuling, tuckahoe + + + +d
a Common names primarily after Arora (1986), Stamets (2005), and RogersMushrooms (n.d.).
b Poisonous when raw.
c Cultivated mycelium used in British Columbia for Armillaria speices biocontrol (Chapman et al. 2004).
d Known from only one collection in British Columbia, as reported in Pacific Forestry Centre (n.d.) and University of British Columbia (n.d.)
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JEM Vo l u M E 8, Nu M b E r 3 57
Pre-Cultivation History and Uses of
Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms in
Korea and British Columbia
Some 2327 species of wild edible and medicinal fungi are
collected, consumed, and traded worldwide (Boa 2004).
The historic use of wild fungi has been documented in
Chile by archeological records going back 13 000 years
(Rojas and Mansur 1995) and by written record in China
for over 2000 years (Boa 2004). Wild fungi are used for
food, medicine, and a variety of other ceremonial and
utilitarian purposes such as tinder, smudge, styptic, dyes,
and fabric.
Fossil evidence shows that humans have occupied
eastern Asia for over a half-million years (Diamond 1997).
Accounts of medicinal mushrooms in eastern Asia (e.g.,
Ying et al. 1987) are replete with examples, suggesting a
long tradition of mushroom consumption. In one ancient
example from the Korean Goryeo Dynasty (918–1392
bce
), Wolfiporia extensa was listed as one of the medicinal
materials sent to the Chinese Song Dynasty (Institute of
Korean Culture 1971). Species indigenous to each region
of Korea were recorded during the Joseon Dynasty in a
work entitled Sejong-sillog-jiliji (
ce
1454). Five mushroom
species were mentioned, including matsutake and shiitake
(Institute of Korean Culture 1971). According to Jung
(1993), the Dongui-bogam (Exemplar of Korean Medicine),
written by Heo Jun in 1613, recorded seven medicinal
mushrooms (Auricularia auricula, Grifola umbellata,
Lentinula edodes, Morchella sp. possibly esculenta,
Phellinus linteus, Tricholoma matsutake, and Wolfiporia
extensa).
Habitation of North America began relatively
recently, most likely around 12 000
bpe
with the
migration of Clovis people from Asia (Diamond 1997).
The Thompson aboriginal, or First Nations, people of
southern interior British Columbia have historically
consumed a variety of wild-harvested mushrooms,
including chanterelles (Cantharellus spp.), shaggy manes
(Coprinus comatus), oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus spp.),
pine mushroom (Tricholoma magnivelare), cottonwood
or poplar mushroom (Tricholoma populinum), slippery
top (Hygrophorus gliocyclus), unidentified puffballs, and
a mushroom called “thunder-storm head” or “lightning”
mushroom (Turner et al. 1987, 1990; Turner 1997). In
contrast, the British Columbia coastal First Nations are
not known traditionally to have consumed mushrooms
(Turner 1995).
Indian paint fungus (Echinodontium tinctorium)
was used as the source of red pigment in many parts
of the province, and various bracket fungi (e.g., Fomes
fomentarius and Fomitopsis pinicola) were used as tinder,
for tanning animal hides, and as a smudge that repelled
insects (Turner 1998; Marles et al. 1999). The Tlingit,
Haida, Tsimshian, and other coastal First Nations used
the large conks of the brown trunk rot fungus (Fomitopsis
officinalis) for carving spirit figures and for medicine
(Blanchette et al. 1992). Various other fungi were used in
traditional medicines by the Thompson people (Turner
et al. 1990) and other First Nations, including bracket
fungi such as Fomitopsis pinicola, Inonotus obliquus,
Ischnoderma resinosum, and Trametes suaveolens (Marles
et al. 1999). Spores of puffballs (possibly Bovista and
Lycoperdon spp.) were dusted on wounds and infections
by the Bella Coola people (Turner 1973).
As food, commonly cultivated mushrooms are rich
in protein and carbohydrates, moderate in fibre, low in
fat and calories, and a good source of essential amino
acids, vitamins, and minerals (Chang and Miles 2004).
As medicine, they have long been recognized in Asia for
their curative and preventive properties (e.g., Ying et
al. 1987). The bioactive compounds in mushrooms—
polysaccharides, glycoproteins, ergosterols, triterpenes,
and antibiotics—exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer,
anti-cholesterol, anti-diabetic, anti-fatiguing, anti-
fibriotic, anti-microbial, anti-oxidative, anti-viral, and
chemo-protective properties (Stamets 2002).
Cultivated Mushrooms
History of Mushroom Cultivation
Mushroom crops were first cultivated in eastern Asia
starting with Auricularia auricula in China about
ce
600 (Chang 1993). Cultivation in Korea was first
recorded in the book Salrim-gyeongje (in 1715) during
the Joseon Dynasty (Institute of Korean Culture
1971). Though the described cultivation method is
primitive, it indicates a fundamental understanding of
growth requirements. Extensive mushroom cultivation
in Korea started in the mid- to late 1900s, first with
shiitake (1957), then button mushroom (1965),
and oyster mushroom (1974). Since then, about 14
mushroom species (including enokitake, reishi, king
oyster mushroom, and fuling) have been cultivated
and marketed (You 2003). Government institutes
and mushroom spawn companies have developed
techniques for the cultivation of new mushrooms.
Similar to the situation in Korea, large-scale
commercial cultivation of button mushrooms in British
Columbia grew from the early 1950s well into the
late 1980s (J. Curtis, B.C. Ministry of Agriculture and
Lands, pers. comm., 2005). Originally, they were grower
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co-operatives with growers benefiting from combining
their marketing and selling efforts. Currently, seven
marketing and distribution companies operate in
British Columbia.
The Species and Their Value
In British Columbia, the only cultivated species for
which there is data is the button mushroom (Agaricus
bisporus) and its strains and growth forms such as white
button (Figure 1a), brown button, crimini, portabellini,
and portobello. Although species and varieties referred
to as “specialty mushrooms” are cultivated in the
province, no published data exists for them (Table 1;
B. Chalmers, Western Biologicals, pers. comm., 2005).
It has been reported that Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster
mushroom) and Sparassis crispa are commercially
harvested from the forests (Berch and Cocksedge
2003), but we don’t know how important this activity is
because no data has been collected. However, we know
from personal experience that these species and others
are collected for personal use. Ganoderma lucidum is an
important medicinal mushroom (e.g., Gao et al. 2004)
that is both wild-harvested and cultivated in Korea
f i g u r e 1.
Examples of commercially important cultivated mushrooms in British Columbia (a) (photo credit: J. Curtis,
B.C. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands) and the Republic of Korea (a–g): (a) typical button mushroom, Agaricus
bisporus; (b) enokitake, Flammulina velutipes; (c) Sparassis crispa; (d) king oyster mushroom, Pleurotus eryngii; (e)
monkey head, Hericium erinaceum; (f) maitake, Grifola frondosa; (g) shiitake, Lentinula edodes.
ab
cd
efg
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JEM Vo l u M E 8, Nu M b E r 3 59
and is reported to be cultivated in British Columbia
as well. We know from British Columbians engaged in
the practice that similar species, the native Ganoderma
applanatum and Ganoderma tsugae, are collected from
forests for nutraceutical1 use.
According to the B.C. Ministry of Agriculture and
Lands (2004), about 25 000 t of button mushrooms
worth $74.5 million2 were produced in 2003, accounting
for 97% of the total provincial mushroom production.
Based on these data, we can estimate that specialty
mushrooms accounted for only 3% of total production,
or about 1000 t.
In Korea, many species and varieties of edible
and medicinal mushrooms are cultivated; some of
them are also harvested from forests (Table 1). The
cultivated edible mushrooms include Agaricus bisporus
(button mushroom), Flammulina velutipes (enokitake),
Lentinula edodes (shiitake), Hypsizygus marmoreus,
Pleurotus eryngii, and Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster
mushroom). The cultivated medicinal mushrooms
include Agaricus brasiliensis, Cordyceps militaris,
Ganoderma lucidum, Sparassis crispa, Phellinus spp., and
Wolfiporia extensa. This last species is also harvested
from Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) forests. (see
Figure 1 for photographs of some of these species).
In 2003, Korea produced a similar amount of button
mushroom (19 790 t) to that in British Columbia, but
with this the similarity ends. Total Korean mushroom
production in 2003 was 181 828 t, including 62 081 t
of oyster mushrooms, 38 839 t of shiitake, 41 232 t of
enokitake plus other species. Production of these food
species increased 209% from 1993 to 2003 (Yoo et al.
2005). In addition, Agaricus brasiliensis, Ganoderma
lucidum, and Phellinus spp. are abundantly cultivated in
Korea as medicinal mushrooms.
There may be tremendous opportunity for
expansion of the specialty edible mushroom industry in
British Columbia if the economics are right. However,
we have heard that mushrooms such as shiitake are
imported from China more economically than they
are produced in the province. Increased transportation
costs may change this economic viability. In addition,
many native fungal species have known or unexplored
medicinal and nutraceutical potential. According to Boa
(2004), 92 edible and medicinal fungi can be cultivated,
including eight Agaricus species, seven Ganoderma
species, and nine Pleurotus species. Many of these species
are native to British Columbia. Stamets (2005) listed
edible and medicinal mushrooms that can be cultivated
locally, some of which may be indigenous (Table 1).
The forests of British Columbia therefore provide
unexplored resources for the collection of new isolates
of known cultivated fungi, species that are not yet
cultivated, and wild-harvested medicinal fungi. Wild-
harvesting of medicinal mushrooms would have to be
approached cautiously and with an eye to sustainability.
The conks or fruiting bodies of many medicinal fungi
are perennial, developing over many years; to harvest
them from the wild could easily deplete the resource.
In addition to producing useful fruiting bodies,
fungal mycelia produce antibiotics used in medicine
(Sur and Ghosh 2004), fermentation products used in
the food industry (Koizumi 2001), and enzymes used
industrially for the biotechnology of wood (Mai et
al. 2004) and ecologically friendly bioremediation of
contaminated sites (Stamets 2005; Brar et al. 2006). On
reforestation sites in the interior of British Columbia,
cultivated mycelium of the native fungus Hypholoma
fasciculare is being tested for use against Armillaria
ostoyae root disease in forest plantations (Chapman et
al. 2004).
The Industry
In 2004, 49 commercial button mushroom growers
were located mainly in the lower Fraser Valley, but also
near Princeton and in the interior of British Columbia.
Farms averaged 5600 m2 of growing beds, with the
largest business having 18 600 m2 (B.C. Ministry of
Agriculture and Lands 2004). In the same year, the
button mushroom industry employed about 2000
people. Production increased 190% from 1993 to 2003,
while the number of growers decreased 18% from 2000
to 2003. These and other British Columbia mushroom
growers also produce some specialty mushrooms, but
the production numbers are probably small.
In contrast to the situation in British Columbia, in
2002 there were 16 374 commercial mushroom growers
in Korea cultivating oyster mushroom, shiitake,
enokitake, and button mushrooms with 7088, 8119,
174, and 993 growers, respectively. Average farm size
1 Foods claimed to have a medicinal effect on human health.
2 All dollar values cited are in Canadian currency.
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was 824 m2 for oyster mushroom production, 85 m2
for shiitake, 4804 m2 for enokitake, and 1919 m2 for
button mushroom.
Characteristics and Trends in the Industries
Since the 1980s, the British Columbia button mush-
room industry has been expanding and the recent
deregulation of mushroom marketing presents new
challenges and opportunities for continued growth (B.C.
Ministry of Agriculture and Lands 2004). Availability of
suitable compost is an important issue for the industry
along with the expansion of various existing and new
markets, value-added processing, further development
of specialty mushrooms, and technical improvement
to production systems (B.C. Ministry of Agriculture
and Lands 2004). Compost is a mixture of straw or
hay, manure, cereal grain, and gypsum. In Korea, other
substrates such as corn bran, cotton seed pulp, and beet
pulp are used.
Until April 2004, marketing of button mushrooms
in British Columbia was regulated under the Natural
Products Marketing Act (B.C. Ministry of Agriculture
and Lands 2004). The British Columbia Mushroom
Marketing Board administered the Act, allocated
marketing quota of Agaricus mushrooms, and licensed
designated marketing agencies through which all
Agaricus mushrooms were officially sold. Growers may
now sell their product through marketing agencies or
independently. This restructuring favours a free-market
approach and brings the industry in line with other
North American mushroom producing regions. As a
representative body for cultivated Agaricus mushroom
growers in British Columbia, the new Mushroom
Industry Development Council, officially launched on
January 1, 2005, undertakes research, grower education,
and generic promotion.
Recently, the consumption of edible mushrooms in
Korea has been increasing due to interest in health food
and pharmaceutical effects (You 2003). Government
and company researchers continue to develop new
cultivation techniques and products. For instance,
a production method for shaggy manes (Coprinus
comatus) has recently been developed.
Wild-Harvested Mushrooms
Early History of Matsutake (Pine
Mushroom) and Forest Mushroom Use
Among the wild-harvested forest mushrooms in British
Columbia, pine mushroom (Tricholoma magnivelare)
was probably the first to receive large-scale commercial
attention. Although pine mushrooms were commercially
harvested in Oregon and Washington in the 1930s
(references in Redhead 1997a), anecdotal information
indicates that the commercial harvest in British
Columbia began after Japanese–Canadians interned
in the interior of British Columbia during the Second
World War, recognized and began to harvest this close
relative of the familiar Japanese matsutake (Tricholoma
matsutake). Currently, more than 10 companies in
British Columbia buy and export pine mushrooms
(Berch and Cocksedge 2003), and thousands of people
are harvesters. Many First Nations groups that may
not have traditionally eaten pine mushroom are now
active commercial pickers (Hebda et al. 1996) and are
increasingly becoming involved in their management.
In addition to mentioning matsutake and shiitake
in the book entitled Sejong-sillog-jiliji (
ce
1454), the
Dongui-bogam (Exemplar of Korean Medicine) recorded
seven medicinal mushrooms of which two are relevant
here: Tricholoma matsutake and Morchella sp., possibly
esculenta. Jeungbo-salrim-gyeongje (Yu Jung-Im 1776)
described methods for storing matsutake, including
preservation with clay and brining with salt. Although
preservation with clay is no longer used, mushrooms are
stilled preserved in brine (Jung 1993).
The Species and Varieties
The mushrooms wild-harvested in British Columbia
and Korea are interestingly similar. In Korea, the wild-
harvested commercial mushrooms include matsutake
(Tricholoma matsutake; Figure 2a), Amanita hemibapha
subsp. hemibapha, Armillaria mellea, Auricularia spp.,
Cantharellus cibarius, Ganoderma lucidum, Morchella
esculenta, Polyozellus multiplex, Ramaria botrytis, and
Sarcodon aspratus (Figure 3 a–g). In British Columbia, the
most important wild-harvested mushrooms are the pine
mushroom (Tricholoma magnivelare; Figure 2b), Boletus
edulis, Cantharellus spp., Hydnum repandum, Morchella
spp., Polyozellus multiplex, and Sparassis crispa (Figure 3
h–l). Pine mushrooms are an acceptable though lower-
value substitute for matsutake to the Japanese market
(see Table 2). Many other species are wild-harvested and
marketed in both countries (Table 1) in lesser amounts.
The consumption of edible mushrooms in
Korea has been increasing due to interest
in health food and pharmaceutical effects.
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f i g u r e 2.
Wild-harvested pine mushrooms: (a) Korean matsutake, Tricholoma matsutake; (b) British Columbia pine
mushroom, Tricholoma magnivelare.
a b
f i g u r e 3.
Examples of commercially important wild-harvested mushrooms in the Republic of Korea (a–g) and British
Columbia (h–l): (a) Amanita hemibapha; (b) Armillaria mellea; (c) Cantharellus cibarius; (d) Ganoderma lucidum; (e)
Polyozellus multiplex; (f) Ramaria botrytis; (g) Sarcodon aspratus; (h) Boletus edulis; (i) Cantharellus formosus; (j) Morchella
sp.; (k) Polyozellus multiplex; (l) Sparassis crispa.
abc
d e f
ghi
jkl
b e r c h , ka, p a r k , an d w i n d e r
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Boa (2004) listed over 1100 species of edible and
medicinal fungi from over 80 countries. When this list
is compared with the species that are commercially
harvested in Korea and British Columbia, many
opportunities are clearly available for other species
to be developed commercially. Some examples of
edible mushrooms with commercial potential in
British Columbia are species of Clavulina, Laccaria,
Lactarius, Lycoperdon, and Russula, all of which could
be locally abundant. Similarly, Cordyceps, Fomitopsis,
Heterobasidion, Phaeolus, and Phellinus species
could have commercial potential for wild-harvesting
as medicinal fungi if their harvest can be proven
sustainable. Picking mushrooms, such as Lactarius and
Russula species, without disturbing the habitat has no
negative effect on future mushroom harvest (Egli et
al. 2006). In stark contrast, raking the forest floor in
search of pine mushrooms severely decreases mushroom
production for many years (Luoma et al. 2006).
However, perennial fruiting bodies of fungi that might
be harvested for medicinal purposes, such as Fomitopsis
species, may take years to develop and therefore could be
much more susceptible to over-harvesting.
At least 10 species of mushrooms commercially
harvested in Korea occur in British Columbia, but
are not yet harvested commercially (Table 1). For
instance, many species of Ramaria and Russula occur
in British Columbia, but their taxonomy is confusing
and little is known about their edibility. The case of
Hygrophorus russula is interesting and may highlight
cultural differences in culinary preferences or taxonomic
confusion (i.e., it may be that the Asian and North
American species are not the same). Although this
mushroom is harvested and consumed in Korea and
Japan, one North American author declares:
As far as the edibility of Hygrophorus russula
is concerned, I have two words for you: Aw-ful.
The species is edible and enjoyed by many people,
according to field guides. I assure you that something
is wrong with these people. The texture is slimy
and insipid, and the taste is foul. The beautiful red
shades, incidentally, disappear on cooking.
(Kuo 2007)
Other species have not been well documented or
may occur only rarely in British Columbia. For instance,
Wolfiporia extensa is seldom found, as indicated by
the presence of only one collection of this fungus at
the Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria and none at the
University of British Columbia, Vancouver herbaria.
Although Amanita hemibapha is commercially
harvested in Korea and other Amanita species are
harvested for food in various parts of the world (Boa
2004), there is little chance that Amanita species will
be harvested for food in British Columbia because so
many of them are poisonous, even deadly (e.g., Amanita
gemmata, Amanita porphyria, and Amanita smithiana).
Importance and Value
Matsutake is the most important edible wild mushroom
in Korea. Production peaked at 1313 t in 1985, but
has declined by about 7% every year since (Koo and
Bilek 1998). This is due to a lack of matsutake forest
management (Koo and Bilek 1998), damage by pine
midge-gall disease (Thecodiplosis japonensis) (Lee et al.
1997) and forest fire (Youn 2000). In 2001, a forest fire
on the east coast of Korea damaged 85% of matsutake
forests in Samcheok, one of the chief producing areas,
and in 2003 only 306 t of matsutake were harvested.
t a b l e 2.
Matsutake and pine mushroom imports into Japan by year and country (Source: Ministry of Finance Japan n.d.)
2000 2001 2002 2003
Country Volume Valuea Volume Value Volume Value Unit cost Volume Value Unit cost
(t) (t) (t) (yen/kg) (t) (yen/kg)
China 1308 6795 1531 9175 997 4909 4925 1119 5576 4984
North Korea 1309 2183 211 1180 502 1894 3770 284 971 3422
Republic of Korea 387 3468 181 2964 229 2851 12 445 147 2073 14 116
Canada 272 1346 328 1768 208 1084 5209 371 1355 3654
United States 87 449 80 475 73 413 5661 182 752 4130
Others 89 326 64 273 100 318 3179 118 444 3763
To T a l 3452 14 567 2395 15 835 2109 11 469 2221 11 171
a Value in million yen.
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Similarly in British Columbia, pine mushroom
is the most important commercially harvested wild
mushroom. Although no data exist on volume or value
of harvested wild mushrooms, de Geus (1995) estimated
that in 1993, 125 t of pine mushrooms were harvested
province-wide with $3.8 million paid to pickers. Wills
and Lipsey (1999) estimated that in 1995 around 250 t
of pine mushrooms were exported to Japan and as much
as 392 t in 1996. They proposed that if pine mushroom
from British Columbia were valued in the Japanese
market as highly as matsutake from Korea, the British
Columbia crop would be worth six times its present
value. Will and Lipsey (1999) stated that improved
management of the productivity and quality of pine
mushroom could dramatically increase revenues.
Forest pests will also affect the harvest of wild
mushrooms in British Columbia as the pine midge-gall
disease did in Korea. In British Columbia, mountain
pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its associated
bluestain fungus currently infest over 4 million ha
of pine forests (Eng et al. 2004), forming one of the
largest outbreaks of an insect pest ever recorded.
Although initially this may create more opportunities
for harvesting morels because their fruiting seems to be
stimulated in beetle-attacked areas (Keefer 2005), some
projections estimate that the beetle could devastate most
of the pine forests within the next several decades. This
would significantly decrease the available habitat for pine
mushroom production in parts of the province, such as
the Chilcotin Plateau, where pine is the major host tree.
Statistics Canada provides data on the export of
numerous mushroom commodities (Table 3). Wild-
harvested mushrooms shipped fresh, regardless of
the species, all fit under one category—“mushrooms,
fresh or chilled” (commodity code 07095900)—not in
the category for fresh or chilled Agaricus species. For
2003–2005, the average annual value for the former
commodity exported from British Columbia was
over $12 million (Table 4) and would include pine
mushroom, chanterelles, boletes, morels, and other
species. However, it is possible to estimate the value of
the pine mushrooms, because almost all of them are
shipped fresh to Japan; almost no other fresh or chilled
mushrooms are exported to Japan, and 99.1% of the
fresh mushrooms shipped to Asia go to Japan. Assuming
that virtually all of the fresh mushrooms shipped
to Japan during the summer and autumn are pine
mushrooms, the annual average value is over $6 million.
Wills and Lipsey (1999) estimated that 750 t of
chanterelles, 100 t of boletes, and 0.5 t of other wild-
harvested mushrooms (lobster, sweet tooth, hedgehog,
etc.) were harvested in British Columbia in a good year,
as well as 225 t of morels combined with the Yukon
yield. In Korea in 2003, 70 t of Sarcodon aspratus, 60 t of
Ramaria botrytis, 7 t of Auricularia species, and 0.02 t of
other combined species were wild-harvested.
Fresh mushrooms (excluding Agaricus species)
exported from British Columbia during April–June are
assumed to be primarily morels. Canadian statistics state
that these exports averaged over $1 million for 2003–
2005 (Table 4), with a peak of over $2 million in 2004.
Over 220 t of morels were gathered in burned forests of
the Kootenay region in 2004 (Keefer 2005), with perhaps
an equal amount produced in burned forests in the
rest of the province. Using a median wholesale price of
$6.60/kg fresh weight (Keefer 2005) and assuming an
t a b l e 3.
Statistics Canada (n.d.) commodities for mushrooms and other fungi with effective date of January 2002
Commodity code Commodity
07095100 Mushrooms of the genus Agaricus, fresh or chilled
07095900 Mushrooms, fresh, or chilled
20031000 Mushrooms of the genus Agaricus prepared/preserved other than by vinegar or acetic acid
07115100 Mushrooms of the genus Agaricus, provisionally preserved, but not for immediate consumption
07123100 Mushrooms of the genus Agaricus, dried, cut, sliced, etc., but not further prepared
20039000 Mushrooms, other than genus Agaricus, prepared/preserved other than by vinegar or acetic acid
07115900 Mushrooms and truffles, provisionally preserved, but not for immediate consumption
07123900 Mushrooms and truffles, dried, cut, sliced, etc., but not further prepared
07095200 Truffles, fresh, or chilled
20032000 Truffles prepared or preserved other than by vinegar or acetic acid
07123200 Wood ears (Auricularia spp.), dried, cut, sliced, etc., but not further prepared
b e r c h , ka, p a r k , an d w i n d e r
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overall harvest of about 440 t, a total wholesale value of
$2.9 million was estimated.
British Columbia exports many morels and, to a
much lesser extent, other wild-harvested species such as
boletes and chanterelles in dried form. Statistics Canada
reports on exports of dried mushrooms, but because
species are not separated, and dried product can be
retained for export outside of the fruiting season, it is
impossible to estimate how much of the over $1 million
is accounted for by morels (Table 4).
The Industry
In Japan, matsutake production peaked in 1953 at 6484 t
and since then has declined annually (Koo and Bilek
1998). In 2003, matsutake production was only 80 t.
The reasons for the decline include logging, climate
warming, and disease or pests, which killed over half
the pine trees in matsutake forests. People no longer
collect fallen pine needles and twigs for fuel, thus
the increasingly thick needle layers create a poor soil
environment for matsutake mycelium. This decline in
domestic production over the last five decades led to
increased imports of matsutake and pine mushroom
and new income opportunities in many countries,
including Korea and Canada, especially British
Columbia (Table 4).
In British Columbia, 2000–5000 people are
estimated to harvest pine mushrooms (de Geus
1995). The pickers sell their harvest locally at roadside
stands to buyers who sort the mushrooms into grades.
Most buyers work as employees or contractors to
mushroom companies. These companies acquire
one or more species and set field prices. Exporters
focus on international and domestic marketing
of wild-harvested mushrooms. Wills and Lipsey
(1999) identified 16 companies exporting wild food
mushrooms of several species from British Columbia,
but seven companies accounted for 90% of pine
mushroom exports to Japan.
In Korea, the number of matsutake-picking
households was 19 370 in 1995, but declined to only
10 224 households in 2002.
In British Columbia, pine mushrooms are sorted into
six grades (Figure 4; de Geus 1995). In Korea, exporters
sort matsutake according to Japanese grades (Table 5),
t a b l e 4.
Average seasonal value ($c d n ) of wild and cultivated mushroom products exported from British Columbia*
(March 2003 to February 2005), excluding Agaricus spp. (Source: Industry Canada n.d.)
Season Destination Fresh/chilled Dried
Spring (April–June) USA 308 424 ab 183 449 ab
Asia 12 323 abef
Europe 872 292 ab 54 553 ab
Summer (July–September) USA 539 822 abcd 168 605 abc
Asia 2 790 734 abcd 52 679 ac
Europe 277 030 abc 443 084 abc
Autumn (October–December) USA 291 133 acdef 38 369 acef
Asia 4 382 352 acdef 4 002 abef
Europe 2 344 731 acef 127 423 ace
Winter (January–March) USA 153 026 abef 64 771 abef
Asia 9 239 abef
Europe 141 612 abef 71 677 aef
To T a l $12 122 718 $1 208 612
* Asian countries importing non-Agaricus mushrooms from British Columbia include: Japan (99.1%), Republic of Korea (0.6%), and China
(People’s Republic of China and Taiwan (0.3%). European importers include: France (65.0%), Switzerland (11.2%), Netherlands (< 9.0%),
Norway (4.2%), Germany (3.8%), Spain (3.3%), Luxembourg (2.0%), UK (1.0%), Sweden (0.5%), and Belgium (< 0.1%).
a Probably includes major cultivated species (Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, etc.).
b Probably includes Morchella spp.
c Probably includes Boletus spp. and Cantharellus formosus.
d Probably includes Tricholoma magnivelare.
e Probably includes Craterellus spp., Hypomyces lactifluorum, Polyozellus muliplex, Sparassis spp., etc.
f Probably includes Hydnum repandum and Hydnum imbricatum.
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t a b l e 6.
Korean matsutake grades
Grade Characteristics
Grade 1 • Young mushroom
• Veil is fully attached
• > 8 cm tall
Grade 2 • Veil less than one-third opened
• Asymmetrically slender stem
• 6–8 cm tall
Grade 3 • Veil opened more than one-third
• Less than 6 cm tall
Off grade • Deformed, wormy, wet
Mixed grade • Unsorted collection
f i g u r e 4.
British Columbia pine mushroom grades (de Geus 1995).
t a b l e 5.
Japanese matsutake grades
Grade Class Characteristics
Grade 1 – Good • Completely intact veil
Completely • Good shape
intact veil 100 g per mushroom
Fair • Completely intact veil
• Good shape
• 50–100 g per mushroom
Poor Completely intact veil
• Good shape
50 g per mushroom
Grade 2 – • Some opening between cap and stem
Semi-opened cap
Grade 3 – • Completely open between cap and stem
Opened cap
Out of standard • Wormy, broken, abnormal
but many pickers are used to a five-tiered grading system
(Table 6), which creates some difficulties. Pine mushrooms
from British Columbia are shipped fresh to Japan in
refrigerated cardboard boxes, while in Korea matsutake are
either similarly mass-shipped or individually packaged to
showcase mushrooms of the very best grade.
Habitat and Ecological Information
In both British Columbia and Korea, commercially
important edible wild mushrooms are harvested mostly
in September and October, except for morels in British
Columbia, which are harvested in May and June.
In British Columbia, pine mushroom occurs most
productively on sites with well-drained, coarse-textured
soil, in mature and older forests (80–120+ years old)
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dominated by western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla),
Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), or lodgepole
pine (Pinus contorta) (Berch and Wiensczyk 2001;
Kranabetter et al. 2002, 2005; Ehlers et al. [2007]). In
Korea, the optimum environment for matsutake is a
forest dominated by Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora)
on southern or western aspects of relatively dry ridges
with coarse-textured, well-drained soil (sandy loam or
loamy sand) of granite or granite gneiss origin with
little weathering.
In British Columbia, only a small amount of
research has been done on the ecology of other
commercially important forest mushroom species. On
northern Vancouver Island, Pacific golden chanterelle
is found in moist, rich sites in association with 60–80-
year-old western hemlock forests (Ehlers 2004). In
southeastern British Columbia, morels fruiting in forests
that burned the previous year occur most abundantly
in moist, water-shedding sites in association with
various plant species (R. Winder and M. Keefer, Pacific
Forestry Centre and private consultant, unpublished
information, 2006).
Methods for Improving Productivity
of Matsutake and Pine Mushroom
For British Columbia, nothing has been published
concerning methods for increasing the productivity of
commercially important forest mushrooms. However,
Carrier and Krebs (2002) reported that irrigating
northern forests can increase the productivity of forest
mushrooms in general.
In contrast, extensive work has been done in
Asia, including Korea, on increasing the productivity
of commercially important mushrooms, especially
matsutake. Attempts have been made recently to
artificially cultivate matsutake (e.g., colonizing
seedlings by growing them in existing shiros3 (Ka et
al. 2006), but Park and Ryoo (1998) concluded that
significant progress will not be made until researchers
work together to understand the complex ecological
characteristics of this fungus.
The extent of forest canopy closure affects the
temperature and humidity in the underlying soil and
the fruiting of matsutake. The number of canopy
branch layers has a significant effect on the occurrence
of fruiting bodies, which are especially productive with
one to three overlapping layers (optimum two). Reduced
matsutake productivity is associated with an open
canopy or a dense canopy with more than three layers
of branch overlap. In Japan, matsutake production was
correlated with stand density and diameter breast height.
Based on these concepts, researchers in Korea (Song
et al. 1999) developed a relative spacing index (
rsi
) to
establish optimum conditions for matsutake production:
rsi
= (average distance between two trees) × 100
height of tree
Results indicated that the optimal relative spacing index
for productive matsutake forests is 35%.
Since 2000, the Korean Forest Service has been
supporting stand improvement activities to conserve
and enhance matsutake production. The main
practices include thinning and pruning for adjustment
of stem density, clearing understorey shrub and herb
growth, removing organic litter from the forest floor,
and establishing irrigation systems (Lee et al. 2000).
The process first classifies candidate stands into three
categories: matsutake forests, forests next to matsutake
forests, and non-matsutake forests. From this follows
the decision about whether stand improvement
activities should be carried out and, if so, exactly
what practices should be used. In matsutake forests
and forests next to matsutake forests, practices focus
on enhancing production volume and expanding the
production area. In non-matsutake forests, if it is
determined that the forest could support matsutake in
the future, stand activity is carried out to improve the
suitability of the forest.
The schedule of activities and forest practice methods
(Table 7) are decided based on ecological characteristics
of the forest and the age of the pine trees (Figure 5).
In the case of young pine-dominant forests, forest
practices are carried out for only 2 years. In mature
matsutake-producing stands of pine, these practices are
carried out in the years 1, 3, and 5 of a 5-year protocol.
In these matsutake and pine forests, canopy thinning
and understorey clearing are done gradually over time
because sudden environmental change can decrease
matsutake production. Forest practices are carried out
for three and four years for young and mature broadleaf-
invaded forests, respectively.
Biological indicators are used to determine when
declining matsutake forests need to be managed. One
indicator is the ectomycorrhizal mushroom community
associated with the matsutake, which changes with
3 Perennial, below-ground mycelia of the fungus.
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t a b l e 7.
Schedule of environmental improvement activities in matsutake forests in Republic of Korea based on
ecological characteristics of forest and pine tree age
Forest Characteristics
Young forest (16–35 years) Mature forest (36–50 years)
Year Pinus densiflora dominant Broadleaf-invaded Pinus densiflora dominant Broadleaf-invaded
1st • thinning • thinning • pruning • thinning
• clearing understorey • clearing understorey • clearing understorey • clearing understorey
• removing organic litter • removing organic litter • removing organic litter • removing organic litter
2nd • pruning • thinning • pruning
• clearing understorey • pruning • removing organic litter
• removing organic litter • removing organic litter
3rd • pruning • pruning • pruning
• clearing understorey • clearing understorey • clearing understorey
• removing organic litter • removing organic litter • removing organic litter
4th • pruning
• clearing understorey
5th • pruning
• clearing understorey
• removing organic litter
f i g u r e 5.
Flowchart of decision making for environmental improvement activity of forest stands for matsutake
production, Republic of Korea.
the development of the matsutake shiro. Boletopsis
leucomelaena, Sarcodon scabrosus, and Tricholoma
flavovirens mostly appear in young matsutake forests
where production is increasing. Amanita pantherina,
Laccaria amethystea, Lactarius spp., Russula spp., and
Suillus bovinus usually occur in forests with declining
matsutake production (Park et al. 1998, citing Ogawa
1991). Senescing matsutake forests also develop more
saprophytic mushrooms, while ectomycorrhizal
mushrooms decline due to the increasing humus
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68
layer. Many of these fungal species also occur in
British Columbia and some of them, such as Boletopsis
leucomelaena, have been observed in pine mushroom
forests (T. Ehlers, Tysig Consulting, pers. comm., 2005).
Another indicator used in Korea is the soil enzyme
dehydrogenase, which is active in the degradation of
organic matter. The dehydrogenase activity of soil in
mature forests is 150–200 μg triphenylformazan (
tpf
)/
gram of soil, but drops to around 50 μg
tpf
/gram of
soil at the expanding front of the shiro and to less than
10 μg
tpf
/gram of soil in the physiologically inactive and
degenerate mycorrhiza zones (Huh et al. 1998; Hur and
Park 2001).
Stand Management to Improve
Matsutake Quality
In addition to overall improvement of stand conditions
for matsutake conservation and production, short-
term activities are used in Korea to improve matsutake
number, weight, and quality. The goal is to create the
optimal environment for the matsutake, especially
for the incorporation of moisture into the developing
mushroom. Two basic approaches are used.
In the first, emerging matsutake buttons are covered
with a 4–5 cm thick cap of soil or an inverted plastic cup
with a 5 mm hole in the bottom (for aeration). The soil
coating creates a longer stem and the plastic cup creates
larger mushroom size and greater weight. In both cases,
mushrooms suffer less damage from moulds and insects.
The young mushroom is harvested when the soil above
it cracks. The plastic cup must be removed 1–2 days
before harvesting to permit the mushroom to become
less watery and the tantalizing aroma of the mushroom
to redevelop. The plastic cup is sometimes used during
dry conditions, but can lead to mould development
during moist periods. In general, the plastic cup method
is not highly recommended because it can lead to inferior
quality if management is careless. In addition, the pickers
worry that the cup makes the mushrooms easy to find by
other pickers.
In the second method, matsutake forests are
irrigated. The productivity of matsutake and other forest
mushrooms depends on weather conditions, especially
precipitation and temperature. The matsutake consists
of about 90% water and needs about 500–600 mm of
precipitation during the fruiting period for optimal
production. However, precipitation during this time
is usually only 160–300 mm. In addition, matsutake
production is linked to the accumulation of this
precipitation about 15 days before the appearance of the
first mushroom on site. Therefore, it is recommended that
pickers correctly time irrigation at matsutake sites.
Policy, Support, and Challenges
Policy and Regulation
Most of the forested land of British Columbia is
under provincial jurisdiction including forests where
commercially important mushrooms are harvested.
Timber harvesting is managed under various tenures
(e.g., tree farm licences, timber sales, woodlots, and
community forests) and the provincial government
collects revenues from harvesting on Crown land. In
contrast, no tenure system exists for
ntfp
s such as
mushrooms, and no revenues are collected. The lack of a
tenure system creates many challenges (Forest Practices
Board 2004) and leaves little incentive for pickers to
manage the resources when they cannot be sure that
they, rather than other pickers, will benefit from their
efforts. Also, no regulations govern the management
of
ntfp
s, although Section 168 of the Forest and Range
Practices Act (in which they are called “botanical forest
products”) allows for such regulations to be made (B.C.
Ministry of Forests and Range 2003).
Despite this lack of tenure and regulation, manage-
ment of pine mushroom habitat is starting to be
incorporated into forest management. For instance,
in the Timber Supply Review for the Kispiox
tsa
, the
Chief Forester of British Columbia recognized that “pine
mushrooms are undeniably an important botanical
forest product, the habitat for which must be considered
in forest management and planning” (Pedersen
2003:28). Consequently, he reduced the timber supply in
the short term by 4%. Also, high value pine mushroom
habitat has recently been mapped in the Cranberry
tsa
to provide input into timber supply analysis and
integrated resource management (Trowbridge 2005).
In northwestern British Columbia, the Nisga’a
Lisims government has adopted a land use plan for
their First Nations treaty land that designates a special
management area for pine mushroom and a botanical
forest products zone within the area designated for
forest resource use (Nisga’a Lisims Government 2002).
In addition to pine mushroom, the prescribed
ntfp
s
include black morel, oyster mushroom, king bolete,
blue chanterelle, funnel chanterelle, lobster mushroom,
chicken-of-the-woods, hedgehog mushroom, and
cauliflower mushroom. The policy requires that forest
management decisions take into account the cumulative
effects of land use on
ntfp
habitat. In 2005, permits
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were issued for commercial harvesters and buyers of
ntfp
s. Fees were assessed depending on citizenship and
age with younger and older harvesters exempt from
payment (Nisga’a Lisims Government n.d.)
In Korea, matsutake harvesting on national and
public forests has traditionally been carried out by
people living in the neighbourhood. Since the 1990s,
however, this neighbourhood system has broken
down because more and more people are harvesting
matsutake. Because of increasing conflicts, harvesting
regulations were developed. Harvesting rights for forests
owned nationally or publicly are now being sold to
neighbourhoods. The cost of these harvesting rights
is one-tenth of the value of the mean production over
a 4-year period, which takes into account the annual
variation in productivity (Koo and Park 2004). Officially,
harvesting rights must be sold through open public
tender to people living close to the matsutake forest,
but most of the rights are in fact privately contracted
to local residents, who are often the village head.
The village head then holds the rights and the village
residents organize teams to harvest in the allocated area.
A portion of the income is contributed to the village
development fund (Koo and Park 2004).
Under Korea’s Songyi Use Restriction Notice, in
provinces where matsutake is harvested each forestry
co-operative is required to store production records
for 5 years. The notice went into effect when matsutake
exportation to Japan started in 1967. At that time,
all matsutake had to be exported to Japan to acquire
foreign currency. The notice established open and
public education and qualification criteria for matsutake
sorters and buyers, for selection of equipment, and for
sorting grades (see http://www.foa.go.kr, in Korean). The
notice was deregulated in 1995 because the government
eased its restrictions on export, and a portion of the
matsutake harvest was sold on the domestic market.
Because all other wild-harvested mushrooms
in Korea have much less value than matsutake, no
regulations apply to their harvest.
Support and Challenges
Redhead (1997b) reported that while over 1250 species
of macrofungi—including mushrooms and other species
forming macroscopic fruiting structures—had been
reported for British Columbia, this was only a fraction
of the species actually present. Lee (1990) reported
885 species of macrofungi in Korea, but that number
has since grown to 1600. For both jurisdictions, more
research on the biodiversity of native fungi is needed for
their potential to be fully appreciated and realized.
In Korea, four full-time scientists at the Korea
Forest Research Institute in Seoul carry out research
and extension programs on commercially harvested
wild mushrooms such as shiitake and matsutake.
The National Institute of Agricultural Science
and Technology and Agricultural Technology
Centres of eight provinces carry out research and
extension activities pertaining to oyster mushrooms,
enokitake, and button mushrooms. The Korean
Forest Service provides support for the conservation
and improvement of matsutake resources and
the promotion of
ntfp
exports. Since 2000, it
has supported the development of techniques for
enhancing matsutake productivity, including thinning
and pruning for stand density adjustment, clearing
understorey shrubs and forbs, removing organic
litter from the forest floor, and establishing irrigation
systems. The financial sources for this environmental
improvement activity consist of 40% federal
government subsidy, 20% provincial government
subsidy, and 40% private fees. Forestry co-operatives
collect data on imports, exports, and production of
mushrooms. The number of producer associations,
though not easily counted, is estimated to be more
than 100.
The British Columbia provincial government has
one industry specialist in Greenhouse Vegetables and
Mushrooms in the Ministry of Agriculture and Lands
who deals primarily with commercially produced button
mushrooms. The new British Columbia Mushroom
Industry Development Council undertakes research,
grower education, and generic promotion of Agaricus
production. At other agencies, a few researchers are
investigating medicinal properties of indigenous
mushrooms. Dr. Eduardo Jovel at the University of
British Columbia has done some preliminary work
on medicinal properties of native fungi. At the Pacific
Agri-Food Research Centre, Dr. Thomas Beveridge has
investigated some of the medicinal properties of pine
mushroom (Tricholoma magnivelare). There is also
some research on the productivity of wild-harvested
fire morels (Keefer 2005) and chanterelles (Ehlers
2006). Neither the federal nor provincial government
employs specialists or researchers to work exclusively
on wild-harvested mushrooms. However, some federal
and provincial forest and agriculture employees address
ntfp
s along with other responsibilities.
b e r c h , ka, p a r k , an d w i n d e r
JEM Vo l u M E 8, Nu M b E r 3
70
The recent formation of the Interagency Non-
Timber Forest Resources Committee in British
Columbia provides a mechanism to communicate,
co-ordinate, and strategize on issues of importance
to
ntfp
s among ministries; other provincial, federal
and local agencies; First Nations governments; existing
ntfp
sectors and related industries; and research and
other organizations. In British Columbia, the Agri-
Food Futures Funds, with funding from the Ministry
of Agriculture and Lands and Agriculture and Agri-
Food Canada, operated the Mushroom Industry
Initiative until the end of March 2004. The new British
Columbia Cultivated Mushroom Industry Initiative
has developed a draft Strategic Plan for 2006–2010. It
emphasizes the importance of the Agaricus component
(97% of production by volume), but also recognizes
the lack of specialty mushroom industry data,
including types grown, production costs, numbers of
producers, volume produced and sales, and the need
for research on production methods and new specialty
mushroom products. The major funding source
of forestry-related research is currently the Forest
Investment Account (
fia
), which assists government
in developing a globally recognized, sustainably
managed forest industry. No equivalent funding source
is focussed on the
ntfp
industry. With the publication
of the special report on
ntfp
s by the Forest Practices
Board (2004), interest in
ntfp
s shifted and they were
listed as topic areas for research in the Forest Science
Program of the
fia
.
British Columbia has 25 universities, university-
colleges, colleges, and institutes (B.C. Ministry of
Advanced Education n.d.), but only one faculty
member (at Royal Roads University) is working full-
time specifically on
ntfp
s. Although many faculty
members in British Columbian universities, colleges,
and institutes study native plants and animals,
relatively few work on native mushrooms. A number
of educational institutions, including Malaspina
College, the University of Victoria, the University
of British Columbia (Vancouver and Okanagan),
the University of Northern British Columbia, and
Thompson Rivers University, discuss commercially
important mushrooms or
ntfp
s in various courses,
but only Royal Roads University offers courses and
a certificate program specifically on
ntfp
s. In 2004,
Royal Roads University announced the creation of
the Centre for Non-Timber Resources (Royal Roads
University n.d.) to support and encourage sustainable
utilization of non-timber forest resources in the
temperate and boreal regions of the world.
No professional association yet represents
the pickers, buyers, or exporters of commercially
important wild-harvested mushrooms. Because of this,
the industry has no voice. Five mushroom clubs for
interested amateurs exist in the province (in Vancouver,
Victoria, Kelowna, Roberts Creek, and Fraser Valley).
Although these clubs encourage people to learn about
mushrooms, they do not directly support commercial
mushroom harvesters. In fact, mushroom club
members express concerns about the sustainability of
commercial mushroom harvesting and the competition
they often experience between recreational and
commercial pickers.
The University of British Columbia (University of
British Columbia n.d. ) and the Pacific Forestry Centre
(Natural Resources Canada n.d.) have international
herbaria with British Columbia fungal collections
that can be searched online. From these Web sites,
it is possible to determine where and when voucher
specimens of fungus species have been collected in the
province. As of 1997, however, “for more than 90%
of the province, there has been documentation of less
than 1% of the macrofungal flora” (Redhead 1997b:2).
Clearly, specific mushrooms occur in parts of the
province where they have not yet been documented.
Commercial harvesters of fire morels use the
British Columbia Ministry of Forests Protection
Branch Web site to find the locations of wildfires in the
province in the previous year (B.C. Ministry of Forests
and Range n.d.) and, therefore, where big morel crops
might be expected to occur.
As earlier indicated, one of the major obstacles
to fully assessing the extent of the wild mushroom
industry in British Columbia is the lack of specific
import and export data. Although Statistics
Canada reports on various categories of mushroom
commodities, such as “mushrooms, fresh or
chilled, only the button mushrooms are specifically
monitored (as “mushrooms of the genus Agaricus,
fresh or chilled”). Virtually all other species of
imports and exports are lumped together (Table 2).
Statistics Canada uses the Standard Classification
of Goods (
scg
) to collect commodity data and to
uniquely identify such data. The
scg
is an extension
of the international Harmonized Commodity
Description and Coding System of the World Customs
Organization. The inter-agency committee on
ntfp
s is
working with Natural Resources Canada on a project to
add specific
ntfp
mushroom species to this system.
cult i vat e d a n d w i l d -h a r ve s t e d m u s h r o o m i nd us tr ies
JEM Vo l u M E 8, Nu M b E r 3 71
Conclusions and Issues
Before the wild-harvested and cultivated mushroom
industries in British Columbia and Korea can develop to
their full potential, the following important issues and
challenges need to be addressed.
The specialty mushroom cultivation industry in
British Columbia has the potential for expansion
with native species, new native strains of fungi, such
as Pleurotus and Ganoderma; and with non-native
species that are already cultivated elsewhere. The
collection of data specific to specialty mushrooms
would facilitate new business development and
market assessment.
The potential exists for further development of
wild-harvesting edible and medicinal mushrooms
in both areas, but research into its sustainability is
essential. As forests develop and land uses change, it
will be important not to lose resources that provide
the genetic stock, substrates, and in some cases,
the habitat necessary for cultivated and (or) wild-
harvested production.
The fungal resources of British Columbian and
Korean forests are not fully known. Research and
extension on the diversity, abundance, distribution,
and identification of these resources are sorely needed.
Commercialized mushroom cultivation in both
jurisdictions appears to be following similar growth
patterns even though the outcomes to date have
been different. The historical basis for mushroom
consumption in Asia has led to a market that is
much more diverse than that of North America, and
a market that could grow substantially if the health
claims associated with some mushrooms can be
verified or more solidly established. Although the
North American market can be expected to grow in
line with population growth, the use of mushrooms
as nutraceuticals must contend with a preference
for fast-acting drugs and as food with a history of
European-based cuisines which have less emphasis
on mushrooms. Still, the growth of Asian populations
in British Columbia may move us toward greater
diversity of mushroom cultivation. Better culinary
research could explore the use of Korean mushrooms
in North American food products and vice versa,
thereby expanding the potential market for products
from both areas.
The extension of expertise and the support for
mushroom industries highlight an interesting
contrast in approaches and markets between the two
jurisdictions. The focus in British Columbia is on a
single mushroom crop (Agaricus bisporus), with some
tentative support for other specialties. Extension
and support in Korea are more diversified, reflecting
the greater variety of important cultivated species.
Interaction between innovative entrepreneurs and
extension specialists appears to play an important role
in maintaining the stability of established markets as
well as the development of new markets.
Security and exclusivity of access to specic
ntfp
resources in specific land bases in British Columbia,
similar to those for timber in the province and
matsutake in Korea, could provide incentive for
sustainable
ntfp
harvesting or managing for
improved productivity. Incorporation of pine
mushroom habitat into forest planning would
contribute to the sustainability of this industry in
British Columbia.
To improve the management of
ntfp
s such as pine
mushroom, we need to know more about their
ecology, phenology, and responses to disturbance
and change (e.g., climate change, timber harvesting,
and mountain pine beetle attack) and to apply this
knowledge to operations. The Korean experience in
managing matsutake shows that it is feasible to boost
the productivity of wild-harvested mushrooms using
a “light development” approach to forest resources.
For wild-harvested mushrooms with underdeveloped
markets, this is an attractive option for stabilizing
productivity and growing commercial activity.
For wild-harvested mushrooms with developed
markets, this option can be used to counter declining
productivity.
Economic monitoring of international
ntfp
trade
will only be possible when the World Customs
Organization and Statistics Canada use more specific
commodity categories.
Without a unied voice, the
ntfp
industry cannot
effectively communicate with government and other
industries. An
ntfp
industry association, as has been
recently established in Quebec (L’association pour
la commercialisation des champignons forestiers),
would provide this voice.
The potential exists for further
development of wild-harvesting edible
and medicinal mushrooms in both Korea
and British Columbia, but research into
its sustainability is essential.
b e r c h , ka, p a r k , an d w i n d e r
JEM Vo l u M E 8, Nu M b E r 3
72
Acknowledgements
The work described in this paper was partially
supported by the Post-doctoral Fellowship Program of
Korea Research Foundation (
krf
-2004-214-
f
00011),
Republic of Korea. We thank the B.C. Ministry of Forests
and Range and Natural Resources Canada, Canadian
Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre for their support.
Note
This article contains information on the ecology
and management of non-timber forest products. In
promoting implementation of this information, the
user should recognize the equitable sharing of benefits
derived from the management and use of this product
[Article 8(j) of the United Nations Convention on the
Conservation of Biological Diversity]. Where possible,
the reader should involve the keepers of this knowledge
and encourage customary use of biological resources in
accordance with traditional cultural practices that are
compatible with the conservation and sustainable use
requirements [Article 10(c)].
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a r t i c l e re c e i v e d : August 24, 2006
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© 2007, Copyright in this article is the property of F
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b e r c h , ka, p a r k , an d w i n d e r
JEM Vo l u M E 8, Nu M b E r 3
76
Test Your Knowledge . . .
1. a 2. c 3. d
ANSWERS
Development and potential of the cultivated and wild-harvested mushroom industries in the
Republic of Korea and British Columbia
How well can you recall some of the main messages in the preceding Research Report?
Test your knowledge by answering the following questions. Answers are at the bottom of the page.
1. To conserve and enhance matsutake production, the Korean Forest Service supports stand
improvement activities that include:
a
) Thinning, pruning, clearing understorey vegetation, removing surface litter from the forest floor,
and irrigating
b
) Removing all of the ectomycorrhizal trees
c
) Liming and fertilizing the stands
d
) Prohibiting all stand management activities in forests adjacent to matsutake forests
2. Opportunities for diversification of the mushroom industry in British Columbia are:
a
) Diminishing because of climate change and tree diseases
b
) Historically challenging because of the lack of fungal diversity in British Columbia
c
) Numerous because of the number of underutilized species and potential for improved
management of wild harvests
d
) Unpredictable because of the North American and European markets
3. World-wide, the commercial mushroom industry is:
a
) Limited because so few species have any value
b
) In decline because no mushroom species can be cultivated and it is impossible to determine what
stand types will support wild-harvested mushroom species
c
) Growing dramatically due to the activities of forest pests and pathogens
d
) Already significant because over 2000 species are collected, consumed and traded
... The term mushroom describes the reproductive structure of fruiting body of a fungus (Berch et al., 2007) [8] . A mushroom is a fruiting body of Macro-fungus that is produced above ground and is large enough to be seen with the naked eye and to be picked up by a bare hand (Kumar, 2015; Wani et al., Royce, 1997) [22] . ...
... The term mushroom describes the reproductive structure of fruiting body of a fungus (Berch et al., 2007) [8] . A mushroom is a fruiting body of Macro-fungus that is produced above ground and is large enough to be seen with the naked eye and to be picked up by a bare hand (Kumar, 2015; Wani et al., Royce, 1997) [22] . ...
... A mushroom is a fruiting body of Macro-fungus that is produced above ground and is large enough to be seen with the naked eye and to be picked up by a bare hand (Kumar, 2015; Wani et al., Royce, 1997) [22] . Mushrooms belong to the kingdom of fungi, a group very distinctive from plants, animals and bacteria (Berch et al., 2007) [8] Generally, mushrooms possess four functionalities, including nutritional values, tasty properties, physiological effects and cultural characteristics (Beluhan and Ranogajec, 2011) [9] . Wild growing mushrooms are known as a delicacy in many countries, due to high proteins and trace minerals content (Kalac 2012;Murugkar and Subbulakshmi, 2005) [19] . ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was carried out to study the nutritional and antinutritional values of underutilized mushroom in Kebbi State, Nigeria. A total of 5 samples were collected during rainy season from the month of June to October in different locations of Yauri local Government Area. Fresh and fully matured species was uprooted using scalpel or knife. Photographs were taken to aid in further morphological study for the purpose of identification The samples were preserved using formaldehyde, Oven-dry at 60 o c to avoid spoiling or decay. Analysis of Proximate and antinutrient parameters was carried out using AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemist) recommended techniques. Five species were identified as Daldinia concentrica, Tremetes versicolor, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma tsugae and Pleurotus tuberigium le in this study. Nutritional analysis showed that, Tremetes versicolor (7.513±0.015) had highest moisture while Daldinia concentrica (4.507±0.021) had lowest. Ash was seen to be high in Pleurotus tuberigium (29.013±0.015). Ganoderma applanatum (2.513±0.015) had highest lipid while Daldinia concentrica (1.000±0.020) had lowest. Ganoderma tsugae (40.510±0.010) had highest fiber while Pleurotus tuberigium (19.510±0.010) had the lowest. Ganoderma applanatum (28.520±0.010) is seen to have the highest Protein while Ganoderma tsugae (20.827±0.015) had lowest. Tremetes versicolor (31.560±0.053) was seen to have highest carbohydrates Pleurotus tuberigium (23.040±0.052) had lowest. Anti-nutrients analysis showed that, Pleurotus tuberigium (103.333±0.225) is seen with highest Nitrate while Tremetes versicolor (88.333±0.136) had lowest. Pleurotus tuberigium. (103.054±0.933) is seen to have highest Tannin while Ganoderma applanatum (92.939±0.118) had lowest. Tremetes versicolor (116.862±17.249) is seen to have highest Cyanide while Ganoderma tsugae (109.568±0.238) had lowest. Ganoderma applanatum (5.491±0.845) is seen to have highest Phytate while Ganoderma tsugae (3.238±0.244) had lowest. Ganoderma applanatum (0.0192±0.0.0258) is seen to have highest Oxalate while Daldinia concentrica and Ganoderma tsugae (0.0046±0.0007). The level of anti-nutrients in identified mushrooms are high and make them unavailable for consumption in this study and are therefore poisonous for human and animals. Due to the shortage of information related to mushrooms in the study area, further studies should be carryout in order to know the nutritional and antinutritional profile of mushrooms within the study area.
... The mushroom industry in South Korea is more extensive and diverse, reflecting domestic consumption and traditions. PO, PD, PC, PE, and PSC are cultivated in South Korea, among them, PE is dominating [41,57]. Pleurotus mushroom production in South Korea accounted for 52% of the total production [58]. ...
... Globally established Pleurotus species and their distribution[12,21,24,53,57,58,60]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Pleurotus species are commercially essential mushrooms and widely cultivated throughout the world. The production of Pleurotus mushrooms alone accounts for around 25% of that total cultivated mushrooms globally. In America and Europe, Pleurotus species are considered specialty mushrooms, whereas, in Korea, their cultivation is economically profitable, and it is one of the highly consumed species. Pleurotus species are predominantly found in tropical forests and often grow on fallen branches, dead and decaying tree stumps, and wet logs. Biographical studies have shown that the Pleurotus genus is among the more conspicuous fungi that induce wood decay in terrestrial ecosystems worldwide due to its formidable lignin-modifying enzymes, including laccase and versatile peroxidases. Pleurotus species can be grown easily due to their fast colonization nature on diversified agro-substrates and their biological efficiency 100%. Pleurotus mushrooms are rich in proteins, dietary fiber, essential amino acids, carbohydrates, water-soluble vitamins, and minerals. These mushrooms are abundant in functional bioactive molecules, though to influence health. Pleurotus mushrooms are finding unique applications as flavoring, aroma, and excellent preservation quality. Apart from its unique applications, Pleurotus mushrooms have a unique status delicacy with high nutritional and medicinal values. The present review provides an insight into the cultivation of Pleurotus spp. using different agro-waste as growth substances paying attention to their effects on the growth and chemical composition.
... Η δασική περιοχή της British Columbia στον Δυτικό Καναδά (Berch et al. 2007) αποτελεί μια από τις πιο ενδιαφέρουσες περιοχές για εμπορική συλλογή Α.Ε.Μ.. Παρά το γεγονός ότι η υλοτόμηση ρυθμίζεται από διάφορους κανονισμούς και το ότι οι τοπικές αρχές έχουν έσοδα από αυτή τη δραστηριότητα, δεν υπάρχει κανένα σύστημα για την είσπραξη οποιουδήποτε τέλους για Μ.Ξ.Δ.Π. όπως τα Α.Ε.Μ.. Επιπλέον, δεν υπάρχουν κανονισμοί για τη διαχείρισή τους, παρόλο που το άρθρο 168 του κώδικα περί Δασικών και Κτηνοτροφικών Δραστηριοτήτων επιτρέπει την εφαρμογή τέτοιων κανονισμών (BC Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations 2003). ...
... Στην Κορέα (Berch et al. 2007), η συγκομιδή του "matsutake" στα εθνικά και δημόσια δάση διεξάγεται παραδοσιακά από ανθρώπους των τοπικών κοινωνιών. Από το 1990, ωστόσο, αυτό το σύστημα έχει καταρρεύσει λόγω του ότι όλο και περισσότεροι άνθρωποι συλλέγουν "matsutake". ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The report describes and suggests the development of a new/updated legislative regulation for the collection, certification, and trade of Wild Edible Mushroom (WEMs) in Greece after an initiative taken by the Ministry of Environment and Energy, and the Ministry of Rural Development and Food.
... The outcomes obtained in the present work indicate that the consumption of the structural carbohydrates (cellulose and hemicellulose) was not very high, especially if considering that the cultivation was stopped before the beginning of the fructification stage where these two polysaccharides are more intensively hydrolyzed and consumed by the fungal biomass. Data from other authors [70,71] show that the consumption of cellulose during fructification is significantly higher and the resulting spent substrate, though delignified, has much less cellulose (less nutritional value) than the colonized substrate before the fruitbody formation. For production of ruminant feed from agricultural, agro-industrial, and woody residues as those analyzed in this work, it is essential that the hydrolysis and consumption of these carbohydrates be as low as possible since they are the main energy source for ruminants. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research Highlights: For the first time, a model was developed and applied for polysaccharide production from Trametes versicolor grown in agro-industrial and woody residues under solid-state fermentation (SSF) conditions. Background and Objectives: Fungal biomass is an important biological resource for biotechnological applications. Basidiomycetes fungi can be grown and developed on lignocellulosic materials such as forestry, wood, and agro-industrial residues in order to produce value-added products like bioactive polysaccharides. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of the C/N ratio and copper concentration on biomass and polysaccharide production during solid state fermentation (SSF), as well as on the consumption of cellulose and hemicellulose, and lignin degradation, and to propose and validate a mathematical model to describe the overall SSF process. Materials and Methods: This research was carried out by growing three Basidiomycetes species (T. versicolor, Lentinula edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus) on twelve formulations of solid substrates using mixtures of different inexpensive lignocellulosic residues such as oak sawdust, coconut fiber (hairs), coffee husks, and corn bran plus soybean oil, calcium carbonate, and two levels of copper(II) sulfate. Results: The three fungal species grew well on all substrate formulations. The statistical analysis of experimental data showed no significant effects on polysaccharide production, in the range of C/N and copper concentrations evaluated. Taking into account that the best polysaccharide production was obtained with T. versicolor (96.09 mg/g solid substrate), a mathematical model was proposed for this fungus to describe the behavior of the fermentation system from the obtained data of all the resulting combinations to reach the highest polysaccharide production by the fungus. Conclusions: The mathematical model disclosed in this work enabled to describe the growth and development of a higher basidiomycete under solid-state fermentation conditions on lignocellulosic substrates as well as the production of value-added products like polysaccharides with medicinal properties.
... Macrofungi are a large group of fungal species that produce fruiting bodies that can be readily observed with the naked eye (Kirk et al., 2008). Macrofungal fruiting bodies are considered as significant nontimber forest products (Berch et al., 2007), particularly as important sources of food and medicine for humans. Fungal specimens collected from forests have been shown to demonstrate a myriad of biological activities (Ajith & Janardhanan, 2007;Wasser & Weis, 1999) and are being consumed as nutraceuticals (Ao et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the pharmacological significance of wild macrofungi collected from pine forests in Benguet and Mt. Province, Philippines, to help address a number of health-related conditions, such as oxidative stress, thrombosis, and bacterial infections. Six wild macrofungi were subjected to chloroform and ethanol extraction, and their crude extracts were screened for their total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant, lethality, thrombolytic, and antibacterial activities. The ethanol extract of Daedaleopsis confragosa has the highest TPC at 49.28 ± 0.30 μg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/mg extract and percent free radical inhibition activity at 74.59 ± 0.11%, which was comparable to the pure compound quercetin at 74.33 ± 0.32%. On the other hand, the ethanol extracts of Scleroderma citrinum and Postia fragilis have the most potent median effective concentration (EC50) at 431.01 ± 17.82 and 469.63 ± 15.25 μg/mL. Only the ethanol extract of Daedaleopsis confragosa exhibited low toxicity (median lethal concentration (LC50) = 565.90 μg/mL) while the rest of the test extracts are not toxic. Both chloroform and ethanol extracts of Termitomyces eurrhizus yielded the highest percent clot reduction values at 35.19 ± 0.13% and 32.41 ± 0.17%, respectively. This is the first study to report the thrombolytic activity of macrofungi extracts from the Philippines. The ethanol extract of Lenzites betulina gave the highest zone of inhibition (ZOI) against Staphylococcus aureus American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 25923 (13.33 ± 0.58 mm) while the chloroform extract of Daedaleopsis confragosa gave the highest ZOI against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (12.33 ± 1.15 mm). These data indicated that the wild macrofungi tested could constitute a potential source of natural bioactive compounds in the production of pharmaceutical dosage forms or nutraceuticals.
... Hyphae unite to form micelium, and micelium combine to form masses of micelium called mycelia. The term "mushroom" refers to the fructification body formed by stacking mycelium stacks in appropriate ecological conditions 19,20 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Modern people have increased their living standards due to the development of technology. However, health problems have increased with increasing living standards. Efforts to return to nature and natural products such as herbal drugs, medicinal mushrooms and traditional medicine practices have become popular. Medical mushrooms, which have an important place for human beings at every stage of history; in recent years, has succeeded to take its place from traditional medicine applications by separating itself from phytotherapy applications. The aim of our research is to raise awareness about this value, which is present in our country, which has a rich mycota, and to make determinations regarding its usage areas in the world and its importance in the history. Our study could be regarded as a resource for the practices and future studies in our country.
... This species also occurs in China, Korea, and Bhutan. Tricholoma matsutake in Japan, Korea, and northeastern China are closely related, but distinct from those in southwestern China and Bhutan (Bao et al., 2007;Murata et al., 2008;Xu, Cadorin, Liang, & Yang, 2010). The following matsutake-related species have been reported in Europe and North Africa: Tr. caligatum (Viv.) ...
Article
Full-text available
Matsutake, the fruiting body of Tricholoma matsutake, is among the most economically important edible ectomycorrhizal (EM) mushrooms worldwide. This EM fungus develops “shiros”, which are mycelial aggregations that develop in association with the roots of EM coniferous trees and soil particles in well-drained and nutrient-poor forest soil. The fruiting bodies occur on the periphery of the outward-growing shiro. In spite of vast research, the cultivation of matsutake has been mostly unsuccessful. Commercial demand is therefore met by harvesting the fruiting bodies that naturally occur in forests of EM coniferous trees, mainly Pinus densiflora. Recent inoculation studies have produced mycorrhiza and shiro structures, and the host range of Tr. matsutake and associated species has been clarified. It has also become possible to identify strains of Tr. matsutake by DNA sequencing, which has also been useful to determine the origins of matsutake species in Asia and to elucidate the genetic structure of shiro. In this review, basic research and the outcomes of various trial of matsutake cultivation are discussed.
... This species and its relatives, i.e., H. albidum Peck, H. albomagnum Banker, and H. rufescens Pers. are delicious edible mushrooms known colloquially as "Hedgehog mushroom", "Pied de mouton", "Wood Urchin", or "Steccherino dentino" (Arnolds, 1995;Berch, Ka, Park, & Winder, 2007;Garbaye, Kabre, Le Tacon, Mousain, & Piou, 1979;Imazeki & Hongo, 1989;Olariaga, Grebenc, Salcedo, & Martín, 2012;Pegler, Roberts, & Spooner, 1997;Sitta & Floriani, 2008;Yamada, 2002). The wholesale price of fresh hedgehog mushrooms was 13.3 US$/kg in Barcelona, Spain in 2002(De Rom an & Boa, 2004. ...
Article
The Entoloma clypeatum species complex, known as “Harushimeji” in Japan, associates with Rosaceae and Ulmaceae plant species. In this study, we successfully isolated cultures of this fungal group via basidiospore isolation from tentative four Harushimeji species using modified Norkrans's C (MNC) medium and MNC medium containing n-butyric acid. Colony formations were observed on 22 of 25 basidioma samples; however, most exhibited slow and unsteady growth. The isolated mycelia contained dikaryotic hyphae and were identified through molecular phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer region of fungal ribosomal RNA. Six isolates showing steady growth were deposited in the fungal culture collection of the Fungus/Mushroom Resource and Research Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, Japan. This result indicates that basidiospore isolation is a useful method for obtaining Harushimeji strains.
... This species and its relatives, i.e., H. albidum Peck, H. albomagnum Banker, and H. rufescens Pers. are delicious edible mushrooms known colloquially as "Hedgehog mushroom", "Pied de mouton", "Wood Urchin", or "Steccherino dentino" (Arnolds, 1995;Berch, Ka, Park, & Winder, 2007;Garbaye, Kabre, Le Tacon, Mousain, & Piou, 1979;Imazeki & Hongo, 1989;Olariaga, Grebenc, Salcedo, & Martín, 2012;Pegler, Roberts, & Spooner, 1997;Sitta & Floriani, 2008;Yamada, 2002). The wholesale price of fresh hedgehog mushrooms was 13.3 US$/kg in Barcelona, Spain in 2002(De Rom an & Boa, 2004. ...
Article
Hydnum repandum and its relatives are gourmet edible ectomycorrhizal mushrooms. However, no reliable pure cultures have been reported in this genus. Here, we report for the first time the successful isolation of mycelial strains from basidiospores in the genus Hydnum. Basidiospores obtained from basidioma samples were aseptically inoculated onto modified Norkran's C (MNC) medium, MNC containing n-butyric acid (n-MNC), or MNC with gellan gum instead of agar (G-MNC). Although basidiospore germination was observed in most samples, the isolation rate was higher from MNC (91.7%) and G-MNC (93.8%) than from n-MNC (36.4%). Most established isolates were monokaryotic and lacked a clamp connection, but three were dikaryotic and had clamp connections. Established isolates were identified by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the rRNA gene. These results suggest that basidiospores can be used to establish monokaryotic and dikaryotic isolates of Hydnum species.
Article
Full-text available
Lentinus is a saprobic genus consisting of many edible species. Some species are widely consumed and important for the commercial market. Lentinus species are mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, and few species like growing in temperate regions. According to our literature reviews, some Lentinus species have high nutrient value, medicinal properties, biotechnological, and environmental applications due to their reported bioactivities. Lentinus can also be considered as an important part for the economy as they are edible. In this short review, potential pharmacological properties, cultivation methods and economical value of Lentinus species are provided.
Book
Full-text available
Wild edible fungi are collected for food and to earn money in more than 80 countries. There is a huge diversity of different types, from truffles to milk-caps, chanterelles to termite mushrooms, with more than 1100 species recorded during the preparation of this book. A small group of species are of economic importance in terms of exports, but the wider significance of wild edible fungi lies with their extensive subsistence uses in developing countries. They provide a notable contribution to diet in central and southern Africa during the months of the year when the supply of food is often perilously low. Elsewhere they are a valued and valuable addition to diets of rural people. Commercial harvesting is an important business in countries such as Zimbabwe, Turkey, Poland, the USA, North Korea and Bhutan. The export trade is driven by a strong and expanding demand from Europe and Japan and is predominantly from poor to rich countries. This is good for local businesses and collectors, providing important cash income that pays for children to go to school and helps to reduce poverty in areas where the options for earning money are limited. Local markets around the world reveal a widespread though smaller individual trade in an extensive range of species. Though difficult to measure compared to the more visible export of wild edible fungi, local trade is of considerable value to collectors and increases the supply of food to many areas of weak food security. Collection and consumption within countries varies from the extensive and intensive patterns of China to more restricted use by indigenous people in South America. Substantial quantities are eaten through personal collections that may go unrecorded and their contribution to diet is substantially higher than previously indicated. The nutritional value of wild edible fungi should not be under-estimated: they are of comparable value to many vegetables and in notable cases have a higher food value. Wild edible fungi play an important ecological role. Many of the leading species live symbiotically with trees and this mycorrhizal association sustains the growth of native forests and commercial plantations in temperate and tropical zones. The saprobic wild edible fungi, though less important in terms of volumes collected and money earned from local sales, are important in nutrient recycling. The saprobic species are the basis for the hugely valuable global business in cultivated mushrooms, currently valued at around US$23 billion each year. This is an increasing source of income for small-scale enterprises in developing countries. Wild edible fungi are one of a number of non-wood forest products (NWFP) that have increased in importance as logging bans and a reduction in wood-based forestry activities have declined. They are one of the most valuable NWFP with much potential for expansion of trade, but there are also challenges in the integration of their management and sustainable production as part of multiple use forests. There are concerns about the impact of excessive harvesting which require better data on yields and productivity and a closer examination of collectors and local practices. Closer cooperation between forest managers and those using wild edible fungi is needed and suggestions are made on how this might be achieved. There is a strong emphasis on subsistence uses of wild edible fungi and their importance to rural people in developing countries though this is an area where there are still significant gaps in information. There is also significant commercial harvesting in developed countries, such as the USA and Canada and in the emerging economies of eastern Europe, for example Poland and Serbia. However, countries in the North are of greater significance to wild edible fungi as a destination for exports and as a source of scientific expertise, especially in mycology (the study of fungi). This scientific expertise is increasingly being applied to help achieve the major development goals which include poverty alleviation and sustainable use of natural resources. Real progress has been and continues to be made in the roles that wild edible fungi contribute towards these goals.
Article
Spirit figures placed on shaman graves were carved in the 19th century from large sporophores of the fungus Fomitopsis officinalis (Vill: Fr.) Bond. & Sing. (Basidiomycotina). The perennial basidiocarps were recognized by the Indigenous Peoples of the Northwest Coast as objects with supernatural powers and were used during the shaman's life in various society rituals. After the death of a shaman, these carved sporophores were placed as guardians at the head of the grave. Collectors for various museums obtained these carved objects in the late 1800s, and they have been displayed or stored in various museum collections since that time. Fomitopsis officinalis, known to some Indigenous Peoples of the Northwest Coast region of North America as 'bread of ghosts' had an important spiritual as well as a medicinal role in Indian society. Its supernatural powers were intensified through shamanic art forms. Society myths and rituals also are presented to demonstrate the supernatural prestige that forest fungi held among the Indigenous Peoples of the Northwest Coast. The Indigenous Peoples of the Northwest Coast used products of the temperate rain forest to provide many of the necessities for life. Forest fungi, as in other societies, were resources for dyes,
Article
This list contains all the species of mushrooms recorded in Korea and the Korean name for the species. Since the Korean Society of Mycology reported the mushroom name list of 588 species from 190 genera in 1978 for a unification of Korean name for mushrooms many papers and illustrated books have added the name of recorded mushrooms to the list. However, we have been confused with the scientific name and the Korean name for the fungi due to a inappropriate arrangement and an incomplete classification system of Korean mushrooms. Therefore, I rearranged 885 species from 261 genera, which have been reporeted in Korea, based on the recently published documents such as Ainsworth et al. (1973), Singer (1986) and Imazeki and Hongo (1987 and 1988).