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Other Uses, and Utilization of Vetiver: Vetiver Oil

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Abstract

Vetiver, a native of India is known for its perfumery and medicinal value since ancient times, much before the world became familiar with rose scents. The annual world trade in vetiver oil is estimated to be around 250 tons, with Haiti, Indonesia (Java), China, India, Brazil, Japan being the main producers, and USA, Europe, India, and Japan being the main consumers. It is a gift of India to modern world, and finds its greatest use in modern perfume creations. The essential oil distilled from the roots of vetiver, is one of the most complex mixtures of sesquiterpene alcohols and hydrocarbons, and also one of the most viscous oils with an extremely slow rate of volatility. Slow evaporation rate of vetiver oil coupled with its pleasant aroma makes it a perfume by itself. Its high solubility in alcohol that improves its miscibility with other perfumery material, makes it unique perfume resource, for which no synthetic substitute is yet available. The essential oil produced in different countries possesses distinct odor note - Reunion (Bourbon) and Haitian oil with roseate note is highly regarded in perfumery industry, but the vetiver (khus) oil obtained from wild 'Khus' roots in India is considered to be the best for its balsamic woody note. Washed fresh or soaked semidried roots when distilled by hydro-distillation / steam distillation produce an amber or dark brown oil with a viscous texture. When the oil is distilled using traditional copper vessel in conventional slow fire stills, the oil produced is of dark green color. Normally 15-18 month old roots, harvested during December - January are most suitable to realize high concentration and good quality of essential oil. Depending upon the biotype, cultural practice, age of roots and mode and duration of distillation, vetiver roots may give a yield of about 0.3 to 2 % essential oil on fresh root weight basis. Under ideal steam distillation conditions the economic distillation of essential oil is realized within 15-18 hrs, but low temperature wood-fired distillers may require over 24 hrs. Lately, molecular extraction by liquid carbon dioxide is gaining preference over hydro-distillation methods to realize high-grade essential oil. Chemical composition of vetiver oil is extremely complex, mainly comprising of sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene derivatives, of which vetiverols, their carbonyl compounds and esters, are the main constituents, and their relative abundance normally establishes the oil quality. Three carbonyl compounds, _-vetivone, _-vetivone and khusimone, are considered the primary odor-influencing components; _-vetivone has the better odor, and is considered the most important, while its major isomer nordihydro _-vetivone has a strong, rich, woody-peppery note. The oil and its constituents are used extensively for blending oriental type of perfumes and floral compounds, as well as in other cosmetic and aromatherapy applications. It is very persistent and one of the finest fixatives known. Vetiver oil is a main ingredient in 36 % of all western quality perfumes and 20 % of all men's fragrances. Dried roots are used as sachets / stuffing material to prepare ventilating screens that provide cool air effect and pleasant aroma when moistened.

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... Like most essential oils, the composition of vetiver oil is also complex, consisting of more than 100 sesquiterpene compounds and their derivatives (Lavania 2003a(Lavania , 2003b. However, the major fraction in oil consists of C15 sesquiterpenoids that boil at or above 200°C temperature (Dowthwaite and Rajani 2000). ...
... include α-vetivones, βvetivone, khusimone, and ester derivatives, including khusinol acetate. Besides these, benzoic acid, vetivene, furfurol, khusemene, khusimone, ß-humulene, valencene, selinene, etc. are also present in traces amount in the vetiver oil (Lavania 2003a(Lavania , 2003b. Among these, α-vetivone, βvetivone, and khusimone are mainly responsible for the odor of the vetiver oil (Bhatwadekar et al. 1982) and therefore regarded as the "fingerprint" of the oil (Demole et al. 1995). ...
... Between these three, α-Vetivone has a better odor while its major isomer nordihydro β-vetivone has a woody-peppery solid smell. All these components individually and collectively contribute to the characteristic odor of the vetiver (Lavania 2003a(Lavania , 2003b. Champagnat et al. in the year 2011 compared the vetiver oil of nine different countries like Brazil, China, Haiti, India, Java, Madagascar, Mexico, Reunion, and Salvador by obtaining oil from authentic sources. ...
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Vetiver is a traditional plant with versatile applications in medicine, aroma, commerce, environmental-protection, and agriculture. This review was designed to compile all the latest information on phytochemistry, pharmacology, and traditional uses of C. zizanioides. All the information related to this plant was gathered from several authentic sites, using keywords like Chrysopogon zizanioides, Vetiveria zizanioides, Khus, and Khas-Khas. The included resources were journaled articles, book chapters, books, Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeias, and Ayurvedic Formulary of India, from science direct, PubMed, research gate etc. All the necessary, relevant, authentic, and updated information were tried to inculcate in the manuscript. The literature was collected via online sites like Pub med, Scopus, and Science direct as well. During compilation, it observed that many traditional utilities of vetiver got their authentication when tested using different disease-based pharmacological models taking various extracts of roots, leaves, and root oil as test samples. However, systematic studies for isolation of active constituents and establishing their mechanism of action are still required to be validated. On the other hand, the development of novel and robust techniques needed for oil extraction can further enhance the exploration of biological utilities faster. Moreover, the cultivators and harvesters must address carefully to prevent the linked drawback of soil erosion.
... Plant growth depends on physical properties such as temperature, soil texture, soil moisture, and chemical properties such as pH, salinity, and heavy metals concentration. Still, this plant can grow in harsh environmental conditions and tolerate these conditions [23,24]. ...
... is compost is very nutritious and beneficial for the soil. Leaves are also used for livestock, but it is better to use them in combination because the crude protein in these leaves is less than other plants [24]. ...
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Water pollution is one of the most critical global issues. Meanwhile, the problem of water pollution of rivers especially in Iran is rising due to expansion of agricultural and industrial applications. Due to a large number of sewer catchments, there are some dam reservoirs like ZHAVE in Iranian state of Kurdistan that have not been able to collect significant amount of water since last 10 years. Removal of heavy metals as contaminants from runoffs and recycling of water is a necessity and a vital issue in the world. Various methods and standards are invented and used to isolate and remove all types of pollutants. This study focuses on the purification and removal of contaminants in water sources using the phytoremediation method by introducing Vetiver grass species in the case of floating treatment wetland (FTW). This study’s preliminary purpose is to investigate a practical remedial solution and improvement methodology for the water quality of reservoirs and rivers by growing the floating Vetiver island method. The results show that following parameters such as COD by 97%, TN by 90%, phosphorus by 66%, TDS by 26%, and evapotranspiration by 40% were reduced. Therefore, we concluded that for a wastewater with varying neutrient concentrations such as in ZHAVE dam, concentration of nutrients N and P was controlled and consequently inhibition and prevention of the eutrophication of water resources in the medium and long term became possible due to reduction in the rate of evaporation from reservoirs.
... The local farmers who are resource poor have to adopt cropping systems which provide food, economic returns and at the same time provide ecological protection to the region. Vetiver ( Vetiveria zizanioides ), a native of India, known for its perfumery and medicinal value since ancient times ( Lavania 2003b ), has been a traditional crop of the region which provides economic returns to the farmers and ecological value. In Uttara Kannada and Dakshina Kannada districts in western Ghats region of south India ( Fig. 10.1 ) vetiver is traditionally cultivated for its roots and essential oil in around 3,000 ha using conventional agronomic and distillation practices resulting in poor yields and low economic returns (Prakasa Rao et al. 2008 ). ...
... It replenishes moisture in dry and dehydrated skin and has a rejuvenation effect on mature skin, as well as cuts/wounds/irritated and infl amed skin. When used regularly during pregnancy, vetiver oil reportedly prevents stretch marks (Lavania 2003a ). ...
Chapter
Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) is a perennial grass of Poaceae family, native to India. Vetiver production systems in Western Ghat region in India support livelihoods of small farmers. Vetiver systems have diverse economic and ecological uses. Vetiver is a major industrial crop and is grown for its essential oil that is used extensively world over in fl avor and fragrance industries. Vetiver is also used in manufacture of handy-crafts, thatching houses, and organic compost production. Vetiver has been traditionally incorporated in the cropping systems of the region. Vetiver has a variety of environmental applications such as soil erosion control, phytoremediation, carbon sequestration etc. which are reviewed. Large scale cultivation of vetiver for essential oil production was initiated by using improved agro-nomic and fi eld distillation methods covering an area of 250 ha in coastal Karnataka, a Western Ghats region, India, a region characterized by tropical climate with a well defi ned rainy season. The soils of the region are lateritic, of low pH below 5.0, and low to medium in fertility. Cultivation by adopting improved agronomy and fi eld distillation was successful. The fi eld root yield was estimated at 2.5 t ha −1. The roots on steam distillation by conventional and improved methods produced 0.6–0.8 % and 1.0–1.2 % essential oil respectively. Fifty to seventy-fi ve percent more net returns were obtained from improved agronomic and distillation methods in vetiver in comparison to traditional crops such as paddy, areca nut and cashew. This article shows that economic gains from vetiver oil production can help livelihoods of farmers while helping to maintain ecological sustainability in this region.
... For these reasons, vetiver is being used for soil and water conservation in more than 100 countries (Dong et al., 2003). In addition, vetiver also can be used as forage for livestock, ornaments, containers, industrial products (mainly pulp and paper), medicinal applications, and energy sources (Chomchalow and Chapman, 2003). ...
Article
Molecular approaches [PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)] were used to determine whether three different vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) genotypes, commercially used in Brazil and considered economically important over the world, select specific bacterial populations to coexist in their rhizospheres. DGGE profiles revealed that the predominant rhizospheric bacterial community hardly varies regarding the vetiver genotype. Moreover, using traditional cultivation methods, bacterial strains were isolated from the different rhizospheres. Colonies presenting different morphologies (83) were selected for determining their potential for plant growth promotion. More than half of the strains tested (57.8%) were amplified by PCR using nifH-based primers, specific for the enzyme nitrogenase reductase. The production of siderophores was observed in 88% of the strains, while the production of antimicrobial substances was detected in only 14.5% of the isolates when Micrococcus sp. was used as the indicator strain. Production of indole-3-acetic acid and the solubilization of phosphate were observed in 55.4% and 59% of the isolates, respectively. In total, 44 strains (53%) presented at least three characteristics of plant growth promotion and were submitted to amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. Twenty-four genetic groups were formed at 100% similarity and one representative of each group was selected for their identification by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. They were affiliated with the genera Acinetobacter, Comamonas, Chryseobacterium, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Pantoea, Dyella, Burkholderia, or Pseudomonas. These strains can be considered of great importance as possible biofertilizers in vetiver.
... The demand of vetiver oil is increasing globally day by day due its unique odor and fixative properties and the oil can neither be substituted with reconstituted oil nor made synthetically (Truong et al., 2008). India produces about 20-25 tons vetiver oil as against the global production of 250 tons annually (Lavania, 2003;Truong et al., 2008). The internal demand particularly of Northern type oil always falls short of supply. ...
... Fragrant sesquiterpenes used in the cosmetic industry are potential candidates to be produced by biotechnological systems, such as the sesquiterpenes contained in the vetiver essential oil (VEO) from the grass Ch. zizanioides. VEO is an important component for the formulation of cosmetics and it has been used in nearly 36% of Western perfumes and 20% of men's fragrances [5] with a total world production of 300−350 tons per year [6]. VEO is composed of a mixture of sesquiterpenes and their hydroxylated derivatives, with a characteristic Figure 1. ...
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The sesquiterpene (+)-zizaene is the direct precursor of khusimol, the main fragrant compound of the vetiver essential oil from Chrysopogon zizanioides and used in nearly 20% of men’s fine perfumery. The biotechnological production of such fragrant sesquiterpenes is a promising alternative towards sustainability; nevertheless, product recovery from fermentation is one of the main constraints. In an effort to improve the (+)-zizaene recovery from a metabolically-engineered Escherichia coli, we developed an integrated bioprocess by coupling fermentation and (+)-zizaene recovery using adsorber extractants. Initially, (+)-zizaene volatilization was confirmed from cultivations with no extractants but application of liquid–liquid phase partitioning cultivation (LLPPC) improved (+)-zizaene recovery nearly 4-fold. Furthermore, solid–liquid phase partitioning cultivation (SLPPC) was evaluated by screening polymeric adsorbers, where Diaion HP20 reached the highest recovery. Bioprocess was scaled up to 2 L bioreactors and in situ recovery configurations integrated to fermentation were evaluated. External recovery configuration was performed with an expanded bed adsorption column and improved (+)-zizaene titers 2.5-fold higher than LLPPC. Moreover, internal recovery configuration (IRC) further enhanced the (+)-zizaene titers 2.2-fold, whereas adsorption velocity was determined as critical parameter for recovery efficiency. Consequently, IRC improved the (+)-zizaene titer 8.4-fold and productivity 3-fold from our last report, achieving a (+)-zizaene titer of 211.13 mg L−1 and productivity of 3.2 mg L−1 h−1. This study provides further knowledge for integration of terpene bioprocesses by in situ product recovery, which could be applied for many terpene studies towards the industrialization of fragrant molecules.
... Among the different candidate plants, the use of Chrysopogon zizanoides L. (Vetiver grass), a perennial grass belonging to the Poaceae family and native of south east Asia, is gaining importance in various phytoremediation studies (Srivastava et al. 2008) including hydrocarbon degradation (Brandt et al. 2006). Characteristic features that make Vetiver grass an ideal candidate for phytoremediation studies include high C4 photosynthetic efficiency, faster growth rate, higher biomass production, possession of long massive complex root system capable of penetrating deeper layers of soil (Mucciarelli et al. 1998), and the capability to withstand extreme environments (Truong 2003;Lavania 2003). However, the major problem with this approach is the absence of sufficient quantities of microorganisms to facilitate hydrocarbon degradation while supporting plant growth (Siciliano and Germida 1998). ...
Article
This study reports the combined use of a rhamnolipid type biosurfactant (BS) along with phytoremediation and bioaugmentation (BA) for bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Bacterial isolates obtained from hydrocarbon contaminated soil were screened for rhamnolipid production and isolate BS18, identified as Shewanella seohaensis, was selected for bioremediation experiments. Growth of BS18 in mineral salt medium (MSM) with diesel oil as the carbon source showed a maximum biomass of 8.2 g L⁻¹, rhamnolipid production of 2.2 mg g⁻¹ cell dry weight, surface tension reduction of 28.6 mN/m and emulsification potential (EI24%) of 65.6. Characterization of rhamnolipid based on Fourier transmittance infrared (FTIR) analysis confirmed the presence of OH, CH2/CH3, C=O, and COO stretching vibrations, respectively, which are distinctive features of rhamnolipid type BSs. In bioremediation experiments, the lowest hydrocarbon concentration of 2.1 mg g⁻¹ of soil for non-sterilized soil and 4.3 mg g⁻¹ of soil for sterilized soil was recorded in the combined application of rhamnolipid, phytoremediation, and BA. This treatment also yielded the highest hydrocarbon degrading bacterial population (6.4 Log Cfu g⁻¹ of soil), highest plant biomass (8.3 g dry weight plant⁻¹), and the highest hydrocarbon uptake (512.3 mg Kg⁻¹ of plant).
... The highest oil yields were found in plants grown in nutrient solution with 100 mg Pb l -1 for 5 weeks (1.29%) and 7 weeks (1.22%). Lavania (2003) reported that vetiver roots may give a yield of about 0.3-2.0% essential oil on a fresh weight basis. ...
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Experiments were conducted to evaluate lead tolerance and accumulation in vetiver grass Vetiveria zizanioides (L.), grown in hydroponics and a pot study and to examine the effect of lead on vetiver oil production. Elevated concentrations of lead decreased the length of shoots and roots of plants. However, vetiver grown in highly contaminated soils showed no apparent phytotoxicity symptoms. Lead concentrations in the shoots and roots of vetiver plants grown in hydroponics were up to 144 and 19530 mg kg(-1) and those grown in soil were 38 and 629 mg kg(-1), respectively. Lead had an effect on vetiver oil production and composition by stimulating oil yield and the number of its constituents. Oil yield ranged from 0.4-1.3%; the highest yields were found in plants grown in nutrient solution with 100 mg Pb l(-1) for 5 weeks (1.29%) and 7 weeks (1.22%). The number of total constituents of vetiver oil also varied between 47-143 compounds when lead was presentin the growth medium. The highest number (143) was found in plants grown in soil spiked with 1000 mg Pb kg(-1). The predominant compound was khusimol (10.7-18.1%) followed by (E)-isovalencenol (10.3-15.6%). Our results indicated that lead could increase the oil production of vetiver.
... Since ancient times, vetiver grass has been used as a fragrant material and in traditional medicine because its roots contain essential oils with aromatic and biological properties [11]. The oil and its constituents are used extensively for blending in oriental types of perfumes as well as in other cos-metic and aromatherapy applications [12]. Recent research has demonstrated that extracts of vetiver roots possess several biological properties, such as antifungal [13], antioxidant [1], anticancer [14] and anti-inflammatory activities [15]. ...
Article
Three operating parameters of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE) have been optimized by a response surface method using central composite design to obtain high yields of essential oil from roots of Vetiveria zizanioides. Analyses by multiple regression indicated that pressure has a major linear effect on oil yield, whilst temperature and time have a lesser impact. However, the effect of temperature in combination with pressure is significant. Overall, extraction yields increase with both pressure and temperature. The optimal SCE yield (1.38%) obtained at the operating conditions of 190 bar, 50 °C and 100 min was about four times higher than that achieved by hydro-distillation. In general, the quality of vetiver oil extracted by SCE is suitable for the food industry. In order for the SCE extracts to be acceptable in the perfumery industry, however, a high yield of vetiver oil would be required in association with high khusimol and low zizanoic acid contents.
... Essential oil of vetiver is composed of more than 100 components that are mainly sesquiterpenes and their derivates. The main constitutents of vetiver oil comprise of: sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and their alcohol derivatives-vetiverols such as, khusimol, khusinol, carbonyl derivatives-vetivones (ketones) such as, vetivone, khusimone and three carbonyl compounds, such as β -vetivone, α -vetivone and khusimone [12]. Among the odorous components in vetiver oils from different sources, khusimol, β-vetivone, α-vetivone are the major constituents, and their presence is often considered as the fingerprint of the oil, are also present in the oil giving characteristic odour of Vetiver oil [5]. ...
Article
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Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides), a plant of the Gramiceae family, is well known as an eco-friendly tool to prevent soil erosion, and one of the most important raw materials in perfumery industry. Its roots are usually steam distilled to obtain vetiver oil. The complex odor profile of vetiver oil is dominated by a woody and special balsamic tonality. This study was conducted to investigate determination of essential oil content and composition and agricultural properties of Vetiver grown at the experiment area of the Field Crops Department, Çukurova University, Agriculture Faculty, during 2008 and 2009 under Çukurova ecological conditions. Plant height, number of tiller, fresh and dry herbage yield, fresh and dry root yield, essential oil content of dry root, and composition of essential oil by GC-MS were determined during autumn. Twenty eight components were detected in the essential oil from cultivated vetiver. Khusinol (19.15% and 15.67%), b-vetivenene (9.76% and 8.16%) and dehyro-aromadendrene (7.34% and 9.66%) in the experiment years were present as the major components in the essential oil.
... The vetiver plant has also a few other uses, e.g. as forage for livestock, ornamentals, and miscellaneous other uses. Harvested vetiver leaves, culms and roots are utilized after some degree of processing in various ways, e.g. as input of agriculture-related activities, handicraft and art works, medicinal applications, fragrance, input of construction-related activities, containers, bouquet, energy sources, industrial products, and miscellaneous other utilization[3]. Hengsadeekul and Nimityongskul[4]of the Asian Institute of Technology, reported on the experimentation of making prefabricated vetiver-clay blocks for use as construction materials, starting with material preparation, laying vetiver-clay composite in mold, pressing process, remolding and turning face up on designed support plate, sun drying, dry heating, and block laying steps with clay slurry as wall panel. They concluded that vetiver could be used with clay composite for substituted bricks and columns for housing construction. ...
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In Thailand, the electricity consumption is very high with the intention of reduce high temperature in the building. Since 2000, a lot of people paying attention to Green-Building concept. A similar concept is natural building, which is usually on a smaller scale and tends to focus on the use of natural materials that are available locally. Therefore, the Earth-Block (EAB) product is appropriated approach to reduce energy consumption in the buildings. The EAB is produced with environmentally friendly process, which does not release harmful pollution and effective cost. The main significant character is durable materials for building construction. This study aims to develop the new thermal insulation by using soil-cement with vetiver grass fibre. Additionally, it describes the innovative systems used in production of EAB materials by mixing the soil-cement with vetiver grass fibre. This paper reveals lowest costs, space configurations changing and greater design flexibility for constructing the building.
... Initially, it was utilized by the tribal people of India in the form of screens (provide cooling effect in summer), mats, hand fans, and baskets, mattresses and even in room coolers, moodas, sirkies, paper, and straw board (Balasankar et al. 2013). Subsequently, its medicinal property was also explored by utilizing each part like roots in deworming, scorpion sting, snakebite (Rao and Suseela 2000), gallstones (Chomchalow and Chapman 2003), burns, fever, and stomach diseases (Maffei, 2002), while the leaf paste acts as pain reliever in rheumatism, lumbago, and sprain (Rao and Suseela 2000). The essential oil obtained from the roots has its own significance that is regarded as stimulant, diaphoretic, and refrigerant and also in perfumery, cosmetics, and soaps and for flavoring sherbets (Jain, 1991;Singh and Maheshwari 1983). ...
Article
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Vetiver has a broad history of traditional medicinal uses, but only a handful of research article has reported its utility in treating diseases. But unfortunately, no work has been reported on the anti-inflammatory activity of its plant extract and inflammatory-linked diseases. Hence, the present review focuses on investigating the several presumptions which can be put forward to explain its anti-inflammatory property. Thus, for ensuring the same, all the databases like science direct, PubMed, book chapters, and other authenticated papers were thoroughly studied to present a connection between inflammation and the plant potential. After gaining enough knowledge on pathogenesis of inflammation, it has been observed that the release of mediators from the arachidonic acid metabolism pathway and generation of oxidative and nitrogen species are presented as the main reason for the occurrence of inflammation condition. The stimulation of antioxidant enzyme system network by the plant extract reduces the level of oxidative stress, creating a balance between oxidant and antioxidant system. Moreover, its antimicrobial activity will prevent the biological source of stimulation towards injury and the CNS depressant effect will subside the pain of inflammation. Amalgamating all the factors together, the plant can be utilized as anti-inflammatory can be and also can be proved as a beneficial perspective in the treatment of inflammation-linked disorders.
... Therefore, important role in aromatherapy [8] and is one of the finest the present study has been made to generate variation fixatives known [9,10]. Vetiver oil is the basis of Indian under In vitro culture to further select the variants with and western (36%) perfumery [11][12][13], gives a powerful desirable qualities. ...
Article
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In vitro studies with rhizome explants of Vetiveria zizanioides obtained through organogenetic pathway was focused on the difference in essential oil content with that of control plants. There was variation exhibited by In vitro regenerated plants in their morphological growth and were referred as "morphotypes". Two types of morphotypes were identified as long and short based on differences in their height. Essential oil was extracted and analyzed by Gas chromatography. The two morphotypes showed varied essential oil content of 2.1% (long), 1.9% (short) with the control showing 1.8% and also the plants showed marked differences in percentage composition of essential oil with respect to important compounds like khusimol, valencene, vetiverol, vetivone, vetivenene, vetiselinol and nootketone. Further studies on the screening and selection of the chemotypes for high producing essential oil content and composition are under progress.
... The demand of vetiver oil is increasing globally day by day due its unique odor and fixative properties and the oil can neither be substituted with reconstituted oil nor made synthetically (Truong et al., 2008). India produces about 20-25 tons vetiver oil as against the global production of 250 tons annually (Lavania, 2003;Truong et al., 2008). The internal demand particularly of Northern type oil always falls short of supply. ...
Article
Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides L.) is a high value essential oil crop, used as fixative in perfumery and cosmetic industries. Besides, the crop is also used to check soil erosion, water conservation, and reclamation of salt affected soils. Being vetiver a wider spaced crop with a long initial lag phase, thus the only option to sustain its productivity is intercropping. In a field experiment conducted during July, 2010- February, 2012 and July, 2012- February, 2014 at Lucknow, thirteen cropping systems: sole crop of each of vetiver, sweet basil- radish- Tagetes minuta, black gram- clarysage, kalmegh- garlic, okra- radish- geranium, pigeon pea- menthol mint, maize- radish- onion and intercropping of above cropping sequences with vetiver were evaluated in randomized block design with three replications. Intercropping of sweet basil- radish- T. minuta with vetiver during rainy and winter seasons though reduced vetiver oil yield by 16.7% but was highly productive in terms of land equivalent ratio (1.54), land use efficiency (130 %) and relative net return (1.35) and a net return of US$ 4801.7 ha-1 followed by intercropping of maize- radish- onion with vetiver. The system also gave about 35 % more profit over the sole cropping of vetiver.
... Virmani and Datta 1975). All this indicates that the Indians were the first to recognize vetiver for its aromatic and medicinal uses, followed by its other cottage and environmental uses in India and elsewhere (Lavania 2002, 2003a, 2003b, Lavania and Lavania 2000, Lavania et al. 2004). ...
Article
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Vetiver is native to India, and has been in traditional use since ancient times for its perfumery oil obtained from roots. Also its hedges have been applied for contour protection since centuries. However, planned efforts to rehabilitate usar soils using vetiver plantations and organic soil amendments were initiated in 1956 by the National Botanical Garden, Lucknow (a national lab of CSIR, now known as National Botanical Research Institute) that showed that vetiver grass has exceptional ability to withstand extreme sodicity and alkalinity, could help improve soil fertility and facilitate ground water recharge. Scattered efforts have since been made to apply vetiver plantation in soil reclamation and conservation with the support of state governments in various parts of India. The World Bank initiated several projects in India in 1980s for systematic development of Vetiver Grass Technology (VGT), now popularly known as Vetiver System (VS) for watershed management, soil conservation and slope stabilization. However, in its homeland vetiver still remains the choice of industrialists for its valuable root oil, despite having potential for development of technologies for its multifarious applications. Vetiver is found occurring in India in wild state throughout tropical and sub-tropical plains, particularly along the riverbanks and over marshy lands. It has wide range of ecological distribution ranging from sandy seacoasts and swamps to plains and foothills, and also on the hilltops up to elevations of 800m in the Kumaun hills of Uttar Pradesh. Based on geographical distribution patterns and detailed chromosomal evolutionary parameters it is suggested that south Indian peninsula is the area of its primary center of origin from where it has diverged in two directions: (i) towards the north in the warm and dry northwest and the warm and humid east- central Indian plains, and (ii) towards south-east Asia and other parts of the world. Vetiver cultivars found outside south-east Asia are supposedly of south Indian origin having non / low seed-setting characteristics. Two distinct morphological complexes of vetiver are found to inhabit spatially separated geographic regions in India: one in the north along the Indo-gangetic plains and adjoining areas mainly in the states of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, and the other in the south along the east and west coasts of Indian peninsula in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Kanataka, Tamilnadu and Kerala. The two races are distinctly different. The north Indian wild types are profuse flowering high seed-setting having narrow leaves producing superior quality of laevorotatory root oil (ruh-khus or khus oil) and south Indian cultivated types are low / late flowering, low/non seed-setting with wider leaves producing lower quality of dextrorotatory root oil (vetiver oil). Extensive work on evaluation of genetic diversity, genetic analysis, genetic improvement has been done on Indian vetiver at the Indian Agricultural. Research Institute, New Delhi, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi, Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow, CS Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur, and Kerala Agricultural University's research station at Oddakali. A good number of superior clones, north- south hybrids, artificial polyploids have been isolated for high productivity of essential oil and high value perfumery notes ranging from earthy-to-rosy-to- saffron odour. Depending upon the oil
Article
Novelty statement: The present study is of significant importance because phytoremediation of metals in red mud using essential oil-bearing plants such as Chrysopogon zizanioides (commonly known as vetiver) is a potential alternative for on-site management of the waste in most economical and sustainable way. Vetiver is a potential metal tolerant plant with high economic value; therefore the present study was accomplished to evaluate the impacts of metals in red mud on essential oil content and composition, used for remediation and stabilization of dumps. Novelty of the study is that, it aimed to utilize red mud along with sewage-sludge to cultivate vetiver which offers twin benefits, i.e. phytoremediation of metals in red mud coupled with improved quantity and quality of high valued essential oil without metal contamination.
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Vetiver grass large dense clump
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Amidst the haze surfacing the earth with the occurrence of ever-increasing diseases, indigenous plant remedies stand as the only ray of hope with its heroic therapeutic properties. Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash), a quintessential medicinal and aromatic plant (MAP), is known to possess miraculous therapeutic properties and distinct base note characteristics. The plant stockpiles its essential oil (EO) in the roots which serves as the wellhead of the key natural input to the proliferating cosmeceutical, pharmaceutical, and perfumery industries. The roots exhibit a two-way benefit by forming an intertwined network sustaining the environment as well as producing essential oil, which is highly valued for its aromatic and biological properties. Moreover, the plant seems to be best suited to the adverse conditions of today because of its morphological adaptations. The leaves are adapted such that they can survive stresses such as drought-desiccation, salinity, temperature, heavy metals, herbicides, pesticides, etc., while roots are so dense, long, and lacy that they interlock into massive curtain-like structure forming an underground network most suitable for soil and water conservation, land rehabilitation and gully control, slope stabilization, disaster mitigation, improvement of the interface of water and structures, water quality, remediation of polluted sites, agricultural uses, and other applications that are unrelated to the forgoing. The phenomenal nature of vetiver is realized because of its multifarious utilities. The roots as well as aboveground parts are known to benefit almost all segments of humankind. Vetiver oil has distinctive rich balsamic tonality indicating that the EO is mainly composed of highly complex volatile sesquiterpene and its derivatives. Apart from its direct applications in perfumery industry, vetiver oil in its dilute form is extensively used commercially in food and cosmetic industries and aromatherapy. Furthermore, the essential oil is reported to greatly underpin pharmaceutical industry as it exhibits anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antidiabetic, anticataleptic, anti-arthritic, sedative, calming, antidiuretic, antimicrobial, antifungal, herbicidal, insecticidal, antioxidant, and even anticancer activities. The following section highlights the botanical information, update of essential oil composition, economics, extraction, secondary metabolites biosynthesis, cellular compartmentalization, ethnobotanical significance, and their therapeutic properties discovered and proved in the past decades and their potential for future exploitation.
Chapter
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Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) is a perennial grass of Poaceae family, native to India. Vetiver production systems in Western Ghat region in India support livelihoods of small farmers. Vetiver systems have diverse economic and ecological uses. Vetiver is a major industrial crop and is grown for its essential oil that is used extensively world over in flavor and fragrance industries. Vetiver is also used in manufacture of handy-crafts, thatching houses, and organic compost production. Vetiver has been traditionally incorporated in the cropping systems of the region. Vetiver has a variety of environmental applications such as soil erosion control, phytoremediation, carbon sequestration etc. which are reviewed. Large scale cultivation of vetiver for essential oil production was initiated by using improved agronomic and field distillation methods covering an area of 250 ha in coastal Karnataka, a Western Ghats region, India, a region characterized by tropical climate with a well defined rainy season. The soils of the region are lateritic, of low pH below 5.0, and low to medium in fertility. Cultivation by adopting improved agronomy and field distillation was successful. The field root yield was estimated at 2.5 t ha−1. The roots on steam distillation by conventional and improved methods produced 0.6–0.8 % and 1.0–1.2 % essential oil respectively. Fifty to seventy-five percent more net returns were obtained from improved agronomic and distillation methods in vetiver in comparison to traditional crops such as paddy, areca nut and cashew. This article shows that economic gains from vetiver oil production can help livelihoods of farmers while helping to maintain ecological sustainability in this region.
Article
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Distillation studies on vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) in northern India during 1987 to 1991, demonstrated that maximum oil content was associated with freshly harvested roots and that extractable oil decreased with delays in harvest and storage period. Distillation of roots for 12 h was sufficient for extracting 96.9 percent of the total oil with most of the oil recovered within the first 2 h of distillation. Laboratory and small pilot scale studies on distillation indicated that cutting roots into small pieces did not improve the oil recovery. Hydrodistillation gave an oil recovery of 0.28 percent as compared with an oil recovery of 0.23 percent with steam distillation. Wide variations in the essential oil content (0.15–0.29% dry weight) of vetiver roots was noted in roots collected from wild populations growing at different locations.
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