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Abstract

Flour treatments having different moisture levels i.e. 13.5, 13,12,11,10 and 9% were packed in polypropylene bags. During the storage period of 60 days, each treatment was evaluated for proximate composition, insect infestation, mould growth and total iron. Moisture has significant effect on crude protein, crude fat, mould growth and insect infestation. Protein and fat content were decreased with storage period and this trend was more in treatments of higher moisture content. Changes in ash and fiber were non-significant with regard to treatments and storage period. Mould growth and insect infestation was more in treatments having higher moisture during storage while the treatments with lower moisture content (9%) showed no infestation. It is concluded that 9 and 10% moisture content is suitable for storage stability and longer shelf life of wheat flour.
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... Flour having a moisture content of 9% to 10% is suitable for extended shelf life (Nasir et al., 2003) since lower moisture content in flour shows a better storage stability. The range of the average ash content determined among the four eggplant flours was 6.47%-7.31%, ...
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Brinjal is (Solanum melongena L.) an economic plant in the world and has several forms, shapes and colors fruit is known for vegetables of diet food because of high moisture content and low calorific value. However, it is a good source of antioxidants as well as some phytonutrients which provides various therapeutic potential health effects. It contains varieties of biologically active compounds viz. phenol, flavone, flavonoid, and phenolic compounds. These phenolic extracts of brinjal can be used in pharmaceutical preparations and functional foods. Polyphenols can also able to reduce radical -mediated diseases, mainly carcinogenesis and atherosclerosis. Anthocyanin is the most important class of flavonoid which is a water soluble natural pigments which are well known to enhance the anti-ulcer activity and sight-acuteness.
... The moisture content (12.13%) was relatively moderate for powder/flour. For wheat flour, the low moisture content will extend the shelf life of flour, with a maximum moisture content of 14% (Nasir et al., 2003). The moisture content of MMTPP was in a similar range to other fruit peel/by-products (ranging FULL PAPER from 6.28% for pineapple pomace and 16.95% for melon peel (Maazoun variety) (Wu and Shiau, 2015;Mallek-Ayadi et al., 2017). ...
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Melon Manis Terengganu (MMT) is one of the commonly cultivated melon in Terengganu. However, little study has been reported on value-added products from MMT and its by-product. This study aimed to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of bread incorporated with Melon Manis Terengganu (MMT) peel powder. The MMT peels were dried in a drying oven and sieved, prior to the determination of its proximate analysis. The MMT peel powder (MMTPP) was then incorporated into the bread formulation at four different levels (0% (control), 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%). All bread samples were analysed for physicochemical and sensory properties. It was found that MMTPP contained 12.13% moisture, 5.89% ash, 2.17% crude fat, 6.86% crude protein, 36.76% crude fibre and 36.18% carbohydrate. The incorporation of MMTPP in bread formulation increased the crude fibre (6.12 – 8.7%) and the moisture content (31.98 – 33.39%) while decreasing the crude protein (6.86-6.04%) and the carbohydrate content (50.44 - 46.45%). However, the ash content only increased after a 9% MMTPP incorporation level and there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the crude fat content. Besides, the lightness of crust colour increased while the crumb colour decreased with increasing level of MMTPP. However, the yellowness for both the crust and the crumb colour increased with increasing MMTPP substitution. Next, the hardness of bread increased while the springiness and the resilience decreased with the addition of MMTPP. It was also found that the volume and the specific volume of bread decreased significantly with increasing MMTPP incorporation. In addition, the sensory analysis showed that the most acceptable bread was control bread, followed by bread with 3% MMTPP.
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Chapter
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Effect of insect infestation on nutritional quality of wheat stored in jute bags, peru, polythene bags and metal bins was studied by following changes in physical properties (weight, per cent damage and density), proximate composition, energy value, non-protein nitrogen (NPN), uric acid, true proteins, feed efficiency ratio (FER) and protein efficiency ratio (PER). With increase in storage period, significant decreases in weight, density, crude fat, calorific value and true proteins were observed, whereas moisture, ash, crude proteins, crude fibre, non-protein nitrogen and uric acid increased significantly (P<0.05). Changes were maximum in wheat, stored in jute bag and minimum in wheat stored in metal bin. Nature of packaging was found to play an important role in determining the extent of infestation damage.
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Biochemical changes in wheat grains stored at 10, 25 and 45 degrees C for six months were studied. A significant decrease in pH and an increase in titratable acidity was observed during storage of wheat grains at 25 degrees C and 45 degrees C. Moisture contents of wheat grains decreased by 15% at 25 degrees C and 26% at 45 degrees C during six months of storage. A significant decrease in water soluble amylose (20-28%) along with an increase in insoluble amylose contents (7.6-17%) were observed during storage at 25 and 45 degrees C. Amylase activity of the samples showed a decrease as the storage progressed. Total soluble sugars increased by 9% at 10 degrees C and 12% at 25 degrees C; a 37% decrease was observed after six months storage at 45 degrees C. Total available lysine decreased by 18.0% and 22.6% at 25 and 45 degrees C, respectively, after six months storage. In vitro protein digestibility of wheat grains decreased by 5.00% at 25 degrees C and 10.28% at 45 degrees C during six months of storage. However, no significant biochemical changes occurred during storage at 10 degrees C.
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