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Flour treatments having different moisture levels i.e. 13.5, 13,12,11,10 and 9% were packed in polypropylene bags. During the storage period of 60 days, each treatment was evaluated for proximate composition, insect infestation, mould growth and total iron. Moisture has significant effect on crude protein, crude fat, mould growth and insect infestation. Protein and fat content were decreased with storage period and this trend was more in treatments of higher moisture content. Changes in ash and fiber were non-significant with regard to treatments and storage period. Mould growth and insect infestation was more in treatments having higher moisture during storage while the treatments with lower moisture content (9%) showed no infestation. It is concluded that 9 and 10% moisture content is suitable for storage stability and longer shelf life of wheat flour.
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... Flour having a moisture content of 9% to 10% is suitable for extended shelf life (Nasir et al., 2003) since lower moisture content in flour shows a better storage stability. The range of the average ash content determined among the four eggplant flours was 6.47%-7.31%, ...
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Brinjal is (Solanum melongena L.) an economic plant in the world and has several forms, shapes and colors fruit is known for vegetables of diet food because of high moisture content and low calorific value. However, it is a good source of antioxidants as well as some phytonutrients which provides various therapeutic potential health effects. It contains varieties of biologically active compounds viz. phenol, flavone, flavonoid, and phenolic compounds. These phenolic extracts of brinjal can be used in pharmaceutical preparations and functional foods. Polyphenols can also able to reduce radical -mediated diseases, mainly carcinogenesis and atherosclerosis. Anthocyanin is the most important class of flavonoid which is a water soluble natural pigments which are well known to enhance the anti-ulcer activity and sight-acuteness.
... The moisture content (12.13%) was relatively moderate for powder/flour. For wheat flour, the low moisture content will extend the shelf life of flour, with a maximum moisture content of 14% (Nasir et al., 2003). The moisture content of MMTPP was in a similar range to other fruit peel/by-products (ranging FULL PAPER from 6.28% for pineapple pomace and 16.95% for melon peel (Maazoun variety) (Wu and Shiau, 2015;Mallek-Ayadi et al., 2017). ...
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Melon Manis Terengganu (MMT) is one of the commonly cultivated melon in Terengganu. However, little study has been reported on value-added products from MMT and its by-product. This study aimed to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of bread incorporated with Melon Manis Terengganu (MMT) peel powder. The MMT peels were dried in a drying oven and sieved, prior to the determination of its proximate analysis. The MMT peel powder (MMTPP) was then incorporated into the bread formulation at four different levels (0% (control), 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%). All bread samples were analysed for physicochemical and sensory properties. It was found that MMTPP contained 12.13% moisture, 5.89% ash, 2.17% crude fat, 6.86% crude protein, 36.76% crude fibre and 36.18% carbohydrate. The incorporation of MMTPP in bread formulation increased the crude fibre (6.12 – 8.7%) and the moisture content (31.98 – 33.39%) while decreasing the crude protein (6.86-6.04%) and the carbohydrate content (50.44 - 46.45%). However, the ash content only increased after a 9% MMTPP incorporation level and there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the crude fat content. Besides, the lightness of crust colour increased while the crumb colour decreased with increasing level of MMTPP. However, the yellowness for both the crust and the crumb colour increased with increasing MMTPP substitution. Next, the hardness of bread increased while the springiness and the resilience decreased with the addition of MMTPP. It was also found that the volume and the specific volume of bread decreased significantly with increasing MMTPP incorporation. In addition, the sensory analysis showed that the most acceptable bread was control bread, followed by bread with 3% MMTPP.
... The storage commenced in October with average relative humidity of 84.28% and end in March with average relative humidity of 66.82%. This result of the moisture content during storage is in close agreement with earlier findings of Muhammad et al, (2003) on Wheat flour. It was reported that mould growth and insect infestation was higher in the flour with moisture content of 13.5% compare to the wheat flour with moisture content of 9%. ...
Conference Paper
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The production of bio-methane from cow-dung and tannery by product was carried out. The work focuses on the production of biogas anaerobically through the codigestion of cow-dungs and tannery waste and also to reduce the concentration of sulphide by direct inclusion of facultative lagoon sediment with sodium and calcium alginate. Comparison of the efficacy of various tannery beam house effluents as substrate diluents indicated that the soaking liquor was most favourable. The highest bio-methane concentration of 11.8%v/v was obtained from the use of Soaking liquor, as against 8.8%v/v, 1.2%v/v, and 4.1%v/v when deliming liquor, liming liquor and a combination of the entire beam house liquors were used respectively. Various tannery fleshing to cow-dung ratio of 1:0, 1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:2 were investigated. The optimum was established to be ratio 1:2 as indicated by the highest methane concentration of 45.5%v/v as against 1.9% by volume, 4.1% by volume, 7.3% by volume, for 1:0, 1:0.5 and 1:1 respectively. It was observed that a minute concentration of sodium and calcium alginates (0.01% wt/v) which was introduced from the beginning of the anaerobic digestion cycle possessed the efficacy to increase methane concentration and reduce the hydrogen sulphide concentration of the system. The alginates acted as chelating ligands thereby boosting methane production and reducing sulphide concentration. Methane concentration was significantly boosted to 70.1%v/v and 63.8%v/v with the addition of sodium alginate and calcium alginate beads respectively, as against 45%v/v for a similar digestion sample without alginate. In all, sodium alginate had a better performance than calcium alginate beads both of 0.01% wt/v. However, a rise in calcium alginate to about 0.03% wt/v performed better than sodium alginate of 0.01% wt/v. In addition, inclusion of the alginates to the digestion system shortens the retention time for biogas production and the release of hydrogen sulphide gas. This work therefore recommends soaking liquor as diluent in the anaerobic digestion of tannery fleshing, utilizing cow dung and tannery waste (fleshing) in the ratio of 2:1 for anaerobic co-digestion respectively, the use of facultative lagoon sediments as basic inoculant and the use of sodium and calcium alginates (0.01% wt/v) acting as chelating ligands to remove hydrogen sulphide and boost dry methane production above 20% with very good combustion characteristics.
... Lower flour moisture (9%) was found to be suitable for storage stability and longer shelf life of wheat flour. [18] conclusIon The developed value added RTP Meetha cheela (sweet pancake) was highly acceptable. The final mix was significantly higher in nutrients, namely, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, β carotene, calcium, and potassium and had higher total antioxidant activity. ...
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Elderly people suffer from a number of physical, psychological, and social changes which makes them vulnerable to malnutrition. These changes present the need to develop nutrient dense products which can be easily prepared by them. The present study was planned with the objective to prepare such a product. The ingredients for the ready to prepare (RTP) sweet cheela mix were subjected to various processing techniques to increase nutrient availability and digestibility. A combination of wheat, green gram whole, and finger millet (ragi) was used in different proportions (15%, 30%, 45%, and 60%) in the first stage of value addition. Value addition was carried out in the most acceptable variation from Stage 1, using processed mango, nuts, and oilseeds in different proportions (10%, 20%, and 30%). The RTP meetha cheela mix of the most acceptable variation was selected through sensory evaluation and then subjected to biochemical analysis and shelf life assessment. The results revealed MCF3 (30%) to be the most acceptable variation after Stage 2 value addition, which contained flours of malted finger millet, wheat, green gram along with dried ripe mango, almonds, raisins, sunflower seeds, and sesame seeds. The prepared mix had statistically significant higher amount of fat, fiber, ash, carbohydrate, energy, Vitamin C, β carotene, Vitamin E, calcium, potassium, and total antioxidant activity. Low moisture levels and vacuum packaging provided the product a good shelf life till 3 months.
... The storage commenced in October with average relative humidity of 84.28% and end in March with average relative humidity of 66.82%. This result of the moisture content during storage is in close agreement with earlier findings of Muhammad et al, (2003) on Wheat flour. It was reported that mould growth and insect infestation was higher in the flour with moisture content of 13.5% compare to the wheat flour with moisture content of 9%. ...
... Fats are rich in unsaturated fatty acids, which are susceptible to oxidation degradation [30]. The enhanced moisture throughout the storage might have created suitable conditions for enzymes like lipase and lipoxidase to cause a subsequent decrease in fat content [41]. ...
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There are ongoing efforts and studies to mitigate post-harvest losses of the banana through post- harvest employment and processing. Organic acids play some crucial roles in reducing enzymatic browning, biochemical and microbial activity in the dehydration process. This study was conducted to investigate Amritsagar banana powder prepared from ripe bananas and prove the hypothesis that pre- treatment of banana powder improves the storage condition based on the retention ability in physicochemical properties. Bananas were pre-treated with organic acid solutions (0.5 % citric acid (CA), 0.1 % potassium metabisulfite and a blend of both respectively) for 10 min. We observed 2 physical, 5 chemical and 6 mineral content retention properties over 180 days with 60 days intervals from the beginning. By combining ANOVA with Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DMRT), we assessed that the blend of 0.5 % CA and 0.1 % potassium metabisulfite secured the highest yield and maximum retention of the physical and mineral properties of the banana powder. This blend also yielded higher protein and carbohydrate but lowered the moisture and ash content. Besides, 0.5 % CA was found excellent in lowering fat content with retain ability. Dehydration was previously considered as an efficacious preservation method for perishable crops like bananas. From the comprehensive assessment, this study concludes that pre-treatment with the blend of 0.5 % CA and 0.1 % potassium metabisulfite increases the efficiency of the dehydration process and also increases the shelf life of banana powder maintaining an appreciable quality.
... The moisture content of PEF was 5.21%, lower than that reported by Uthumporn et al. [6], probably due to the lower temperature used in drying process. The flour having a moisture content between 9 and 10% showed a better storage stability than flour with higher moisture content [18]. Apparently, PEF is suitable for use and appropriate for long-lasting storage. ...
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This study examines the implications of PEF as an alternative fat replacer on nutritional composition, display storage stability, product quality, and its practical application for beef patties. Four different beef patties were formulated with 0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% PEF. Addition of the PEF in beef patties resulted in a significant increase in moisture, ash, and total dietary fiber while decreasing protein and fat contents. The cooking yield, moisture, and fat retention of the PEF beef patties were significantly higher than the control patty. The tenderness and juiciness scores of the PEF beef patties were significantly increased compared to the control. The lightness and redness values of raw patties were superior to the control during storage time. The amounts of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were lower in PEF beef patties than the control patties during 7 days of storage at 4°C. These results suggested that PEF could be used as a natural antioxidant fat replacer in beef patties without losing sensory and visual quality. In addition, the utilization of PEF may improve nutritional values including dietary fiber and display storage stability in beef patties.
... Moreover, the storage conditions may have contributed to the different values. It is important that the moisture content of wheat flours remains low so that it does not allow the development of microorganisms and the flours might have an extended shelf life [32]. ...
In the next 30 years a sharp increase in the world population is expected, which determines the need of an increasing food production, linked to a high nutritional pattern, to ensure human health. In this context, as bread wheat is one of the most produced cereals worldwide, its mineral enrichment through agronomic biofortification is of great interest. Under this framework, considering that zinc deficiency triggers some pathologies in the human population, this study presents an agronomic workflow for Zn enrichment of bread wheat and aimed to evaluate the technological quality of the related flours (whole and refined bread wheat flours), to create an innovative product, with added value and capable of supplying nutritional deficiencies in zinc. Tests were carried out after three foliar applications of Zn-EDTA, in three different concentrations, in Paiva and Roxo varieties of Triticum aestivum L. Therefore, an analytical determination of ash and moisture contents, Zn, Ca and K on bread wheat flours and scanning colorimetry were carried out. Whole bread wheat flours submitted to the workflow of Zn enrichment revealed, relatively to refined flours, higher contents of ash, Zn, Ca and K. Nevertheless, in the scanning colorimetric analysis, two transmittance peaks were recorded at 550 and 650 nm in the regions of the visible spectrum, in which the whole flour presented lower values. The obtained data is discussed, being concluded that whole wheat flours resulted in flours nutritionally more interesting, allowing the design of innovative and functional foods produced from Zn enriched flours with added value.
This study examined phytotoxic activities of several Vietnam localised OM rice (Oryza sativa L. OM) cultivars on junglerice (Echinochloa colona (L.) Link), an invasive weed threatening rice production, and identified allelochemicals and their activities for OM 4498, the most allelopathic cultivar. The aqueous MeOH extracts of all rice cultivars inhibited root and shoot growth of junglerice at a concentration as low as 0.01 g ml−1. Inhibitory effects were greatest in OM 380, OM 2395 and OM 4498, with the average effective doses (EDs) of extracts required for 90% inhibition (ED90) on junglerice as low as 0.981, 0.632 and 0.702 g ml−1, respectively. The phytotoxic substances salicylic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, 2,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid, benzoic acid, p-hydrobenzoic acid, trans-cinnamic acid and coumarin were identified in OM 4498 at concentrations ranging from 0.066 to 11.412 mg in 100 g fresh weight of rice tissue. Two of these substances, 2,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid and coumarin, have never previously been identified in rice. Compared to other compounds, p-coumaric acid may have the greatest weed-suppressant potential on junglerice, with the average ED50 being 0.28 mM. The total activities of salicylic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, trans-cinnamic acid and 2,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid in an OM 4498 rice plant on junglerice seedlings were 59.60, 0.78, 3.47, 2.52 and 0.61 mM/mM, respectively. The results clearly suggest that OM 4498 rice extract is an excellent source for allelochemicals against junglerice, and this rice cultivar should be considered in rice production areas invaded by junglerice.
Effect of insect infestation on nutritional quality of wheat stored in jute bags, peru, polythene bags and metal bins was studied by following changes in physical properties (weight, per cent damage and density), proximate composition, energy value, non-protein nitrogen (NPN), uric acid, true proteins, feed efficiency ratio (FER) and protein efficiency ratio (PER). With increase in storage period, significant decreases in weight, density, crude fat, calorific value and true proteins were observed, whereas moisture, ash, crude proteins, crude fibre, non-protein nitrogen and uric acid increased significantly (P<0.05). Changes were maximum in wheat, stored in jute bag and minimum in wheat stored in metal bin. Nature of packaging was found to play an important role in determining the extent of infestation damage.
Biochemical changes in wheat grains stored at 10, 25 and 45 degrees C for six months were studied. A significant decrease in pH and an increase in titratable acidity was observed during storage of wheat grains at 25 degrees C and 45 degrees C. Moisture contents of wheat grains decreased by 15% at 25 degrees C and 26% at 45 degrees C during six months of storage. A significant decrease in water soluble amylose (20-28%) along with an increase in insoluble amylose contents (7.6-17%) were observed during storage at 25 and 45 degrees C. Amylase activity of the samples showed a decrease as the storage progressed. Total soluble sugars increased by 9% at 10 degrees C and 12% at 25 degrees C; a 37% decrease was observed after six months storage at 45 degrees C. Total available lysine decreased by 18.0% and 22.6% at 25 and 45 degrees C, respectively, after six months storage. In vitro protein digestibility of wheat grains decreased by 5.00% at 25 degrees C and 10.28% at 45 degrees C during six months of storage. However, no significant biochemical changes occurred during storage at 10 degrees C.
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