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COLD FUSION BY PLASMA ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER

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It has been disclosed that transmutation of the atomic nuc lei of alkaline metals and the atomic nuclei of the cathode material takes place during plasma electr olysis of water.
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Published 20.12.2002. Updated 19.09.2003.
COLD FUSION BY PLASMA ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER
Ph.M. Kanarev
The Kuban State Agrarian University, Department of Theoretical Mechanics
13, Kalinin Street, 350044 Krasnodar,
Russia
E-mail: kanphil@mail.kuban.ru
Tadahiko Mizuno
Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University,
Kita-ku, North 13, West-8 Sapporo 060-8628,
Japan
Abstract: It has been disclosed that transmutation of the atomic nuclei of alkaline metals and the atomic nuclei
of the cathode material takes place during plasma electrolysis of water.
Key words: atom, nucleus, proton, neutron, electron, cathode, low-current.
INTRODUCTION
Cold nuclear fusion is the first hypothesis of a source of additional energy in heavy water electrolysis.
Fleischmann and Pons, the American electrochemists, are the authors of this hypothesis [1]. They reported about it in
1989. Since that time a large number of experiments has been carried out in order to obtain additional energy from
water [2], [3], [4], [5], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12]. We continue to discuss this problem.
THE FIRST EXPERIMENTAL PART
In order to check this hypothesis, the following experiments were performed. Two cathodes were made of iron
with mass of 18.10 g and 18.15 g. The first cathode operated during 10 hours in KOH solution; the second cathode
operated during the same period in NaOH solution. Mass of the first cathode remained unchanged, mass of the second
one was reduced by 0.02 g. The tension by plasmaelectrolysis process was 220 V and the current (0.5-1.0) A (Fig.1).
The indices of the consumption of the solution and the gases being generated were as follows (Table 1).
2
Fig. 1. Diagram of gas generator. Patent Nr. 2210630: 7-catode; 11-anode
Table 1 Experimental results
1
Indices Water consumption,
kg Volume of gases,
3
m
Energy expenses,
3
/mkWh
KOH 0.272 8.75 0.28
NaOH 0.445 12.66 0.21
It is known that from one litre of water it is possible to produce 1220 litres of hydrogen and 622 litres of
oxygen. Quantity of the gases generated by the plasma electrolytic process is much greater than it is possible to get
from consumed water (Table 1) [6]. It gives the reason to think that not only water molecules, but the nuclei of alkaline
metals and the atomic nuclei of the cathode material serve as a source of these gases. The analysing experiment has
been performed in order to check this fact.
Tadahiko Mizuno, the famous Japanese scientists (the co-author of this article), who works at the Division of
Quantum Energy Engineering Research group of Nuclear System Engineering, laboratory of Nuclear Material System,
Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, North 13, West-8 Sapporo 060-8628, Japan, kindly agreed to
perform chemical analysis of the cathode samples with the help of the nuclear spectroscopy method (EDX). Here are
the results of his analysis. The content of chemical elements on the surface of non-operating cathode is as follows
(Table 2).
Table 2
Chemical composition of the cathode surface prior its operation in the solution
Element Fe
% 99.90
The new chemical elements have appeared on the working surface of the cathode, which works in KOH
solution (Table 3).
1
In order to increase safety of experimental results, the volume of the gases introduced with the help of anemometer is
reduced twofold.
3
Table 3
Chemical composition of the surface of the cathode, which operates in KOH solution
Element Si K Cr Fe Cu
% 0.94 4.50 1.90 93.00 0.45
The chemical composition of the surface of the cathode, which operates in NaOH. Has proved to be different
(Table 4).
Table 4
Chemical composition of the surface of the cathode, which operates in NaOH solution
Element Al Si Cl K Ca Cr Fe Cu
% 1.10 0.55 0.20 0.60 0.40 1.60 94.00 0.65
Thus, the hypothesis concerning the participation of the nuclei of alkaline metals and the atomic nuclei of the cathode
material in the formation of gases during plasma electrolysis of water has experimental confirmation. Let us carry out
the preliminary analysis of the data being obtained (Tables 2, 3, 4).
THE FIRST THEORETICAL PART
In any of these cases, the atoms and the molecules of hydrogen are formed. The part of its are burned and the
other go out with the steam. We have already shown that the processes of fusion of the atoms and the molecules of
hydrogen and its isotopes result in occurrence of additional thermal energy [6]. Numerous experiments show that up to
50% of additional thermal energy are generated during the plasma electrolysis of water, it is less than the results of the
calculations originating from the existing cold fusion theories [6]. That’s why it is necessary to analyse energetics of the
particle creation process during the atomic nucleus transmutation.
Having considered the model of the electron we have found out that it can exist in a free state only when it has
a definite electromagnetic mass [6]. Being combined with the atomic nucleus it emits a part of energy in the form of the
photons, and its electromagnetic mass is reduced. But stability of its condition does not become worse, because the
energy carried away by the photons is compensated by binding energy of the electron in the atomic nucleus [6].
If the ambient temperature is increased, the electron begins to absorb the thermal photons and to pass to higher
energy levels of the atom reducing binding with it. When the electron becomes free, it interacts with the atom only if
the ambient temperature is reduced. As this temperature is reduced, it will emit the photons and sink to lower energy
levels [6].
If the electron is in a free state due to an accidental external influence on the atom and the environment has no
photons, which are necessary for it to restore its mass, it begins to absorb the ether from the environment and to restore
its constants in such a way: mass, charge, magnetic moment, spin and radius of rotation. The electron acquires the
stable free state only after it has restored its all constants [6].
Thus, if an interchange of the free state and binding state with the atom takes place due to the accidental
influences on the atom, the electron restores its electromagnetic mass every time due to absorbing the ether. It means
that actually it plays the role of a converter of the ether energy into the thermal photon energy.
The Japanese investigators Ohmori and Mizuno [4] registered neutron radiation during plasma electrolysis of
water and reported that not only the nuclear process, but the process of the electron capture by the free protons can be
the source of this radiation.
As hydrogen plasma is generated during the plasma electrolytic process of water electrolysis, there exists a
tendency of the capture of the free electrons by them.
It is known that rest mass of the electron is
kgm
e31
10109534.9
=
, rest mass of the proton is
kgm
p27
106726485.1
=
, and rest mass of the neutron is kgm
n27
106749543.1
= . The difference between the
4
mass of the neutron and the mass of the proton is equal to
kgm
np 31
10058.23
=
. It is
531.210109.9/10058.23
3131
=
of the mass of the electron. Thus, the proton should capture 2.531 electrons
in order to become the neutron. The question arises at once: what will happen to the remained of electron mass
ee mm 469.0)531.20.3(
=
? The disturbed balance of masses in this process is explained by modern physics in a
simple way: a neutrino is created [6].
As the neutrino has no charge, it is very difficult to register it. If the neutrino takes the excess mass away or
replenish the lacking one, can the elementary particles execute this process by themselves?
As the photons are emitted and absorbed only by the electrons, the proton, which absorbs the electrons, cannot
convert the remainder of mass of the third electron into the photon. If the electron is absorbed by the third one and gives
more than a half of its mass to the proton in order to convert it into the neutron, the remaining part of mass
)469.0(
e
m
of the electron, which has no possibility to become the photon, is converted into a portion of the ether, which “is
dissolved” and mixed with the ether in the space. The fact that plasma has no photons with the mass corresponding to
the part of mass of the third electron, which has not been absorbed by the proton during its conversion into the neutron,
can serve as a proof of such affirmation. Let us calculate energy of such photon [6].
The difference the mass of the neutron and the proton is equal to
kgm
np 31
10058.23
=
. If we subtract this
value from the mass of three electrons, we’ll get mass
F
m, from which the photon should be formed [6]
.10270602.405810.2310109534.933
313131
kgmmm
npeF
===
(1)
If the photon is formed from this remainder of mass
F
m, its energy will be [6]:
eVCmE
Fph 4
19
2831
2
10956126.23
10
602189
1
)10997924.2(10270602.4 =
==
(2)
This value of energy corresponds to roentgen spectrum, that’s why the creation of each free neutron should be
accompanied by the creation of one roentgen photon. If it does not take place, we have two opportunities: the first one
we should think that in the case when the neutron is created, the neutrino was formed from mass
kgmF31
10270602.4
=
and flew away in the unknown direction; the second one there were no conditions for
the formation of the photons in the process being considered, and mass
F
m
, which failed to be formed as a particle,
“was dissolved” in the ether. Which variant is closer to the truth [6] ? There is no exact answer, but it is known that the
Japanese scientists registered only neutron radiation with intensity of 50,000 neutrons per second, and they failed to
register roentgen radiation [4].
If in this process the roentgen photons were created, they would not exceed heat efficacy of the plasma
electrolytic process, because they would not be the thermal photons. The thermal photons are radiated and absorbed
when the electrons make the energy transitions to the energy levels, which are the most remote from the atomic nuclei,
where the infrared photons and neighbouring ones from the optical range of the spectrum with energies of (0.001-3.3)
eV are generated [6].
Thus, the neutron fusion processes in plasma electrolysis of water will not generate additional thermal energy.
But the appearance of the neutrons in plasma will promote the formation of the nuclei of deuterium and, possibly, of
tritium. As the balance of masses remains almost unchanged, we have no reason to expect that additional energy will
take place when deuterium and tritium are formed. But it is sure to appear during fusion of the atoms of deuterium and
tritium, i.e. the hydrogen atoms [6].
In order to become a proton, the neutron should radiate something, which mass is
kgm
np 31
10058.23
=
.
Let us convert this mass into energy [6].
5
eVCmE
npph 6
19
2831
2
10294.1
10
602
1
)10998.2(10058.23 =
==
(3)
This energy corresponds to the gamma range photons, i.e. not to the thermal photons, and this process does not
give additional energy. Thus, if the process of the formation of the helium atoms takes place during plasma electrolysis
of water, it should be accompanied by gamma radiation. If there is no such radiation, but the helium atoms are formed,
the neutrino takes away the above-mentioned portion of mass
np
m
or this mass, which has no opportunity to be
formed as the photon, “is dissolved” in the environment, i.e. it is transferred into the state of the ether [6]. As the
roentgen photons and the gamma photons are not the thermal ones, this process gives no excessive thermal energy [6].
Another variant is possible. When the atoms of alkali metal bombard the cathode atoms, they are destroyed
completely and destroy the atoms of the cathode materials. Under the notion “completely” we’ll understand such state
when both the atom and the nucleus are destroyed. In this case, the protons of the destroyed nuclei begin to form the
hydrogen atoms. The process of fusion of the atoms and the molecules of hydrogen generate additional thermal energy
[6]. But one should bear in mind that if plasma disintegrates water molecule into hydrogen and oxygen and if
these gases contact plasma, hydrogen is combined with oxygen, and water is formed. Noise generated by plasma is
hydrogen microexplosions. Taking into consideration the above-mentioned fact the larger the volume of hydrogen burnt
in plasma, the smaller its volume in the gas-vapour mixture. It means that such reactor operation modes are required
when quantity of burnt hydrogen is minimal one. Our theory allow us to have such results.
As iron is the cathode material, the nuclei of its atoms are the targets of the atomic nuclei of potassium,
alkaline metal. During the transmutation of the iron nuclei (Fig. 2, b), the atomic nuclei of chromium (Fig. 2 a) and the
atomic nuclei of copper (Fig. 2, c) are formed [6].
a) Cr (24,28) b) Fe (26,28) c) Cu (29,34)
Fig. 2. Diagrams of the atomic nuclei of: a) chromium, b) iron, c) copper
When the atomic nucleus of iron (Fig. 2, b) pass into the atomic nucleus of chromium (Fig. 2, a), two
protons and two neutrons are released; two atoms of deuterium or one atom of helium can be formed from
them. If the neutrons pass into the protons, four atoms of hydrogen are formed.
6
It is easy to see (Fig. 2) that the atomic nucleus of iron (Fig. 2, b) should lose two upper protons and
two neutrons in order to pass into the atomic nucleus of chromium (Fig. 2, a).
Three additional protons and six neutrons (total 9 nucleons) are required for the formation of the
atomic nucleus of copper (Fig. 2, c) from the atomic nucleus of iron. As there are chromium atoms, which, as
we think, are formed from the atomic nuclei of iron, on the cathode surface (Table 3) 4fold than the atoms of
copper, the solution is sure to have superfluous protons and neutrons of the destroyed atomic nuclei of iron,
and we can determined their approximate relative quantity.
Let us suppose that four nuclei of the iron atoms pass into the nuclei of the chromium atom. The total
quantity of free protons and neutrons (nucleons) is equal to 16. As one atom of copper falls on each four atoms
of chromium, 9 nucleons are spent for the formation of one nucleus of the copper atom, and 7 nucleons remain
free. Let us see what is formed when the nucleus of the potassium atom is destroyed. Potassium is situated
in the first group of the fourth period of the periodic law. Its nucleus contains 19 protons and 20 neutrons (Fig.
3, a) [6].
a) K (19,20) b) O (8,8) c) Si (14,14)
Fig. 3. Diagrams of the atomic nuclei of: a) potassium, b) oxygen, c) silicon
In Fig. 3, a, we can see a weak link of the nucleus of the potassium atom [6]. It is situated in the
middle of its axis neutrons. When the transmutation of the nuclei of the potassium atoms takes place, the nuclei
of the oxygen atoms can be formed (Fig. 3, b) as well as its isotopes and the nuclei of the silicon atoms (Fig. 3,
c). The analysis of the structure of the nuclei of the potassium atom (Fig. 3, a) shows that its is the most
probable source of the nucleus of the silicon atom (Fig. 3, c), which atoms appear on the cathode (Table 3).
It is easy to count that during the destruction of one nucleus of the potassium atom and the creation of
one nucleus of the silicon atom 5 free protons and 6 free neutrons, i.e. 11 nucleons, are formed.
Thus, the transmutation of the nuclei of the iron atoms and the potassium atoms results in the
formation of free protons and neutrons. As the protons cannot exist in free state, the hydrogen atoms are
created from them. If the protons are connected with the neutrons after the destruction of the nuclei of the iron
atoms and the potassium atoms, the formation of deuterium, tritium and helium is possible.
Let us pay attention to the main fact – absence of the sodium atoms in the cathode material. It is
natural that the potassium atoms have appeared on the cathode, which operated in KOH solution (Table 3).
Why are no sodium atoms on the cathode, which operated in NaOH solution? The answer is as follows: the
nuclei of the sodium (Fig. 4,a) atoms are completely destroyed during the plasma electrolytic process. The
7
presence of potassium on the surface of the cathode, which operated in NaOH solution (Table 4), can be
explained by insufficient ablution of the reactor after the operation with KOH solution.
As free protons and neutrons appear during the destruction of the nucleus of the sodium atom (Fig.
4,a), some nuclei of this element begin to form the atomic nuclei of aluminium (Fig. 4, b), chlorine (Fig. 4, c)
and calcium (Fig. 5).
But not all free protons and neutrons are spent for the construction of the atomic nuclei of aluminium,
chlorine and calcium. A part of them is spent for the hydrogen atom formation.
If we knew the total quantity of transmutating atomic nuclei of iron, potassium and sodium as well as
the exact composition of the gases generated during the plasma electrolytic process, it would be possible to
determine the atomic nuclei being formed from additional nucleons. Now we can only suppose that the
majority of new nuclei are the protons, i.e. the nuclei of the hydrogen atoms. The increased volume of the
gases generated during the plasma electrolytic process is explained by it [6].
a) Na (11,12) b) Al (13,14) c) Cl (17,18)
Fig. 4. Diagrams of the atomic nuclei of: a) sodium, b) aluminium, c) chlorine
Ca (20,20)
Fig. 5. Diagram of the nucleus of the calcium atom
8
The analysis of these Tables shows that transmutation of the nuclei of iron, of which the cathodes are
made, results in the formation of chromium and copper in both cases. Apparently, aluminium, chlorine and
calcium are formed from the destroyed sodium nuclei. In any case, free protons and neutrons are formed.
But not all free protons and neutrons are spent for the formation of the atomic nuclei of copper,
aluminium, chlorine and calcium. A part of them is spent for the formation of the hydrogen atoms. In any case,
the atoms and the molecules of hydrogen are formed. The analysis has shown that plasma electrolytic process
extracts not more than 0.005 kg of alkaline metal from one litre of the solution. It appears from this that if all
neutrons of the atomic nuclei of the molecules of water and alkali metals are transferred into the protons and
the atoms and the molecules of hydrogen are formed, the formed volume of gas will be considerably less than
the one registered during the experiment (Table 1). A question arises: where do additional gases come from? In
other to get the answer on this question we made the next experiment.
THE SECOND EXPERIMENTAL PART
First of all we take in a count, that high temperature of plasma forms the conditions when a set of
various processes takes place at the cathode. First of all, water is boiled and evaporated. At the same tome, one
part of water molecules is disintegrated with a release of the atomic hydrogen, another part of the molecules
forms the orthohydrogen molecules. A part of water molecules is disintegrated completely and is released at
the cathode together with hydrogen and oxygen. A part of hydrogen is combined with oxygen again generating
microexplosions (noise) and forming water.
During plasma electrolysis of water, water vapor, hydrogen and oxygen are released simultaneously.
If vapor is condensed, gas mixture is released. In order to measure gas flow rate the electronic anemometer
have been used. Diameter of the electronic anemometer was equal to internal diameter of the gas make tube
(23, Fig. 1). Its readings were registered and processed by the computer. The experiment was performed dozen
time, and each time its readings were reproduced with small deviations [11]. But we had no hydrogen analyzer,
that’s why the results being obtained cannot be considered as final ones. We admonished it in all editions of
the book Water is a New Source of Energy with such a phrase: “We abstain from lending an official status to
these results with the hope to get necessary financing and to repeat them with a complete set of the necessary
devices” [12, page 176].
In the middle of the year of 2002 we received small financing, which allowed us to make a new
reactor and to buy some measuring instruments, in particular the scales with the measurement limit up to 600 g
and accuracy of 0.02 g. Careful preparation allowed us to increase duration of continuous operation of the
reactor (to 10 and more hourses) and to register solution consumption for gas production.
The main difficulty of operation with the hydrogen is in the fact that its mixture with air (4-74)% or
oxygen (4-94)% is combustible, and the fact was emphasized more than once during the experiments making
the researches be very careful. The second difficulty during hydrogen quantity measurements generated by the
plasma electrolytic reactor is in the fact that its molecule has the smallest dimensions, that’s why it penetrates
easily to the places where the molecules of other substances do not penetrate. Molecular hydrogen diffuses
easily even into metals. For example, one volume of palladium absorbs up to 800 volumes of hydrogen.
Gas flow speed was measured with the help of various anemometers, its readings being registered
with the help of the computer. Numerous measurements and numerous analysis of gas flow speed
measurement accuracy with the help of the anemometers showed that error of a conventional anemometer can
be 100%.
9
Fig. 6. Diagram of measurement of flow rate of the gas and its volume: 1 - tap for gas flow movement
direction switching, 2 – anemometer, 3 – graduated tank, 4 – water tank
It is known that it is possible to produce 1220 litres of hydrogen and 622 litres of oxygen from one
litre of water. Quantity of the gases generated by the plasma electrolytic process is much greater than it is
possible to get from consumed water (Table 1). It was a strong reason for a search of the measurement error.
For this purpose, the diagram of measurement of flow rate of the gases and their quantity was used (Fig. 6).
The results of the measurements were as follows. The anemometer showed that 200 litres of gas
mixture penetrated through it during 10 minutes. Nearly one litre of gases was in the graduated tank during this
period. Thus, the measurement of gas flow with the help of the anemometers distorted the result 200fold. It
should be mentioned that the reactor operated in the production mode of hydrogen and oxygen in the cathode
zone. As a result, their mixture burst. The pulses of these explosions increased the readings of the anemometer.
It has become necessary to return to the reactor operation modes when no oxygen is released in the
cathode zone. Our theory allows us to do this easy.
PROTOCOL
of tests of the first model of low-current Electrolyzers
It is known that it is possible to produce 1.22 l of
2
H
+ 0.622
2
O
= 1.843 (
22
OH
+
) from 1 ml of
OH
2
Experimental results
Indices 1 2 3 Average
1-duration of experiment, hour 1 1 1 1
2-voltage, V 70 70 70 70
3-current, A 0.038 0.080 0.098 0.072
4 – power, W 2.7 5.60 6.44 4.91
4-volume of consumed solution, ml 1.67 3.98 4.32 3.32
5-density of the solution, kg/l 1.04 1.04 1.04 1.04
6-volume of consumed water, ml 1.60 3.83 4.15 3.19
7-volume of the gas mixture being produced, l 2.95 7.06 7.85 5.95
6-volume of hydrogen being produced, l 1.95 4.67 5.07 3.80
7-energy consumption per l of hydrogen, Wh/l 1.38 1.20 1.27 1.28
8-energy consumption per m
3
of hydrogen, kWh/m
3
1.38 1.20 1.27 1.28
10
9-existing energy consumption for production of 1 m
3
of hydrogen from water, kWh/m
3
4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00
CONCLUSION
Transmutation of the atomic nuclei of alkaline metals and the atomic nuclei of the cathode material
during plasma electrolysis of water existed. Plasma electrolytic process opens new prospects in study of
matter on the nuclear, atomic and molecular levels.
The low-current electrolysis allow us to get the inexpensive hydrogen from water.
REFERENCES
1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons and M. Hawkins. Electrochemically Induced Nuclear Fusion of
Deuterium. J. Electroanal. Chem. 261, 301 (1989),
2. ICCF-7 ACCEPTED ABSTRACTS. Infinite Energy. V. 4, Issue 20, p. 59…69.
3. Harold L. Fox. Cold nuclear fusion: essence, problems, influence on the world. View from USA.
Production group SVITAX. M.: 1993, 180 pages.
4. T. Ohmori, T. Mizuno. Strong Excess Energy Evolution, New Element Production, and
Electromagnetic Wave and/or Neutron Emission in Light Water Electrolysis with a Tungsten Cathode. Infinite
Energy. Issue 20, 1998. Pages 14-17.
5. T. Mizuno. Nuclear Transmutation: The Reality of Cold Fusion. Infinite Energy Press. 1998. 151
pages. 6. Ph. Kanarev. Foundations of Physchemistry of Microworld COLD FUSION BY PLASMA
ELECTROLYSIS OF WATER. Krasnodar, 2002. 330 pages.
7. Kenneth R. Shoulders, "Method of and Apparatus for Production and Manipulations of High
Density Charge", U.S. Patent 5,054,046, issued Oct 1, 1991.
8. Ken Shoulders & Steve Shoulders, "Observations on the Role of Charge Clusters in Nuclear
Cluster Reactions", J. of New Energy, vol. 1, no 3, pp 111-121, Fall 1996, 7 refs, 22 figs.
9. Hal Fox, Robert W. Bass, & Shang-Xian Jin, "Plasma-Injected Transmutation", J. of New Energy,
vol. 1, no 3, Fall 1996, pp 222-230, 23 refs, 4 figs.
10. Shang-Xian Jin & Hal Fox, "High Density Charge Cluster Collective Ion Accelerator," J. of New
Energy, vol. 4, no 2, Fall 1999, pp 96-104, 47 refs, 4 figs., 3 tables.
11. Ph.M. Kanarev. Water is the Main Power Carrier of Future Power Engineering. Journal of New
Energy. An International Journal of New Energy Systems. Vol. 6, No.2. Pag. 101-121.
12. Ph.M. Kanarev. Water is New Source of Energy. The Third Edition. Krasnodar 2002. 194p. (In
English).
Kanarev: Cold Fusion by Plasma Electrolysis of Water
http//Kanarev.coldfusion.innoplaza.net
<< Kanarev´s Page
... I am forgetting the names of many Russian researchers who deserve to be quoted, such as Philip Kanarev, who did research on improving the electrolysis of water at Krasnodar University. 2 Many of these scientists are now working with extremely modest financial means and are often forced to make their own experimental equipment, but in return, they can work in an atmosphere of remarkable academic freedom. ...
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Deuterium loaded palladium foils, produced by both electrolytic and ultrasonic processing, have been micro-analyzed for nuclear reactions. The characteristic strike marks of charge clusters, known as EVs, have been found to occur concurrently with nuclear reactions in micrometer-sized areas. In the electrolytic case, the reaction is attributed to charge clusters generated from mechanical energy, first stored and then suddenly released, from a brittle metal lattice through the mechanism of fracto-emission of electrons. For the acoustic case, EVs are generated by charge separation in a collapsing bubble. When areas previously free of low energy nuclear reactions are bombarded in either vacuum or air by externally generated charge clusters, nuclear reactions are produced at the bombardment site. Charge clusters are considered to function as a collective accelerator capable of injecting a large group of nuclei into a target with sufficient energy density to promote the nuclear cluster reactions observed.
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This paper reports how D+ was compressed galvanostatically into sheet, rod and cube samples of Pd from 0.1 M LiOD in 99.5% D2O+0.5% H2O solutions. Experiments of several kinds were performed: (1) calorimetric measurements of heat balances at low current densities; (2) calorimetric measurements at high current densities; (3) determination of γ-rays emitted from the water both, as well as that of the neutron flux; and (4) determination of the generation/accumulation of tritium. It was found that enthalpy generation can exceed 10 W cm-3 of the palladium electrode; this is maintained for experiment times in excess of 120 h, during which typical heat in excess of 4 MJ cm-3 of electrode volume was liberated. The authors believe it inconceivable that this could be due to anything but nuclear processes.
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