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Salak (Salacca zalacca) is a species of palm tree (family Arecaceae) native to Indonesia and Malaysia. The fruit grow in clusters at the base of the palm, and are also known as snake fruit due to the reddish-brown scaly skin. Salak Bali (Salacca edulis) has long been favoured because this variety is moist and crunchy. It has a relatively high economic value, eaten as fresh fruit as well as utilized as an industrial raw material for the food industry. There are around 18 varieties of Salak being developed at the commercial level in Indonesia. Bali is an important tourist destination in Indonesia and tourists are often introduced to Salak for the first time. This has led to an increasing demand for Salak as an organic fruit. In Bali, Salak has been produced traditionally since the 1500's. Cultivation is in accordance with standard practices, little changed over time. According to a phenophysiology study in 2007 validating farmer practices in cultivating Salak Bali, it was found that farmers are still maintain traditional cultivation practices and thus the fruit can qualify as an organic product. Traditional irrigation practices are still generally used, relying on rain availability, although some growers are now using more modern irrigation technology. Fertilization is conducted by using manure and put mulch from refuse onto the soil, while plant protection is conducted by mechanical techniques. However, the Indonesian National Standards (SNI) have still to grant Salak Bali full organic certification. Through Indonesia's Go Organic Program 2010, the Agriculture
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As. J. Food Ag-Ind. 2009, Special Issue, S37-S43
Asian Journal of
Food and Agro-Industry
ISSN 1906-3040
Available online at www.ajofai.info
Research Article
Development of salak bali as an organic fruit
I. M. Sukewijaya*, I. N. Rai and M.S. Mahendra
Agroecotechnology Study Program, Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University,
Jl. PB. Sudirman, Denpasar 80232 Bali, Indonesia.
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed, email: imsukewijaya@yahoo.com
This paper was originally presented at the International Conference “Go Organic”, Bangkok, Thailand,
August 2009.
Abstract
Salak (Salacca zalacca) is a species of palm tree (family Arecaceae) native to Indonesia
and Malaysia. The fruit grow in clusters at the base of the palm, and are also known as
snake fruit due to the reddish-brown scaly skin. Salak Bali (Salacca edulis) has long been
favoured because this variety is moist and crunchy. It has a relatively high economic
value, eaten as fresh fruit as well as utilized as an industrial raw material for the food
industry. There are around 18 varieties of Salak being developed at the commercial level
in Indonesia.
Bali is an important tourist destination in Indonesia and tourists are often introduced to
Salak for the first time. This has led to an increasing demand for Salak as an organic fruit.
In Bali, Salak has been produced traditionally since the 1500’s. Cultivation is in
accordance with standard practices, little changed over time. According to a
phenophysiology study in 2007 validating farmer practices in cultivating Salak Bali, it
was found that farmers are still maintain traditional cultivation practices and thus the fruit
can qualify as an organic product. Traditional irrigation practices are still generally used,
relying on rain availability, although some growers are now using more modern irrigation
technology. Fertilization is conducted by using manure and put mulch from refuse onto
the soil, while plant protection is conducted by mechanical techniques. However, the
Indonesian National Standards (SNI) have still to grant Salak Bali full organic
certification. Through Indonesia’s Go Organic Program 2010, the Agriculture
As. J. Food Ag-Ind. 2009, Special Issue, S37-S43 S38
Department proposed to provide financial support and technical assistance for Salak
farmers in Bali to produce Salak Bali in accordance with recommended SNI practices for
Organic Food. Once this recognition is forthcoming, it is expected that Salak Bali will
enjoy a wider market and can be expected to be become one of Indonesia’s excellent
product of certified organic fruit.
This paper details the steps involved in cultivating Salak Bali to assist the fruit in
attaining full organic status.
Keywords: Salacca edulis, certification, Indonesia
Introduction
Indonesian tropical fruit have an unfulfilled opportunity to contribute to the global food
market. Salak Bali (Salacca edulis, or sometimes classified by taxonomists as Salacca
zalacca var. amboinensis) [1], offers good potential for export, particularly if it is
classified as organic. Currently, there is a noticeable change of consumer pattern to
organic product is through higher organic horticultural product demand, including
demand for fruit. Due to its popularity locally, investors are now establishing large
estates to grow Salak Bali. Much research was undertaken around the turn of the century
aimed at improving Salak Bali using modern technology [2, 3, 4, 5]. However, such
wealthy investors see traditional growing methods as a hindrance to improving
production. However, because these traditional practices lend themselves towards organic
agriculture, they may be preserved if certification is forthcoming and markets are
established.
Figure 1. Salak Bali.
As. J. Food Ag-Ind. 2009, Special Issue, S37-S43 S39
Orchard management is traditionally done by simple methods. Fertilization, plant
protection and irrigation have not been intensified as yet. For example, the method to
enhance soil fertility is conducted by using manure and putting refuse into the soil,
without the application of any inorganic fertilizer. Harwood [6], revealed that there are
three concepts to develop sustainable agriculture, i.e. (i) agricultural production has to be
increased but efficient in exploiting of resources, (ii) biological process has to be
controlled by agricultural system itself, (iii) nutrient cycles in agricultural system has to
be improved and more closed.
Figure 2. An Example of Commercial Application of Salak in the Food Industry.
Currently the market potential for organic agricultural products in Indonesia is
considerably very small, limited only to the middle to high class communities and to
tourists. There are some other constraints to develop organic products, e.g. (a) there is no
fair price incentive to organic agricultural product producer, (b) need a high investment
for initial development due to sanitary selection of land, and (c) there is no market
assurance, therefore the farmer is uninterested to develop organic product.
Cultivation Techniques on Bali
Salak Bali naturally flowers throughout the year, at least 4 times regularly. The peak
harvest is in December to February, the first intermediate season is in March to May,
“gadu” harvest season is in June to August and the second intermediate harvest season is
in September to November. Peak season and “gadu” are regarded as on-season periods,
whereas first intermediate and second intermediate harvest season are off-season periods.
The Salak palm is intolerant to full sunshine. About 50 – 70% of full sunshine is required,
therefore the plant needs to be sheltered by shady plant. Salak Bali orchards generally use
coconut, durian, Leucaena glauca and Eythrina sp. for shading plants. It is thus suitable
in some circumstances for intercropping with other agricultural produce. Salak Bali is
cultivated under an average rainfall of about 200 – 400 mm/month.
According to a phenophysiology study on Salak Bali, it has been found that the flowering
ability of the palm is similar during the entire season, but during the second intermediate
As. J. Food Ag-Ind. 2009, Special Issue, S37-S43 S40
season flower drop occurred at a much higher rate, about 88.96% [7]. The study also
found the high rate of flower drop during the off-season is caused by inadequate
irrigation input. Low irrigation input influenced the nutrient absorption ability of N, P,
and K, shown by the low evidence of N, P, and K on plant tissue during the off-season
period.
The following outlines the standard procedures used for the cultivation of Salak Bali [8].
Seedling preparation
Aimed to produce best quality and highly homogeneous fruit and to ensure the seedling is
free of pathogens. Seedlings sourced from seed that were obtained from guaranteed
mother plant. Seedlings that were used were aged 6 – 8 moths and bore 4 – 5 leaves.
Trimming of shoot and midrib
It is done by removing the shoot that grew on the plant and undesired midrib, such as
unproductive, wilt, dead and damaged by pathogen. It is aimed to maintain amount of
plant, to stimulate the blooming, orchard sanitation, to manage air circulation and to
optimized sunshine intensity. Old and unutilized leaf, damaged leaf and exceeded leaf
has to be trimmed. Too many numbers of shoots have to be removed, especially close to
fruit set. By trimming, salak orchard will not be too leafy and air circulation was
preserved. Trimming was also helping good distribution of nutrition, not only for
vegetative portion, but also for generative portion. Trimming is done twice a month, but
close to blossoming or fruiting, it could be done once a month. Leave only one or two
plants in one cluster. If in one cluster consist of several plants, productivity was upset.
Leaf trimming was done until base of midrib, not only cut partially due to leaf was
undesirable and unusable by plant. After harvest, trimming was also important to
preserve plant growth optimally.
Weeding
Removed and cleaned the weed or undesired plant that grew in the orchard. First weed
control was done when plant aged 2 months after transplanting and 3 times a month for a
further 2 months. After that, weeding was done every 6 months, in early and by the end
of rainy season. During weeding, soil was also loosened. It was aimed to cover and to
make dense the stem and root of Salak plant in the soil.
Fertilizing
It was done by putting organic fertilizer into the soil, such as cow dung. The objective
was to maintain nutrient condition in the soil, provide balanced nutrients for plant growth
and development, improve fruit quality and enhance plant productivity. Fertilizing of
Salak Bali is by using manure and putting refuse into the soil.
Irrigation
Aimed to provide water in root area according to accurate time, technique and amount of
water, therefore nutrient absorption could be run well. Salak Bali utilized rainwater
dominantly.
As. J. Food Ag-Ind. 2009, Special Issue, S37-S43 S41
Plant Protection
Aimed to decrease intensity and expansion of pests and disease under control limit. Pest
and disease control to avoid economical loss specifically yield loss and quality reduction.
Significant insects and diseases concerned to Salak Bali were caterpillar (larvae) of
Lepidiota stigma that destroy the root and Lepidiota stigma itself attacks the shoot of the
plant, Silphidae and Pseudococcus sp. Whereas disease types are leaf spot disease
(Pestalotia sp.), flower spot disease (Fusarium sp. and Marasmius sp.), fruit rot disease
(Certocystis paradoxa, Fusarium sp. and Aspergillus sp.) and plant malformation. Pest
control was done by mechanical technique. Larvae attractant such as Colocasia esculenta
and cassava was utilized to control larvae, whereas imago attractant lamp was used to
control imago.
Fruit thinning
It reduced the amount of on each bunch, intended to produce optimum quantity and
quality fruit in line with target. Normally, farmers ignore fruit thinning, leaving whole
fruit on bunches without fruit thinning. The consequence of this is that abundant small
fruit was formed in a bunch. Fruit thinning was done 2 – 3 month after full bloom. It will
get 12 – 14 fruit per kg by maintaining about 20 fruit per bunch.
Harvest
It is intended to obtain fruit with a specified quality standard. Salak Bali was harvested
when hairs on the skin surface disappear and skin colour changed blackish brown,
maximum fruit size and fruit position on bunch was lose, seed colour was black or
blackish brown, with a good taste and fine aroma.
Figure 3. Freshly Harvested Salak Bali in Traditional Basket.
As. J. Food Ag-Ind. 2009, Special Issue, S37-143 S42
Postharvest and processing
Postharvest treatments including cleaning, sorting, grading, labeling and packing
according to size and specified quality standard. During peak season, fruit was processed
as “salak cracker”, “dodol”, “salak wine” and sweetened to overcome copious yield.
Conclusion
Agronomical activities mentioned above support excellent Salak Bali fruit as an organic
product. Current evidence of activities to support organic farming of Salak Bali are using
fertilizer without chemicals, irrigation generally depending on rain availability and
mechanical pest and disease controls. This consistency has caught the attention of
provincial and central government through the Agriculture Ministry who propose to give
financial support and technical assistance for Salak Bali farmers as a pilot project
development of Salak Bali as a certified organic fruit, through Go Organic 2010.
Reference
1. Mogea, J.P. (1982). Salacca zalacca, the Correct Name for the Salak Palm.
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2. Sudaryono, T., Pikukuh, B. and Purnomo, S. (1997). Development and
conservation of superior Salacca mother trees in Bali and East Java (Indonesia).
Proceedings of the Seminar on Research Results and Priority Commodity
Assessment. Karangploso (Indonesia): BPTP, 1997.- ISBN 0852-6796. p. 274-
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salacca nursery seedling cv. Bali derived from marcotting and seeds. Jurnal
Hortikultura (Indonesia). 9(1) p. 59-66.
4. Prabawati, S., Sunarmani, Utami, D. and Sjaifullah (1999). Processing of
sweetened salacca fruit cultivar Bali and Manonjaya. Buletin Pascapanen
Hortikultura (Indonesia). 2(1) p. 56-64.
5. Wahyunindyawati, F. Kasijadi, F. Pubiati, T. Suryadi, A. and Soemarsono, S.R.
(1999). Survey on technology adoption of vegetative propagation technique of
salacca in the production centres of salacca in Bali and East Java. Jurnal
Hortikultura (Indonesia). 9(3) p. 235-242.
6. Harwood, R.R. (1990). A history of sustainable agriculture. In Sustainable
Agriculture Systems. C.A. Edwards, R., Lal, P. Madden, R.H. Miller, and G.
House (Eds.) Soil and Water Conservation Society. pp. 3 – 19.
7. Rai, I.N., N.G. Astawa. and G.A. Gunadi. (2008). Phenophysiology Study on
Salak Bali Inflorescence and Fruiting as Guideline for Off-season Fruit
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Production and Environmentally Friendly Cultivation Technique. Wicaksana.
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8. Directorate of Fruit Production, Directorate General of Horticulture, Department
of Agriculture, Indonesia. (2007). SOP of Salak Bali Karangasem Regency.
... Hence, the Gulapasir salak tree in Karangasem was intercropped with other perennial crops, such as coconut, Durio zibethinus, banana, and Erythrina sp. [22]. The presence of shade trees and salak trees showed different effects on the microclimate on salak Gulapas ir tree plantations. ...
... This indicates that the interception of light in both locations exceeded the optimum condition. Salak trees do not tolerate full sun, but they only need 50-70%, so it is necessary to introduce shade trees [5,11,22]. The level of shade is caused by plant density, distribution of leaf and canopy structure that can directly decrease the quantity and quality of light [13] and therefore contributes to the process of photosynthesis, transpiration and dry matter accumulation. ...
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... Salak is the name given to S. zalacca in Malaysia and Indonesia, whereas sala or rakun is the name given to it in Thailand (Dembitsky et al., 2011). Salak Bali (indigenous to Bali, Indonesia) and Salak Pondoh ORIGINAL PAPER (original fruit variety to Yogyakarta, Indonesia) are two of the approximately 18 types of Salak that are commercialised in Indonesia (Mahendra et al., 2013;Sukewijaya et al., 2009;Thohari et al., 2005). Salak Pondoh has three more variants: pondoh super, pondoh hitam, and pondoh gading, whereas Salak Bali has a variant, Salak Gula Pasir ("Gula Pasir" in English means "sugar"), which has a sweet flavour and is the most expensive (Lim, 2012). ...
... Another problem faced by farmers in the new areas is traditional method cultivation. There is no intensive method of fertilizing while water supplies mainly depends on the rain fall(Ashari, 2002;Sukewijaya et al., 2009). As a result the quality is rather low and fails to meet the criteria of good quality fruit with relevance to its form, size, taste and flesh thickness(Sumantra and Labek 2015). ...
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... Another problem faced by farmers in the new areas is traditional method cultivation. There is no intensive method of fertilizing while water supplies mainly depends on the rain fall(Ashari, 2002;Sukewijaya et al., 2009). As a result the quality is rather low and fails to meet the criteria of good quality fruit with relevance to its form, size, taste and flesh thickness(Sumantra and Labek 2015). ...
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... Snake fruit (Salacca zalacca) known as salak in Indonesia is a species of the palm tree (family Arecaceae) which is organically cultivated on dry land with limited production inputs in Bali. It is usually fertilized with leaf litters or other organic fertilizers with a minimum application and erratic administration time ( Sukewijaya et al. 2009). This pattern was carried out by snake fruit farmers is due to the difficulty in obtaining adequate fertilizer. ...
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... Nonetheless, the fruit has a short shelf life due to its rapid ripening. It is commonly consumed fresh and can also be processed into various food products such as juice, wine, candies, jam, dried fruit, pickles canned in syrup and chips [12][13][14][15][16][17]. The young 'salak' fruit is used to make a type of salad called 'rujak' in Indonesia. ...
Chapter
A chained set of symbiotic trials has been conducted with the aim of studying whether and how corn fertilised by Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (AM) and microbial consortia could influence crop yields, affect mycotoxins, and modify poultry and pig meat production, in the short term or after a long period of storage. Two experiments conducted in corn fields treated with a commercial bio-fertiliser have shown that the yield can be improved by +4 to +30% and that the resistance to fungal attacks had significantly increased. The secondary metabolites, fatty acid composition, NIRS properties, and electronic nose profiles were also modified, with a substantial reduction in the oxidant power of -47% in the grain flour and -19% in the feed. The productive performances, as well as the slaughter and meat colour, were not modified after a fresh corn utilization by broiler poultry and heavy pigs, but the blood biochemical parameters in the poultry revealed a clear amelioration of the physiological functions and of the serum antioxidant capacity. After a twenty-one-month delayed utilization, substantial nutritive differences, related to shelf life and palatability, emerged, since the broilers fed the control diet showed a reduced intake of -26.7%, with a final body weight reduction of -27.7%. Therefore, a symbiotic farming provided by AM and microbial fertilisation may be considered a strategic tool for agronomic sustainability, resilience and for the nutritive usefulness of maize crops.
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This research investigated an effective closed system containing orange oil to inhibit important mold growth, delay weight loss, protect salacca color and extend the shelf-life of salacca fruit in 1L box during storage at 28 ± 2 °C for 28 days under different conditions, including open-air, closed system conditions, and closed system conditions containing 1 mL of each an emulsion of orange oil at 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.12, 0.16% ww⁻¹. Sensory evaluation was carried out using the 9-point hedonic scale. The action mechanism of storage systems on salacca preservation was investigated in terms of limonene, gas composition, ethylene content, and pigments revealing salacca color were examined. The results indicated the closed system containing orange oil at 0.08% was the most effective compared to the open-air system and control closed system without orange oil. Orange oil could inhibit mold growth on salacca, delay weight loss, maintain redness of salacca fruit with high sensory acceptance (color, flavor, and taste) and delay senescence. The closed system with orange oil could extend the salacca shelf life from 10 days (control open air) to at least 28 days. The mode of action's key main factor was that the closed system offered higher CO2 and lower O2 contents required to maintain pigments related to salacca color in the salacca skin. Limonene was the main factor delaying the growth of mold during storage in a closed system. Consequently, to extend the saleable period of salacca at ambient temperature, the application of a closed system containing orange oil at an optimum ratio is an alternative approach.
Article
Background Snake fruit (Salacca zalacca) is a unique tropical palm that bears fruit, botanically known as drupes, with a leathery and scaly skin that resembles snake scales. A number of studies have demonstrated that the nutritional profile of this fruit is comparable to those of better known fruits like mango, kiwi and apple, owing to its richness in antioxidants, phenolics, vitamins and minerals. Despite immense food and medicinal benefits, snake fruit is still underutilized and unknown to the global market. Scope and approach To gain empirical knowledge on snake fruit farming from propagation to harvesting, we interviewed four farmers during our educational visit to two snake fruit orchards located at the Desa Pertapahan (Riau) and Kampar Balige (North Sumatra), Indonesia. In this review, we link together the knowledge shared by farmers and current information extracted from literature, to generate a baseline understanding of the agronomy, nutrient, phytochemical and volatile composition, therapeutic potency and future potential for the snake fruit industry. Key findings and conclusions We identify the key challenges for improved utilization of snake fruit as a lack of baseline data on superior germplasm, post-harvest losses and the lack of a sustainable module for knowledge transfer. Evaluation of correlation among genotypic and phenotypic attributes and application of molecular markers will be helpful to select superior germplasm and breeding materials. Scientific research on post-harvest technology, considering the physiology and biochemistry of the fruit, will be beneficial to minimize post-harvest losses. Furthermore, a transparent knowledge sharing module involving the farmers, workers, researchers and exporters will be useful to establish the supply chains for snake fruit and their value-added products in the global market.
Article
First presents a framework for the universal definition of sustainable agriculture, then explores the evolution of the concept, including biodynamic agriculture, humus farming concepts, and the organic philosophy. The 1960s are highlighted as a transition period, which although narrowly focussed saw the emergence of Green Revolution thinking, followed by a broadened research profile in the 1970s. The author also discusses national agendas for agricultural development, and finally discusses how to move from concepts to action. -P.Hardiman
Directorate General of Horticulture, Department of Agriculture
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