ArticlePDF Available

The Influence Of Character: Does Personality Impact Coaching Success?

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Using the Five Factor Model of personality and the construct general self efficacy this study explores the relationship between coaching clients' personality and a self-report measure of the transfer of learning from coaching to the workplace. Positive correlations are found between the application of coaching development and conscientiousness, openness to experience, emotional stability and general self-efficacy. Conscientiousness is also found to be associated with generalisation and maintenance of outcomes. Personality measures may have value as a means for identifying coaching clients who require support in order to make manifest the changes experienced in coaching. First, organisations may be forced to select amongst coaching candidates. Hence, it may be prudent for them to select those employees whose coaching related development will facilitate the greatest organisational gains. Whilst any conceptualisation of gains will have a content component aligned with the organisation's strategic aims, it will also have a process component associated with the coaching client's capacity to develop via coaching and to translate their development into work performance. Secondly, if organisations are to maximise their coaching investment they may benefit from providing support interventions for coaching clients who are less likely to translate their development into work performance. Attending to the issues surrounding selection and support relies upon understanding the client's role in coaching success. There is currently no agreement regarding what constitutes a successful coaching outcome. Extrapolating from Schmitt et al's (2003) model of employee performance, coaching success can be viewed as enhanced individual and organisational (distal) outcomes (e.g. productivity) resulting from enhanced individual performance behaviours (e.g. enhanced self-management) associated with the positive transfer of coaching
Content may be subject to copyright.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... The Big Five (Goldberg, 1990) traits are most commonly used to examine how individual differences may relate to client outcomes in coaching research. For example, extraversion positively associated with self-reported benefits of coaching (Jones et al., 2014), while openness, conscientiousness and emotional stability positively predicted client's selfreported transfer of learning (Stewart et al., 2008). However, studying mean levels of the Big Five traits has produced sparse findings, which are mostly descriptive rather than explanatory in nature (Terblanche and Heyns, 2020). ...
... When combined as they were in our trait measures, they are likely to have had higher predictive power than ABCDs assessed separately. The lack of a balanced ABCD assessment in previous studies may also explain why previously reported associations between some personality traits and coaching outcomes were inconsistent and tended to be small (Stewart et al., 2008;de Haan et al., 2019). That is, trait measures in those studies potentially included only a portion of ABCD content, reducing the predictive power of the measures. ...
Article
Purpose Little is known about how individual differences play out in the process of authentic self-development (ASD) through workplace coaching. This article explores whether the Big Five personality traits and affective, behavioral, cognitive and desire (ABCDs) components of the Big Five personality traits were relevant to ASD, specifically examining the role of affect as a potential mediator. Design/methodology/approach In total, 176 clients' personality was assessed pre-coaching. Aspects of ASD (perceived competence, goal commitment, self-concordance and goal stability) were assessed post-coaching. Clients' affect balance (AB) scores were obtained post-session. Findings Multilevel path models showed that higher levels of mean AB (but not the slope) mediated the associations between personality and perceived competence and goal commitment. Personality predicted goal self-concordance, but these effects were not mediated by AB, neither personality nor AB predicted goal stability. Research limitations/implications The authors encourage randomized controlled trials to further test findings of this study. Ruling out method variance is not possible completely. However, the authors put forth considerations to support the authors' claim that method variance did not overly influence our results. Practical implications These results suggest the necessity of an optimal experience of affect for ASD in workplace coaching and the understanding of how ABCDs, AB and ASD are related beyond coaching psychology. Social implications A deeper understanding of personality processes is important for fostering ASD to meet the challenges of management development in the authors' volatility, uncertainty, complexity and ambiguity (VUCA) world. Originality/value This is the first study to test personality as a process in workplace coaching linking personality to one of the most valued leadership skills: authenticity.
... Several studies have investigated how individual traits influence the learning process, but few focused on coaching interventions. They point to the positive impact of the Big 5 personality traits on coaching effectiveness, and specifically: openness to experience (Jones, et al., 2019;Klockner & Hicks, 2008;Stewart et al., 2008); extraversion (Jones et al., 2014); conscientiousness (Klockner & Hicks, 2008) and emotional stability (Stewart et al., 2008). Besides the Big 5, other traits influence a coachee's motivation and ability to change, such as adult dispositional hope and personal growth initiative (Klockner & Hicks, 2008). ...
... Several studies have investigated how individual traits influence the learning process, but few focused on coaching interventions. They point to the positive impact of the Big 5 personality traits on coaching effectiveness, and specifically: openness to experience (Jones, et al., 2019;Klockner & Hicks, 2008;Stewart et al., 2008); extraversion (Jones et al., 2014); conscientiousness (Klockner & Hicks, 2008) and emotional stability (Stewart et al., 2008). Besides the Big 5, other traits influence a coachee's motivation and ability to change, such as adult dispositional hope and personal growth initiative (Klockner & Hicks, 2008). ...
Article
Coaching literature assumes that people undergo personal change through coaching. We contend that different types of change may occur with coaching and investigate whether this is the case in reflection (a key competence in coaching). Results from our sample of 61 coachees indicate that three types of change (alpha, beta, gamma) are observed across participants. Alpha change refers to a substantive change in reflection (i.e. an increase or decrease), beta to a recalibration of one's assessment of reflection and gamma to a re‐conceptualization of reflection. We further examine implicit person theory (IPT) as a predictor and perceived coaching utility as a correlate of the three types of change. We observe a higher probability that incremental IPT will associate with alpha change versus other types of change, and that beta and gamma changes correlate positively and negatively, respectively, with perceived utility for work. No significant correlations are observed between types of change and perceived utility for personal development. Our study represents an exploratory contribution to a better understanding of the within‐person changes in reflection following coaching intervention, and has implications for both theory and practice, which we discuss along with indications for future directions.
... Laske (1999) suggested coachee characteristics such as personality factors as predictors of coaching effectiveness. However, limited evidence exists on the role of coachee personality in coaching success (Stewart et al., 2008). Accordingly, the coachee characteristics of learning goal orientation, pre-training motivation, feedback receptivity, and developmental self-efficacy are recognized as important predictors of coaching effectiveness. ...
... Some researches support the idea that a coach needs to acquire sets of characteristics and skills to be considered effective and worthy of this responsibility. For example, Martens (2012) mentioned 15 characteristics that a coach ought to have; characteristics such as knowledge, familiarity with sport science, familiarity with communication skills, assessment, planning, organization, etc. Smith (2005) has presented nine characteristics for coaches in his book. Jelicic et al. (2007) has named five characteristics that play a role in the effectiveness and efficacy of coaches. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify the most important criteria to choose qualified coaches for the national Basketball team of Iran and prioritize them based on the perspective of four different groups of men and women including sport experts, managers, Basketball coaches and elite players. Method used in this research was descriptive and survey kind. Among the limited number of population with 214 subjects, 135persons were randomly selected due to the Morgan table. Two different questionnaires were distributed; first one for the assessment of demographic characteristics and the second one consisted of eight coaching criterion with 64 sub-factors that were asked over in form of a sentence. Finally and after collecting the questionnaires, 110 samples were qualified for further investigation. These data were analyzed with both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics including Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Friedman test for finding the priority of criteria and analysis of variance test (ANOVA), using SPSS software. According to descriptive findings collected from 110 people, the population consists of 50 male (mean 45.5%) and 60 female (mean 54.5%). The results also showed that among the eight main criteria, ‘personality and cognitive features of a coach’ with mean rank of 6.35 is the most important factor (X2= 61.39, p<0.01). It was also noticeable that male and female participants in this study had similar standpoints on the first six priorities, and the significant difference was obvious only on the last two items, where the highlights of the model for choosing national basketball coaches stands based on gender differences of the subjects. Keywords: Prioritization, selection criteria, coaching, basketball
... It is unclear, however, whether and to what extent personality influences the selection of other proximal goals. Because successful completion of long-term goals may be a function of successfully accomplishing intervening, proximal goals 10,18 , it is important to identify whether personality traits influence the initial selection of such goals or whether personality is instrumental on completing these goals. Furthermore, studying personality traits in emerging adulthood is valuable because it has been suggested that, since development continues throughout the lifespan, emerging adulthood is a key period for personality development 19 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Individuals often grapple with questions regarding how to accomplish their major life goals. In fact, selecting which goals to pursue is an important developmental task in emerging adulthood 1. Personality traits have been shown to be associated with which major life goals adults pursue 2. Little research, though, has examined whether these associations are present among the proximal goals emerging adults pursue. Methods: The influence of personality traits on goal pursuit of emerging adults was examined, using data from 716 emerging adults (M = 19.32, SD = 1.25) who completed measures regarding proximal goals (e.g., health, socioemotional, spiritual/religious, and cognitive) and the Big Five personality traits. Results: Using SEM, the model fit the data well, χ2 (17, N = 716) = 99.10, p < .001. The overall omnibus model showed that higher neuroticism, openness to experience, and agreeableness contributed to the number of proximal goals emerging adults are currently pursuing. Post hoc analyses showed that different personality traits contributed to the goal domains that emerging adults pursue. Conclusions: Personality may be a factor that enhances or undermines the motivation for the goals that emerging adults pursue 3, 4. Results are discussed in terms of how individual characteristics influence goal pursuit and how such activity might reinforce or further shape personality.
... General self-efficacy is the belief in one's competence to cope with a broad range of stressful or challenging demands (Luszczynska et al., 2005). General self-efficacy has been confirmed as a predictor of coaching effectiveness (de Haan et al., , 2016(de Haan et al., , 2019Stewart et al., 2008) and coaching outcomes (Pandolfi, 2020). General self-efficacy is considered to be stable over time (O'Rourke & Hampson, 1999) as it crystallises by adolescence or young adulthood and is resistant to later environmental influences (Jerusalem & Mittag, 1995). ...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies examining coaching outcomes generally rely on cross-sectional data which limits our understanding of the enduring and long-term effects of coaching. To address this issue, this study, based on longitudinal data, explores several popular variables associated with coaching outcomes. The study is underpinned by Lambert’s [(1992). Lambert, M. J. (1992). Psychotherapy outcome research: Implications for integrative and eclectic therapists. In J. C. Norcross, & M. R. Goldfried (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy integration (pp. 94–129). Basic Books] four-factor model of common factors and recognises them as variables which are customary to all coaching approaches contributing to coaching outcomes. The study considers stress, wellbeing, resilience, goal attainment and coaching effectiveness as coaching outcomes. Working alliance mediates the impact of self-efficacy, outcome expectations; and perceived social support which are regarded as the predictors of the coaching outcomes. The results indicate that social support predicts working alliance, and working alliance in turn predicts wellbeing and coaching effectiveness over time. The findings suggest that it is vital for coaches to monitor changes in the coachees’ social networks and their working alliance since these have a significant bearing on the effectiveness of the sessions and the coachees’ wellbeing.
... The way clients engage in effective goal-attainment in association with cognitive self-regulatory capacities has been recently demonstrated in sports coaching (Collins et al., 2018). Furthermore, conscientiousness (Costa and McCrae, 1992), as a specific personality characteristic, was found to consistently predict performance (Stewart et al., 2008). In the present study, we investigated these ingredients of goal attainment (Prywes, 2012) as direct effects of sustained goal-directed behavior. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Psychological literature emphasizes that self-regulation is important as goal intentions, goal setting, or implementation intention does not automatically result in effective results in coaching. The question which coaching strategies to apply to strengthening clients' self-regulatory capacities as prerequisites of effective change outcomes remains a black box in coaching. Method: This quantitative study explored clients' self-regulatory mechanisms by addressing how nonverbal synchrony influences clients' cognitive and emotional self-regulation across sessions. One hundred eighty-four coach–client pairs and their evolving change process were observed over 8 months. Video-recorded sessions were assessed with motion energy analysis to automatically capture coach and client nonverbal behavior and quantify nonverbal synchrony at the level of the dyad. Results: Synchrony was differentially associated with clients' post-session questionnaires on result-oriented problem-reflection and self-reflection, affect balance, and working alliance. Network analyses suggested that the association between synchrony and other process variables did not correspond to the previously found positive association between synchrony and positive aspects of alliance or outcome. Instead, this association depended on the level of perceived outcome. Discussion: Coaching success may be predicted by process variables assessed after each session: goal reflection, alliance, and mood all predict successful coaching. The assessment of nonverbal synchrony suggests a state-dependent effect of embodied processes on a coaching outcome that warrants further inspection.
... Eine Strategie, die nicht widersprüchlich genannt und nur als erfolgreich aufgeführt wurde, waren Achtsamkeitsstrategien (Diller et al. 2020a). Dieses Ergebnis deckt sich mit einer Studie von Stewart et al. (2008), bei der emotionale Stabilität, die mit ruhigem Verhalten einhergeht, mit Coaching-Erfolg korrelierte. Auch andere Forschung zeigt, dass Achtsamkeit ein Erleben von Bedrohung und Stress reduzieren kann (Brown et al. 2007;Karremans und Papies 2017;Sedlmeier et al. 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Bisher wurden Schwierigkeiten im Coaching wenig erforscht. Dieser Beitrag berichtet daher von Forschung, die zeigt, welche Herausforderungen im Coaching von Klienten mit narzisstischen Tendenzen auftreten können. Klienten mit narzisstischen Tendenzen wurden von den Coaches der Studien nicht nur als schwierig erlebt, sondern führten bei den Coaches auch zu impliziter Angst und Disstress. Dieses Ergebnis zeigt die Notwendigkeit von erfolgreichen Coaching-Strategien im Umgang mit narzisstischen Klienten auf. Eine mögliche Strategie, um als Coach nach solch einem Klienten die entstandene Angst und Disstress zu reduzieren, ist laut ersten Studien das Praktizieren von Achtsamkeit.
... A modest relationship has been found between conscientiousness and teachers' classroom management as well as teachers' support and conscientiousness by Chiang (1991). On the other hand, a strong correlation has been found between teachers' motivation and conscientiousness, openness to experience, and neuroticism (Stewart et al., 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
This research investigated the impact of four features of teachers behavior viz. teachers support, facilities provision, security in classroom, and motivation of teachers on five aspects namely agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness personality traits of the students. The technique of Stratified random sampling was used for the selection of 1438 students from a population of 10 graders of the Hazara Division. The questionnaires, for teachers behavior and for exploring the Big Five personality of the students, were used for gathering data from the students. For analysis, Mean (M), standard deviation (S. D), and multiple regression analysis were used. Results showed that Teachers support negatively predicts the agreeableness trait of personality, Provision of facilities positively predicts extraversion factor of personality. Classroom security positively predicts the extraversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness factors of personality. Teachers motivation positively predicts extraversion, and conscientiousness factor of personality and negatively predicts neuroticism factor of personality.
Chapter
Woraus unser heutiges Coaching entstanden ist – Was Coaching alles anbietet und wie sich Business-Coaching davon unterscheidet – Chancen von professionellem Coaching für Chefs und wie man sie für sich und sein Unternehmen nutzt – Überblick über Einsatzarten und parallel existierende Beratungsformen – Wirkkraft von Coaching für Führungskräfte.
Article
Full-text available
Tested the self-efficacy hypotheses that (1) personal mastery expectations are the primary determinants of behavioral change and (2) individual differences in past experiences and attribution of success to skill or chance result in different levels of generalized self-efficacy expectations. A Self-Efficacy Scale was developed and tested with 376 college students. Factor analysis yielded 2 subscales: a General Self-Efficacy subscale (17 items) and a Social Self-Efficacy subscale (6 items). Confirmation of several predicted conceptual relationships between the Self-Efficacy subscales and other personality measures (i.e., Locus of Control, Personal Control, Social Desirability, Ego Strength, Interpersonal Competence, and Self-Esteem) provided evidence of construct validity. Positive relationships between the Self-Efficacy Scale and vocational, educational, and military success established criterion validity. (15 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Self-efficacy is typically viewed as task-specific. Bandura also discussed the concept at a “domain-linked” level and general level. Sherer and his colleagues developed the Self-efficacy Scale to measure general self-efficacy expectancies in education/vocation and social areas. A reexamination of the Self-efficacy Scale indicated that the scale was more intricate than originally reported. It captured aspects of strength, magnitude, and generality of efficacy. The scale showed appropriate relationships to other personality measures. Criterion validity was established as the scale differentiated performance expectations. Evidence for the concept of domain efficacy was reported. The Self-efficacy Scale was a good measure for domain efficacy in the academic area; the scale has not yet been verified as a general efficacy scale. Research should be directed toward exploring the role of the total concept of efficacy in the cognitive process.
Article
This study investigated the relation of the "Big Five" personality di- mensions (Extraversion, Emotional Stability, Agreeableness, Consci- entiousness, and Openness to Experience) to three job performance criteria (job proficiency, training proficiency, and personnel data) for five occupational groups (professionals, police, managers, sales, and skilled/semi-skilled). Results indicated that one dimension of person- ality. Conscientiousness, showed consistent relations with all job per- formance criteria for all occupational groups. For the remaining per- sonality dimensions, the estimated true score correlations varied by occupational group and criterion type. Extraversion was a valid pre- dictor for two occupations involving social interaction, managers and sales (across criterion types). Also, both Openness to Experience and Extraversion were valid predictors of the training proficiency criterion (across occupations). Other personality dimensions were also found to be valid predictors for some occupations and some criterion types, but the magnitude of the estimated true score correlations was small (p < .10). Overall, the results illustrate the benefits of using the 5- factor model of personality to accumulate and communicate empirical findings. The findings have numerous implications for research and practice in personnel psychology, especially in the subfields of person- nel selection, training and development, and performance appraisal.
Article
The purpose of this research is to test whether measures of personality traits, widely recognized as poor predictors of job performance, might indeed serve as useful screening devices under certain circumstances. In particular, the possibility that personality variables have utility when used in conjunction with aptitude tests was empirically tested in two field settings. The results indicated that self-esteem interacted with aptitude to predictfuture performance of a sample of life insurance salespersons and that locus of control interacted with aptitude to predict performance for a sample of college students. The implications of these results for the study of personality traits in personnel selection are discussed.
Article
The articles in this special issue provide presentations of measures of three new personality constructs. Initial results from these three programs of research indicate that each of these measures has a firm theoretical base and that the authors have engaged in careful consideration of the set of relations that theory suggests ought to be displayed by their new measure. Further empirical research by these authors and others ought to provide greater scientific understanding of the role personality plays in work satisfaction and various dimensions of performance, a better sense of the practical usefulness of these measures, and better information about the situational constraints that apply when each is used to predict various personal and organizational outcomes.