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Anaerobic Digestion of Biodegradable Solid Waste in Low and Middle-Income Countries

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... However, conversely, it is acknowledged in developing countries that AD is still scarcely applied as a major treatment method for FW management. In India and China, various institutes and NGO's have established different kinds of anaerobic digesters on household and commercial scales to develop AD technology for FW treatment (Christian and Dübendorf, 2007). For example, India implemented AD in a pilot scale and opened biogas plants that are used by various institutes. ...
... In China, although the full scale of FW-based AD plants has not yet been developed, roughly twenty MSW-, FW-and manure cofermentation-AD projects are under preparation or implementation . However, most of those anaerobic digesters might not function properly due to technical failures, inadequate operations, or management regulations (Christian and Dübendorf, 2007 ). Vietnam , the Philippines and Indonesia usually integrate AD with composting for disposal of FW in landfill sites (Forbes et al., 2001). ...
... Meanwhile, Jamaica and Thailand have significant achievements in integrating FW treatment facilities using the AD and the aerobic composting process. The Rayong plant of Thailand uses MSW organic waste as food vegetable and fruit waste to generate organic fertilizer and biogas (Christian and Dübendorf, 2007). Jamaica has the CaribShare Biogas Group which treats FW via AD to generate electricity for supplying power in rural communities (Meghan, 2014). ...
... Les coûts d'installation, d'opération et d'entretien d'un dispositif d'agitation sont généralement onéreux dans un processus de biométhanisation (Alastair J. Ward et al., 2008), donc pas tout à fait adapté aux contextes à précarité logistique et socioéconomique. Cependant, un certain degré d'agitation est utile au bon fonctionnement d'un biodigesteur (Müller, 2007). A défaut d'être en continu, une agitation minimale au moment de l'alimentation journalière du biodigesteur est généralement suffisante et plus accessible aux PED pour atteindre, en tout en partie, l'effet d'optimisation souhaitée. ...
... L'une des citernes, plus petite, constitue le gazomètre et est renversée au-dessus de la plus grande qui contient le mélange de substrat à fermenter et la boue active (Figure 7). Le concept est suffisamment compact pour être utilisé par les ménages urbains de même que par les fermiers du milieu rural (Müller, 2007). ...
... Représentation schématique du biodigesteur ARTY(Müller, 2007) ...
Thesis
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Dans les zones rurales de la ville de Tamanrasset (Sud d’Algérie), les déchets et résidus organiques générés principalement par les activités ménagères, agricoles et élevage d’animaux, sont traditionnellement valorisés in situ dans l’alimentation animale comme provende et dans la fertilisation des sols comme amendement organique. Parallèlement, au niveau des zones urbaines, périurbaines les déchets organiques sont majoritairement éliminés sans aucune forme de ségrégation dans des décharges non contrôlées. Ce travail de recherche a voulu mettre l’accent sur l’opportunité de valoriser ces déchets par la méthanisation approchée comme une voie alternative de traitement biologique des déchets organiques fermentescibles. Le travail d’évaluation des gisements de déchets organiques a mis en évidence que la mauvaise gestion de ces gisements entraine une perte annuelle de « déchets-ressource ». Afin de pouvoir quantifier le taux de déchets organiques produits à Tamanrasset, une enquête sur terrain a été réalisée pendant le deuxième semestre de l’année 2016. L’approche expérimentale à l’échelle de laboratoire a permis d’évaluer l’effet de la digestion et la co-digestion anaérobie des différents types de déchets, à savoir les pelures des fruits et légumes, les eaux usées urbaines et les crottins de dromadaire et leurs potentiels biométhanogènes (KWDDSSW (64,51%CH4), DDSSW (51,37%CH4) et DDKW (34,77%CH4)), et la qualité supérieure du biofertiliseur naturel produit. Une application à l'échelle pilote sur le terrain a également été réalisée. Un biodigesteur de 15m3 a été construit suivant le modèle des biodigesteurs type batch à dôme fixe (modèle chinois). Malgré les conditions opératoires particulières de la digestion anaérobie liées à la région du sud, les essais réalisés ont démontré la faisabilité de la filière de la biométhanisation en Algérie et son futur prometteur. Mots clés : Biogaz, méthane, co-digestion anaérobie, biodigesteur, biofertiliseur, valorisation énergétique, bioénergie, déchets organiques.
... ................................................................................................................................. 65 Figure 6: Description schématique d'un digesteur Puxin fonctionnant à partir de déjections animales et excréments humains (source : Puxin (2009)). ....................................................................................................... 66 Figure 7: Représentation schématique d'un digesteur à cloche mobile (1), avec zone de mélange et conduite d'admission du substrat (2); trop-plein au niveau de la conduite de sortie (3); gazomètre muni d'un dispositif de blocage de la mouse (4) ; sortie de gaz et robinet principal (5) ; structure de guidage du couvercle du gazomètre (6) ; différence de niveau ou pression de gaz en cm de la colonne d'eau (7) ; mousse flottante (8) ; accumulation de mousse épaisse (9) ; sédimentation (10) ; joint d'eau (11) (Source : Sasse (1988)).. ........................................ 66 Figure 8: Représentation schématique du digesteur ARTY (Source : (Müller, 2007)). ........................................... 67 Figure 9: Coupes schématiques de digesteurs infiniment mélangés, à l'aide de: (a) un rotor mécanique immergé dans le digesteur, (b) un dispositif d'agitation hydraulique, (c) une palette d'agitation disposée sur le côté, un dispositif d'agitation par injection de biogaz (Source : (ISAT-GTZ, 1999). ...
... L'une des citernes, plus petite, constitue le gazomètre et est renversée au-dessus de la plus grande qui contient le mélange de substrat à fermenter et la boue active (Figure 8). Le concept est suffisamment compact pour être utilisé par les ménages urbains de même que par les fermiers du milieu rural (Müller, 2007). ...
... Représentation schématique du digesteur ARTY (Source :(Müller, 2007)). ...
Article
In rural and peri-urban areas of Haiti, organic wastes and residues generated mainly by agricultural activities and agribusiness, are traditionally valued in situ in animal feeding as feed, in the fertilization of the soil as organic conditioner and/or for energy purposes as fuels. In parallel, the organic wastes of the cities are predominantly eliminated without any form of segregation in non-controlled landfills. This research work aimed to place the emphasis on the opportunity of valuing these wastes by biomethanation as an alternative way of biological treatment of organic biodegradable wastes. The exercise of assessment of organic wastes production has highlighted a loss of wastes-resources estimated at about 2 960 000 tons of dry matter per annum, potentially convertible to 367 500 000 Nm3 of methane or 310 000 toe, corresponding to approximately 16% of recovery of the final energy demand of the households of the whole country. The experimental approach at laboratory scale allowed to assess the ultimate biomethane potential different types of agricultural wastes like bagasse, cabbage and cattle, pigs and chickens manures as well as the possibilities of optimizing the kinetics of anaerobic digestion by some inexpensive means as the reduction of the particles size, the increase of ratio IVS/SVS, the nutrient balance and the synergy effects of co-digestion. The special conditions of implementation of the pilot approach have demonstrated the feasibility of the development of biomethanation technology, with a return period of about 5 years.
... In Thailand, Nepal and Sri Lanka, implemented anaerobic digestion plants have not operated appropriately. The problems were attributed to poor quality feedstock (caused by inadequate separation of the waste at the source), lack of trained workers to operate the plants and overestimation of biogas production (Müller 2007). In Latin America, there are some anaerobic digestion plants treating wastewater from breweries and sludge, in Colombia for example. ...
... In Latin America, there are some anaerobic digestion plants treating wastewater from breweries and sludge, in Colombia for example. In Costa Rica, there are some digestion plants for the treatment of wastewater from coffee production, and in Honduras, an anaerobic plant has been implemented to treat wastewater from palm oil production by using covered wastewater lagoons (Müller 2007). ...
... Another example is the experience of Sao Sebastiao, Brazil. Since 2002, the MSW of the city (approximately 200 Mg/year) is treated in an aerobic MBT plant with the goal of obtaining a stable material to be landfilled (Münnich et al. 2006). This plant improved the quality of life of the informal collectors, who used to work at the landfill, as waste pickers. ...
Thesis
The Metropolitan Region of Santiago (MRS) has experienced a large growth in population in recent years and a rise in the standard of living. Therefore, its municipal solid waste (MSW) has almost doubled in 10 years. Data about the current situation of MSW management in MRS were collected during field research, interviews, field visits and by a systematic evaluation of existing documentary literature. The Integrative Sustainability Concept of the Helmholtz Association provided a conceptual framework for the study. The sustainability analysis showed that the largest deficits are in the current amount of MSW deposited at sanitary landfills without any pre-treatment, and the emission values of greenhouse gases associated with waste treatment and final disposal. To find out if and how the informal waste sector contributes to sustainability, experiences of organization of informal primary collectors in Latin America were analyzed. The key factors which have an influence on their working conditions were identified. These factors include the existence of a legal framework for the informal waste sector; the existence of alliances with production companies guaranteeing a reliable industrial market for secondary raw materials and expansion of activities beyond collection of recyclables. Key stakeholders included people from the public and the private sector, from the civil society and from NGOs. Three explorative scenarios were developed for the year 2030: Business as Usual (BAU), Collective Responsibility (CR), and Market Individualism (MI). Waste generation, waste composition and different practices of waste collection, recovery and treatment were taken into account for the scenarios formulation. The BAU scenario incorporated separate collection of biowaste, recyclable materials with some participation of organized primary collectors and an expansion of drop-off systems. The mechanical sorting of mixed waste was introduced. The utilization of landfill gas as an energy source was promoted and the production of biogas in anaerobic digestion plants was implemented. The CR scenario incorporated separate collection of biowaste, commitment to work together with the primary waste collectors and an expansion of drop-off systems. The mechanical and mechanical biological treatment of mixed waste was introduced. The utilization of landfill gas as an energy source is promoted and the production of biogas in anaerobic digestion plants was implemented. In the MI separate collection of biowaste and recyclable materials was irrelevant. An organization of the informal primary collectors did not take place. Mechanical sorting of mixed waste was introduced. Utilization of landfill gas as an energy source was promoted. The results showed that the generation flux of MSW is at least 50% larger in all scenarios in 2030 compared to the year 2007, exceeding the limit value proposed. The highest value (2.0 kg/(person•day) is obtained in the MI scenario, and the lowest (1.8 kg/(person•day)) in the CR scenario. Pre-treatment of mixed MSW collected is only achieved in the CR scenario with a value of 18%, however, the target value is not achieved. The highest greenhouse gas emission value is obtained in the MI scenario with 295 kg CO2eq/(person•year), the lowest value of 155 kg CO2-eq/(person•year) is obtained in the CR scenario; a value that is still very high in comparison with the suggested target. The largest recycling rate is obtained in the CR scenario (43%), which is better than the target value proposed, the lowest recycling rate is obtained in the MI scenario (20%). The income of primary collectors in comparison with the income of one individual household is improved significantly in the CR scenario (128%), in the MI scenario, earnings of primary collectors decreased to 51%. The share of GDP spent on MSW management is lower in 2030, compared to the year 2007, in all scenarios the largest value of 0.17% is obtained in the CR scenario, and the lowest value of 0.14% is obtained in the MI scenario. The results of the evaluation of the scenarios showed that the largest sustainability deficits are the amount of mixed MSW which undergoes pre-treatment, the greenhouse gas emissions associated to MSW treatment and disposal, as well as the share of GDP spent on MSW management. The results obtained suggested that an integration of several factors is required to increase sustainability. It is essential to strengthen and take advantage of the subsystems which are working within the waste management system, as in the case of the informal sector. In addition to the implementation of flexible treatment technologies which help to decrease negative environmental impacts. Moreover, the costs of these technologies should be affordable, allowing a better financial management.
... The process is used to denature lignocellulose, food waste, livestock manure, and wastewater sludge, etc.. This process particularly generates biogas which consists of methane, CO 2 , H 2 S and minute quantities of volatile organic compounds (Müller, 2007;Zhang et al., 2021a). There are four phases in the AD; hydrolysis is the initial phase which involves the transformation of organic polymers into simplerstructural units like monosaccharides and amino acids. ...
... There are four phases in the AD; hydrolysis is the initial phase which involves the transformation of organic polymers into simplerstructural units like monosaccharides and amino acids. Organic subunits of polysaccharides are then degraded in stage 2, that is, acidification which results in the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA), acetate, hydrogen gas, CO 2 and ammonia (Cucina et al., 2021;Müller, 2007;Vosooghnia et al., 2021). Acidogenesis is the third phase, in which long-chain fatty acids are degraded, resulting in the production of acetate, CO 2 , and H 2 . ...
Article
Rapid urbanization has increased the demand for food, feed, and chemicals that have in turn augmented the use of fossil-based resources and generation of organic waste. Owning to the characteristics like high abundance, renewability, and ease of accessibility, valorization of organic wastes serves as a potential solution for waste management issues. Several industrial wastes, due to their organic and nutrient-rich composition, have been utilized as a resource for the production of value-added products such as biofuels, biopesticides, biohydrogen, enzymes, and bioplastics via microbial fermentation processes. The process consists of pre-treatment of the waste biomass, production of value-added product in reactors and downstream processing for product's recovery. The integration of new comprehensive technologies for organic waste utilization will also stimulate the transition towards a circular economy. Therefore, the feasibility and sustainability of the production of various value-added products from biowastes and byproduct streams will be discussed in the present review.
... Energy generated from these sources via anaerobic digestion reduces atmospheric methane emissions and production of digestate. A number of studies have proved the effectiveness of this technology to manage organic waste [2][3][4][5][6][7]in an environmental-friendly and cost-effective manner [8][9][10][11]. Regardless of these successes and the existence of favourable conditions for its generation in developing countries, specifically in Sub-Saharan African countries, the promotion and the development of the technology have suffered a setback . ...
... Despite the ready availability of biogas resources, relatively few studies have focused on the economic assessment of biogas plants in ascertaining the financial viability of installing biogas plants both at the households and institutional level. A number of studies have been conducted providing information on design and investment of biogas digesters in developed countries but this is not the case for developing countries [7,21]. Nelson and Lamb [22] presented a comparison of projected and actual costs of constructing a biogas digester on a Minnesota dairy farm in the USA, the net returns from electricity annually and the payback period for the investment of the digester were evaluated. ...
Article
Full-text available
Biogas (anaerobic digestion) technology is one of the most viable renewable energy technologies today. However, its economic efficiency depends on the investment costs, costs of operating the biogas plant and optimum methane production. Likewise the profit level also rests on its use directly for cooking or conversion into electricity. The present study assessed the economic potential for a 9000m³ biogas plant, as an alternative to addressing energy and environmental challenges currently in Ghana. A cost-benefit analysis of the installation of biogas plant at University of Ghana (Legon Sewerage Treatment Plant) yielded positive net present values (NPV) at the prevailing discount rate of 23%. Further the results demonstrate that installation of the plant is capital intensive. Biogas used for cooking was by far the most viable option with a payback period (PBP) of 5years. Sensitivity analysis also revealed cost of capital, plant and machinery as the most effective factors impacting on NPV and internal rate of return (IRR).
... The process is used to denature lignocellulose, food waste, livestock manure, and wastewater sludge, etc.. This process particularly generates biogas which consists of methane, CO 2 , H 2 S and minute quantities of volatile organic compounds (Müller, 2007;Zhang et al., 2021a). There are four phases in the AD; hydrolysis is the initial phase which involves the transformation of organic polymers into simplerstructural units like monosaccharides and amino acids. ...
... There are four phases in the AD; hydrolysis is the initial phase which involves the transformation of organic polymers into simplerstructural units like monosaccharides and amino acids. Organic subunits of polysaccharides are then degraded in stage 2, that is, acidification which results in the production of volatile fatty acids (VFA), acetate, hydrogen gas, CO 2 and ammonia (Cucina et al., 2021;Müller, 2007;Vosooghnia et al., 2021). Acidogenesis is the third phase, in which long-chain fatty acids are degraded, resulting in the production of acetate, CO 2 , and H 2 . ...
Article
The economy of the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production process could be supported by utilising the different by-products released simultaneously during its production. Among these, proteins are present in high concentrations in liquid stream which are released after the cell disruption along with PHA granules. These microbial proteins can be used as animal feed, adhesive material and in manufacturing of bioplastics. The recycling of the protein containing liquid stream also serves as a promising approach to maintain circular bioeconomy in the route. For this aim, it is important to obtain good yield and limit the drawbacks of protein recovery processes and associated costs. The review focuses on recycling of the liquid stream generated during acid/thermal-alkali treatment for PHA production that would close the gap in linear economy and attain circularity in the process. Examples to recover proteins from other industrial waste streams along with their applications have also been discussed.
... However, it is acknowledged in developing countries that anaerobic digestion is still scarcely applied as a major treatment method of food waste management. In India and China, various institutes and NGOs have established different kinds of anaerobic digesters at the household and commercial scales to develop anaerobic digestion technology for food waste treatment (Müller 2007). For example, India has implemented anaerobic digestion in a pilot project and opened biogas plants that are used by various institutes. ...
... Anaerobic digestion is a environmental-friendly alternative that has been widely applied in European Union and Asian countries to manage food waste (Abbasi et al., 2012). Through this method, biogas and the nutrient-rich fertilizer can be generated (Christian, 2007). ...
Article
The Bokashi leachate (BL) is a by-product from the anaerobic digestion of food waste, following the Bokashi composting method. Bokashi leachate is acidic and it contains effective microorganisms hence it has potential to be a functional feed additive to the plant proteins based diets for fish farming. This study evaluated the growth performance and feed utilization of the red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fingerlings fed with the BL supplemented soybean meal (SBM) based diets. After an 8-week feeding trial, fish fed with the 5% BL supplemented SBM diet attained the highest weight gain. This result was significantly higher (p<0.05) than those fed with the 0% BL supplemented SBM diet, and comparable (p>0.05) to those fed with the control full fish meal (FM) diet. Generally, dietary inclusion of BL enhanced the fish feed intake on the SBM diet but it did not show clear sign of improvement in their feed utilization. In addition, no significant difference was found across the hepatosomatic index and viscerosomatic index from all dietary treatments. These outcomes concluded that dietary inclusion of BL can enhance the feed intake and growth performance of the red tilapia fingerlings fed with the SBM based diet without compromising their health, and the optimum BL inclusion level was 5%. Nevertheless, further study on the properties and substances content of the BL produced from different types and ratios of food waste is strongly recommended. In this study, BL was also discovered to be capable of reducing the crude fiber content in the SBM diets. Such observation deserves a further exploitation on the application of BL to manipulate the crude fiber content in the plant proteins based diets in fish farming.
... From the viewpoint of a practical scenario, AD was proven as the best and most economic method in commercializing FW conversion to electricity (Christian and Dübendorf, 2007;Thi et al., 2015). This was due to there being mature technology and known skills. ...
Article
This review provides the insights for the conversion of food waste (FW) to electricity and heat energy and also to use FW as a source of bioenergy. The evaluations of bioenergy from FW conversion to commercially fulfill the energy demands of various nations were elucidated. Five countries attained the highest heating values from annual FW were: Canada-4915 MJ/capita, the Netherlands-3367 MJ/capita, the United Kingdom-1497 MJ/capita, Japan-1608 MJ/capita, and Sweden-1278 MJ/capita. It is also shown that some countries could derive electricity from annual FW production and contribute a high percentage of total national electricity generation, such as the Netherlands-2.9% (164.4 KWh/capita), Canada-1.35% (240 KWh/capita), Japan-0.92% (78.5 KWh/capita), the United Kingdom-1.31% (73.1 KWh/capita), and Ireland-1.23% (68 KWh/capita). Moreover, an analysis of Strengths – Weaknesses – Opportunities – Threats (SWOT) was used to assess three forms of FW bio-treatment processes including composting, anaerobic digestion, fermentation for bio-hythane gas, and thereby illustrating future directions in the development of fermenting FW to hydrogen and methane. The SWOT analysis indicates that the fermentative hydrogen and methane production was a promising option for commercializing FW into bioenergy. However, there is also a need to implement specific prevailing policies and regulations to stimulate this environment-friendly form of bioenergy production technology. Based on the above considerations, a conceptual model to develop the FW fermentation of bioenergy production was suggested.
... From the viewpoint of a practical scenario, AD was proven as the best and most economic method in commercializing FW conversion to electricity (Christian and Dübendorf, 2007;Thi et al., 2015). This was due to there being mature technology and known skills. ...
... The smallest size of the household-based bio-digester may reach around 0.75-1 m 3 . A more sophisticated construction can be seen in the bio-digester that contains food waste obtained from markets and canteens [19]. In Indonesia, bricks, plastic, plastic drums, and concrete are the materials usually used to build bio-digesters, though other materials are also possible [20]. ...
Article
Household waste is a serious environmental problem in Indonesia, especially in urban areas. Since 2010, biogas production from food waste has been introduced to reduce waste and provided an alternative to liquid petroleum gas (LPG) as cooking fuel in a pilot project in Bandung. Although the produced biogas is sufficient, the socio-economic aspects can hinder application. This study assesses the socio-economic feasibility of the project in Cibangkong, a typical urban area in Bandung, which includes four bio-digesters. The results show that the conversion of food waste into biogas is currently not economically feasible, mainly due to the low penetration of bio-slurry—a by-product commonly used for fertilizer—into local fertilizer supply-chains. From a social perspective, community acceptance is mainly influenced by procedural justice. Furthermore, while the produced biogas is perceived to be quite useful in substituting LPG, it has not yet been fully utilized due to low bio gas pressure and several technical failures, which in turn influence community acceptance of the digesters. It is thus concluded that introducing biogas production from waste to improve waste management and reduce LPG consumption can be feasible when efforts to support the market uptake of bio-slurry, enhance biogas utilization, and improve procedural justice performance, are taken. View Full-Text
... Energy and environmental issues have become one of the most important problems of common concern and one of the first problems needing to be solved by mankind to further sustainable development (Zhou et al., 2011;Amigun et al., 2008). Biogas produced via the anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic waste materials is considered an important technology in improving the environment because it solves waste management problems and simultaneously produces biogas as a main product and digestate as a by-product, which can also be used as fertiliser (Gautam and Herat, 2000;Muller, 2007;Amigun et al., 2008;Molino et al., 2013;Adu-Gyamfí et al., 2012). A biogas plant (BGP) is a piece of equipment that uses an AD process for biodegradable waste treatment. ...
... Anaerobic digestion (AD) is widely used for the treatment and stabilization of organic wastes, production of energy, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and creation of liquid fertilizers in many parts of the world (Clemens et al., 2006; Lusk et al., 1996; MataAlvarez et al., 2000; Müller, 2007). AD technology is increasingly promoted by businesses, development workers and policymakers (Bhaskar, 2010; Callahan, 2011; Murray, 2010 ), and is proliferating both in the United States and abroad (AgSTAR, 2010; Mi, 2007; SNV Netherlands Development Organisation, 2011). ...
Article
Emergy evaluations most often rely on point estimates for important energy, material and solar transformity (or more generally unit emergy values, UEVs) parameters. For emergy science to continue its advancement as a tool for assessing energy and environmental sustainability, it needs to include estimates of uncertainty surrounding emergy budgets so that statistical confidence can be assessed. Here, Monte Carlo simulation was used to analyze the effect of uncertainty in the estimates of energy, material and UEVs of system-sources (e.g., sunlight, evapotranspiration, fuel, fertilizer) on the uncertainty of the UEV of the system-yield. Eight unique corn and wheat production systems, reported in the literature, provided the statistical properties (e.g., means, standard deviations, minima) of the energy, material and UEVs of the system-sources, but the probability distribution functions were assumed to be normal, lognormal, or uniform. Uncertainty from system-sources was partitioned into energy/material and UEV. The contribution that a system-source made to total emergy flow was strongly indicative of the amount of uncertainty it contributed. Out of 22 parameters (11 energy/mass and their 11 UEVs), four of them contributed more than 86% of the uncertainty to the UEV of the crop yield. The UEV of nitrogen fertilizer contributed the most uncertainty (19%), followed by the rate of soil erosion (11%), application rate of nitrogen fertilizer (4%), and labor requirements (5%). When uncertainty from all 22 parameters was included, the expected UEV of the crop yield was 118,000 sej/J with a total level of uncertainty (95% confidence interval) of ±106,000 sej/J (±90% of the mean), indicating that uncertainty was vast. However, ±50% was due to energy/mass uncertainty, while ±40% was due to UEV uncertainty, of which all but ±2% was due to the UEV of nitrogen fertilizer, indicating that little uncertainty (±12,600 sej/J) was derived from non-nitrogen fertilizer UEVs. Most of the uncertainty came from the energy/mass, rather than UEVs, indicating that as much care should be given to estimating energy and material use as to selecting or estimating UEVs. Our simulation ignored any multicollinearity that may have existed among the energy/mass use of the system-sources, which likely meant that we overestimated uncertainty. Future investigation should build in the correlations that exist among the system-sources (e.g., nitrogen fertilizer is related to water availability) to better quantify uncertainty. The simulations suggested that uncertainty from UEVs may be hierarchically organized with a few system-sources contributing a majority and most contributing little, indicating that management of uncertainty can be focused on a few parameters.
... Un certain degré d'agitation est généralement utile au bon fonctionnement d'un digesteur anaérobie (Müller, 2007). L'agitation permet d'assurer un transfert efficace de la matière organique pour la biomasse (Ward et al., 2008). ...
... However, it is acknowledged in developing countries that anaerobic digestion is still scarcely applied as a major treatment method of food waste management. In India and China, various institutes and NGOs have established different kinds of anaerobic digesters at the household and commercial scales to develop anaerobic digestion technology for food waste treatment (Müller 2007). For example, India has implemented anaerobic digestion in a pilot project and opened biogas plants that are used by various institutes. ...
... Small-scale high-tech biomethanation facilities for the treatment of solid waste (municipal bio waste or agricultural solid waste) are currently being implemented in large numbers by municipal authorities in India, geared to both waste minimisation and energy grid-independence. For example, there has been push for large-scale implementation of AD plants with power generation capacity in close proximity to the existing 1500 small dairy plants, with two-fold results-one, establishing large number of biogas plants; two, initiating world-class R&D activities, spearheading development of new technologies and constant enhancement of the performance of some of the established ones [130]. ...
Article
This paper provides an extensive review of anaerobic digestion (AD) systems, with a specific focus on community scale digesters for urban applications, processing either municipal organic waste exclusively or as mix feed. Emphasis is placed on reducing the systems scale environmental impact of AD technologies, including pre- and post-treatment stages, alongside biogas production. Developments to-date in AD system research in Europe and in the Asia region have been compared, providing a comprehensive evaluation of current practice, elucidating the areas of further potentials. The scope of this review is two-fold – one, covering AD technologies including a cohort of simple and integrated wet and dry systems, which can be operated as continuous flow designs in single- or multi-stages. Two, focusing more on practices in digestate handling that minimise environmental impacts arising from their storage and land application. From an environmental perspective, we note the following trends emerging in the literature for processing urban waste that need further exploitation: dry AD (60-85% moisture) is suitable for low organic loads, mainly owing to resource savings in terms of water usage; co-digestion has shown better buffering capability, especially for two-stage digestion of food-based feed stocks; separating the digestate into liquid/solid fractions is effective for handling post-digestion emissions, mainly for mitigating ammonia volatilisation to air and phosphate leaching to soil. We report responses to a survey, conducted for this review, highlighting the contemporary issues and challenges - with particular focus on the operational, social and management issues from an Indian perspective. There is need for follow-up of running plants to ensure their environmental performance. Such initiatives will have to consider managing of pollution footprints from AD, alongside the current drive for its widespread implementation for two incentives: greenhouse gas mitigation and fossil-fuel independence.
... Finally and importantly, bio-degradable solid waste can be used to generate bio-gas in the settlement [26,37,38]. Generation of bio-gas can help poor people to meet their energy demand for cooking and lighting [39]. ...
... Anaerobic digestion (AD) is widely used for the treatment and stabilization of organic wastes, production of energy, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and creation of liquid fertilizers in many parts of the world (Clemens et al., 2006;Lusk et al., 1996;Mata-Alvarez et al., 2000;Müller, 2007). AD technology is increasingly promoted by businesses, development workers and policymakers (Bhaskar, 2010;Callahan, 2011;Murray, 2010), and is proliferating both in the United States and abroad (AgSTAR, 2010;Mi, 2007;SNV Netherlands Development Organisation, 2011). ...
... To date, the costs of incineration are far too high for local governments to consider it as an appropriate solid waste management technology [6]. There have been a few experiences with anaerobic digestion in Colombia and Costa Rica [7] but mainly for the treatment of wastewater from agricultural residues. There are some examples where mechanical biological treatment (MBT) has been applied successfully in Latin America, including experiences in Mexico, Brazil, and Chile [8][9][10]. ...
Article
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Background Due to a rapid urbanization process in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago de Chile (MRS), the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated has increased considerably within the last years. MSW should be managed properly in order to achieve sustainable development. The purpose of this study is to analyze MSW management in MRS on the basis of three different explorative scenarios for the year 2030. Methods The Integrative Sustainability Concept of the Helmholtz Association provided a conceptual framework for the study and was used to evaluate the scenarios. One important topic within the field of management of MSW in the year 2030 will be the contribution of waste treatment technologies to energy production, e.g., by the use of landfill gas and by separated collection of biowaste followed by anaerobic treatment. Results The largest sustainability deficits in the scenarios are the small proportion of MSW being pre-treated before final disposal and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with MSW disposal. MSW management technologies taken into consideration were mechanical biological treatment, energy recovery from MSW in anaerobic digestion plants with biogas production, the production of refuse-derived fuel and its use as a secondary fuel, as well as electricity generation from landfill gas. Energy generation from MSW in 2030 will be about 6% of electricity consumption in 2010. Conclusions The three scenarios show some sustainability deficits. Even so, there are some improvements such as the reduction of GHG emissions and - even though marginal - energy supply for MRS from renewable energy sources.
... Consequently, for biogas digesters to deliver improved sanitation, designs incorporating additional treatment stages may be required. Municipal solid waste (MSW) in developing countries is typically rich in organic material (up to 70%) and thus a suitable biogas substrate (Müller, 2007;Vögeli and Zurbrügg, 2008). The digestion of MSW has attracted attention in Southern India, where kitchen waste from households and restaurants, market waste and waste from slaughterhouses is utilised in urban digesters of various sizes (domestic and larger). ...
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Technologies which recover biogas do so by harnessing anaerobic degradation pathways controlled by a suite of microorganisms. The biogas released acts as an environmentally sustainable energy source, while providing a method for disposal of various wastes. Biogas contains 50–70% methane and 30–50% carbon dioxide, as well as small amounts of other gases and typically has a calorific value of 21–24 MJ/m3. Various appliances can be fuelled by biogas, with stoves offering an application appropriate for deployment in developing countries. Widespread dissemination of biogas digesters in developing countries stems from the 1970s and there are now around four and 27 million biogas plants in India and China respectively. These are typically small systems in rural areas fed by animal manure. However, in many other countries technology spread has foundered and/or up to 50% of plants are non-functional. This is linked to inadequate emphasis on maintenance and repair of existing facilities. Hence for biogas recovery technology to thrive in the future, operational support networks need to be established. There appear to be opportunities for biogas stoves to contribute to projects introducing cleaner cookstoves, such as the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves. Beyond this, there remains potential for domestic plants to utilise currently underexploited biogas substrates such as kitchen waste, weeds and crop residues. Thus there is a need for research into reactors and processes which enable efficient anaerobic biodegradation of these resources.
... In many developing countries the most serious environmental and health problems are related with inadequate solid waste management. The waste, mainly organic waste, dumped in open places, causes heavy environmental pollution to soil, groundwater and surface waters [1] [2]. ...
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As petroleum and good quality coal reserves in India are depleting, hence alternative renewable source of energy is the demand of the time. At the same time management of huge quantities of garbage produced in India is also a serious problem. Therefore, anaerobic digestion of garden-waste was tried using some indigenous natural sources to find potential microbes for the gasification of garden-waste. For this study four natural sources i.e. cow-dung, paddy field soil, mine water and termites were used. From the study it is inferred that microbes present in paddy field soil when enriched on garden-waste gave best results out of four natural sources.
... The types of anaerobic digesters as part of the onsite and decentralized sanitation systems approach include continuous wet and dry fixed domes, continuous plug flow and batch dry fixed domes (Münch, 2008). Their operational conditions are: temperature range of 20e35 C for mesophilic digestion, total solids content below 20% for wet systems and 25e50% for dry systems, and the hydraulic retention of 15e30 days (Müller, 2007). The volatile solid loading rate ranges from 1.6 to 4.8 kg/m 3 of active digester volume per day during the complete mix mesophilic anaerobic digestion. ...
Article
Wastewater often contains valuable resources (e.g. organic matter and nutrients). Different from conventional sanitation approaches, the ecological sanitation (Eco-San) system is based on the closure of material flow cycles to recover resources with minimized demands on other resources. The review comprehensively summarized the main components of the Eco-San system (user interface, collection and conveyance, storage and primary treatment, and reuse/disposal), the frequently-used evaluation methods, and the framework of evaluation index system. Some typical practical cases were discussed to demonstrate the managerial implications and popularize the applications of the Eco-San system. The results show that the Eco-San systems are beneficial to resource efficiency, agricultural use of the organic matters and nutrients, and energy recovery although some shortages exist (e.g. high cost, cultural constraints, and complex operation and management). The evaluation methods can help to identify the restriction factors, contributing factors and measures to improve the efficiency of the future Eco-San system. The setting, selection and quantification are three critical steps when using the evaluation indices to complete the evaluation process. This study not only provides the methods for both developing novel Eco-San systems (combinations of the components) and improving the Eco-San systems (evaluation of the combinations) to solve the wastewater problem in rural areas. Considering the challenges or limitations in the Eco-San research, the recommendations for future research may mainly focus on the combination of different components, methods for sustainability assessment, quantification of the evaluation index, and implementation of more real Eco-San cases.
... A literature and Internet search conducted by Sandec revealed that among low and middleincome countries, India is the most experienced in anaerobic digestion of kitchen/market waste and organic household waste (Mueller, 2007). Since a few years, different biogas plants treating various types of organic solid waste have been implemented throughout the country. ...
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In the rapidly growing cities of the developing world, problems and issues of Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) are of major importance (Zurbrügg, 2002). Anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction – which can make up to 70% of the Municipal Solid Waste – is seen as a promising treatment option in tropical countries. This paper provides an overview of the actual "state-of-the-art" of the numerous operating biogas plants fed by kitchen and market waste in South India. Experience from an evaluation study conducted in August 2007 reveals the potential and challenges of dissemination of this rather new treatment option of the organic fraction of MSW in developing countries.
... Particularly for new insulating materials as well as robust designs that endure several years of rough use, and smallscale gasification. 24 By the end of 2009, there were 35 million household biodigesters in China and in India(Gerber, 2008; REN21, 2009 REN21, , 2010. There is also significant experience with commercial biogas use in Nepal.Müller (2007) reviewed existing biogas technologies and case studies with contributions from China, Thailand, India, South Africa, Kenya, Rwanda, and Ghana.25 For example, the high first cost (which can run up to USD 300 for some systems, including the digestion chamber unit) of traditional systems is being reduced considerably by new designs that re ...
... Eventually, the matured larvae are harvested, dried and milled into insect powder (Chen et al., 2016;Lalander et al., 2015) Australia -Swill feeding, or feeding food wastes to swine, is banned due to its association with risks of Foot and Mouth Disease Leib et al. (2016) great academic interest, but research outcomes have also paved the way in establishing anaerobic digestion as an effective strategy to tackle the challenges of food waste. As such, countries in Asia have increasingly scaled up efforts to establish several large and community scale reactors (De Clercq et al., 2017;Kiran et al., 2014;Müller, 2007 Table 3. Most of the existing large-scale plants in China have adopted a single-phase, wet anaerobic digester. ...
... optymalny stosunek C:N) oraz inhibitorów (poniżej granicznych stężeń: amoniaku, magnezu, metali ciężkich, siarki itd. [12]). ...
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Mająca obecnie miejsce transformacja krajowego systemu energetycznego, polegająca na dywersyfikacji mocy wytwórczych oraz stopniowym odchodzeniu od paliw kopalnych, stwarza realne warunki do tworzenia układów biogazowych. Zintegrowane z nimi maszyny i urządzenia pozwalają na realizację, w skali lokalnej, procesu konwersji energii chemicznej powstającego w bioreaktorach, na drodze fermentacji metanowej, paliwa gazowego na energię elektryczną, ciepło i chłód. Co jednak niezwykle istotne, wielkość produkcji poszczególnych form energii oraz ekonomia przedsięwzięcia silnie zależą w ich przypadku m.in. od dostępności substratów, przyjętych rozwiązań technicznych oraz kultury prowadzenia bloku. Przy dotrzymaniu wspomnianych wymagań układy te mogą być tworzone zarówno
... 22 By the end of 2009, there were 35 million household biodigesters in China and inIndia (Gerber, 2008; REN21, 2009 REN21, , 2010. There is also signifi cant experience with commercial biogas use in Nepal.Müller (2007) reviewed existing biogas technologies and case studies with contributions from China, Thailand, India, South Africa, Kenya, Rwanda, and Ghana. ...
... Current increasing energy consumption in rural areas of Central Vietnam can be covered by use of family-size biogas technology and can lead to healthier and more sustainable ways of living [2]. Biogas produced via the anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic waste materials is considered as an important technology for improving the environment because it solves waste management problems and simultaneously produces biogas as a main product and digestate as a by-product, which can also be used as fertilizer [2][3][4]. Technology transfer is the application of information into use [5]. Each technology shall unarguably be supported with the proper maintenance and management by the local actors. ...
Article
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In Central Vietnam, two key actors are involved in the extension performance of biogas technology: The owners of biogas plants and facilitators. Facilitators as the immediate providers of advice and services are in direct contact with local farmers and belong to the Vietnamese national extension network. This paper aims at identifying the current state of extension services and creating proper recommendations for further processes of training in the target area through the identification of context-specific knowledge (CSK). CSK can serve as a tool for facilitators and their quality involvement and for the improvement of current training practices in the area. It also provides performance indicators (PIs) for facilitators’ quality assessments. PIs should be consistent parts of the educational process for the evaluation of knowledge transmission success. More research in terms of facilitator’s impacts on the knowledge transition process towards the biogas owners should be done to prove the sustainability of the extension services.
... Low methane yields and process instability are two of the main problems encountered when using AD and research has usually attributed this to a high protein content and ether extract due to toxic effects from free ammonia (NH 3 ) (Yenigün and Demirel, 2013) and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) (Palatsi et al., 2010;Rinzema et al., 1989). Previous work has reported that most anaerobic digesters do not function effectively due to technical failures, incorrect operation, or poor management regulation (Müller, 2007;Xu et al., 2018). Therefore, AD of FW is normally run with low organic loading rates or co-digestion of waste with low nitrogen and lipid content (e.g. ...
Article
The current status of FW generation, including its characteristics, management, and current challenges in China, were analyzed, and further suggestions were made with regards to improvement. About 19.50% of the FW generated could be treated under the current designs for treatment capacity in China. FW characteristics show great variability in different economic regions in China, where both treatment efficiency and FW management are poor. Combined pretreatment and three-phase separation is the most used pretreatment method, and of the current FW pilot projects, anaerobic digestion is the most prevalent, accounting for 76.1% of all projects. Significant regional characteristics have been identified regarding FW generation and the treatment capacity for FW processing. Possible factors influencing FW management in China were also discussed. Finally, detailed suggestions are given for further development of FW treatment capacity, particularly regarding potential technical routes and management measures.
... En effet, plusieurs auteurs (Ngnikam, 2003, Doublier, 2003Rotich et al., 2006 ) soulignent que la gestion des déchets dans la plupart des pays en voie de développement plus précisément en Afrique est la plus mitigée et confrontée à des problèmes financiers, institutionnels (déficits d'organisation), techniques et physiques (absence de plan d'urbanisation), et par conséquent, ces pays sont confrontés à d'énormes problèmes sanitaires. En plus, la pollution par les déchets est de loin celle qui est la plus perçue par les citoyens, car contrairement à la pollution de l'air, du sol ou des ressources en eau, la pollution par les déchets est la plus « visible » à l'oeil nu (Müller, 2007). La gestion de déchets constitue un défi majeur dès lors que leur production accroît ; en conséquence, de nouvelles filières d'élimination doivent être trouvées (Compaoré et al., 2010b). ...
... • chemiczne wiązanie z cynkiemwykorzystanie w małych reaktorach gospodarskich z biogazem o niskiej zawartości H2S, • stosowanie surfaktantówusuwanie H2S w wyniku przetłaczania poprzez uzyskaną w wyniku działania środków powierzchniowo czynnych pianę, • bioreaktor z algami -nie wykorzystywany ze względów ekonomicznych; przy czym dodatek kwasu alginowego przynosi pozytywne skutki zwiększenia produktywności biogazu z jednoczesnym zmniejszeniem zawartości NH3 i H2S w biogazie, • bezpośrednie utlenianie -wymaga podgrzanej (100°C) mieszaniny biogazu i powietrza [96], • płuczka ciśnieniowa -H2S jest rozpuszczalny w wodzie, biogaz wtłaczany do płuczki w postaci sprężonej, • sita molekularne -oddzielenie czystego metanu od pozostałych związków takich jak CO2, H2O, H2S, występuje strata ok. 10% metanu. ...
... Community digesters could be an alternative in places where the implementation of household digesters has failed. Many community scale projects have been implemented, for example for the treatment of canteen waste, market waste and household cattle dung (Müller, 2007;Nasery, 2011;Reddy, 2004). Their success also highly depends on local socioeconomic conditions but they have the advantage to be more energy efficient and require a lower work and maintenance load per farmer compared to household digesters (He et al., 2013). ...
Article
Anaerobic digestion of cow dung with new feedstock such as crop residues to increase the biogas potential is an option to help overcoming several issues faced by India. Anaerobic digestion provides biogas that can replace biomass cooking fuels and reduce indoor air pollution. It also provides digestate, a fertilizer that can contribute to compensate nutrient shortage on agricultural land. Moreover, it avoids the burning of rice straw in the fields which contributes to air pollution in India and climate change globally. Not only the technical and economical feasibility but also the environmental sustainability of such systems needs to be assessed. The potential effects of implementing community digesters co-digesting cow dung and rice straw on carbon and nutrients flows, human health, resource efficiency and climate change are analyzed by conducting a Substance Flow Analysis and a Life Cycle Assessment. The implementation of the technology is considered at the level of the state of Chhattisgarh. Implementing this scenario reduces the dependency of the rural community to nitrogen and phosphorus from synthetic fertilizers only by 0.1 and 1.6%, respectively, but the dependency of farmers to potassium from synthetic fertilizers by 31%. The prospective scenario returns more organic carbon to agricultural land and thus has a potential positive effect on soil quality. The implementation of the prospective scenario can reduce the health impact of the local population by 48%, increase the resource efficiency of the system by 60% and lower the impact on climate change by 13%. This study highlights the large potential of anaerobic digestion to overcome the aforementioned issues faced by India. It demonstrates the need to couple local and global assessments and to conduct analyses at the substance level to assess the sustainability of such systems.
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On-site sanitation provisions in urban slums rarely prioritise grey water management, yet it forms the largest fraction of wastewater. This study was carried out to characterise grey water and quantify its pollutant loads in Bwaise III (Uganda) and to provide data for grey water management in urban slums of developing countries. Samples were collected for analysis from ten representative households as well as from four tertiary drains and the main drainage channel for 7 months in two dry seasons. Grey water production was found to comprise 85 % of the domestic water consumption. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration in the grey water generated by laundry, in the kitchen and in the bathroom was 9,225 ± 1,200 mg L−1, 71,250 ± 1,011 mg L−1 and 4,675 ± 750 mg L−1, while the BOD5 (biochemical oxygen demand) to COD ratio was 0.24 ± 0.05, 0.33 ± 0.08 and 0.31 ± 0.07, respectively. The maximum concentration of Escherichia coli and total coliforms was 2.05 × 107 cfu (100 mL)−1 and 1.75 × 108 cfu (100 mL)−1, respectively, in grey water from the bathroom, while that of Salmonella spp. was 7.32 × 106 cfu (100 mL)−1 from laundry. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant difference in the concentration of COD, total suspended solids (TSS), total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total phosphorus (TP), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), oil and grease, and Salmonella spp. in grey water from laundry, bathroom and kitchen (p 500 kg day−1), TSS (>200 kg day−1), nutrients (8.3 kg TKN day−1 and 1.4 kg TP day−1) and microorganisms (106 to 109 cfu c−1 day−1) originating from grey water in Bwaise III show that grey water poses a threat to the environment and a risk to human health in urban slums. Therefore, there is a need to prioritise grey water treatment in urban slums of developing countries to achieve adequate sanitation.
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One-third of all food produced in the world is lost or wasted from farm to fork, according to estimates calculated by FAO (2011). This wastage not only has an enormous negative impact on the global economy and food availability, it also has major environmental impacts. The direct economic cost of food wastage of agricultural products (excluding fish and seafood), based on producer prices only, is about 750 billion USD, equivalent to the GDP of Switzerland. The aim of the Toolkit is to showcase concrete examples of good practices for food loss and waste reduction, while pointing to information sources, guidelines and pledges favoring food wastage reduction. The inspirational examples featured throughout this Toolkit demonstrate that everyone, from individual households and producers, through governments, to large food industries, can make choices that will ultimately lead to sustainable consumption and production patterns, and thus, a better world for all.
Chapter
The food waste in landfill decomposes into contaminated run-off (leachate) and methane (CH4), which is considered a relevant greenhouse gas. This causes environmental liabilities, energy losses and problems in the food system. Currently, organic waste volumes are increasing dramatically converting this into a serious concern in both developed and developing countries. Zero waste to landfill (ZWTL) is one of the most promising concepts for solving organic waste problems. ZWTL when integrated into business processes can lead to innovative ways to identify, prevent and reduce waste. In that sense, the circular economy (CE) has also been considered regularly as an approach to the more appropriate waste management as it considers the business strategy part of the zero waste system. This circularity would increase productivity throughout the food value chain. In that manner, retail stores are proven to be a major market-driven force in the food system. Hence, one retail store located in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City, part of Walmart-Mexico (Walmex), was selected to showcase a suitable strategy to tackle the food waste issue. Thus, this research aimed to explore how the organic waste management can be improved by combining CE business model and a ZWTL strategy. The findings of the combined framework (SOL4FoodWaste) showed that most of the food considered as waste can be recovered through different stages. Even further, 40% of the food waste management costs can be saved through three business actions associated to those recovery stages. The proposed SOL4FoodWaste framework intends to collect all the sustainable concepts that might potentially be implemented or resembled in other industries with similar food waste challenges.
Chapter
Anaerobic digestion is a useful method for producing clean fuel from renewable feedstocks. It is a biological process where biodegradable matter is degraded or decomposed by the activity of specific microorganisms in the absence of oxygen, producing biogas used for electricity and heat generation. The anaerobic digestion is affected by the type of raw materials. Co-digestion, the simultaneous digestion of a mixture of two or more substrates, is a technique, by which the bioconversion rate, as well as the methane yield, can be increased. The same effects are produced by the pretreatment of the biomass as pretreatments make the organic substance of smaller size more accessible to microorganisms and methane production. An important parameter used to evaluate the efficiency of anaerobic digestion is the bio-methane potential. Others are the gross energy yields, the cumulative energy demand, the net energy yield, and the energy efficiency. In this chapter, a literature analysis about the diet of anaerobic digestion and related methods to improve the process is carried out. Works report that energy crop is the most used substrate for the biogas production. Mechanical, chemical, thermal, thermochemical, and biological pretreatments can be used. Also, the different configuration of anaerobic digester can be developed to improve the efficiency of the process.
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The issues of food loss and waste (FLW) in the global supply chains have recently gained attention. However, causes for FLW and their mitigation strategies for curbing FLW at different stages of the supply chains remains under researched. Our research aims to address these research gaps in a three-fold way: i), we identified key causes (through root-cause analysis) of FLW in the supply chain of developed and less developed countries; ii), systematically classified measures and policies, which have been implemented to mitigate FLW; iii), developed an interdisciplinary conceptual framework for waste utilisation practices that can contribute towards the triple bottom-line in food system. A root-cause analysis was performed, and mitigation strategies identified by systematically analysing and synthesizing the extant research published over the past 20 years (1998 to 2018) in the areas of food loss and waste in the supply chain. A conceptual model for the prevention of FLW utilising a systems approach through the circular economy concept has been proposed. Since the agri-food sector is largely interdisciplinary, we have also demonstrated a method of integrating contributions from multiple disciplines in our proposed model towards achieving a total depollution (zero waste supply chain).
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Waste is described as unused materials and products, leftover materials or by products which is produced at the time of construction or maintenance period of the buildings. In many cities in developing countries, the most serious environmental and health problems are related with inadequate solid waste management. A major environmental concern is gas release by decomposing garbage. Therefore, we need to focus on the solid waste generated from the household and community. As it is difficult to recycle food waste since it contains high levels of sodium salt and moisture and mixed with other waste during collection. Today the proportion of food and garden waste in municipal waste stream is gradually increasing and hence a proper food and garden waste management strategy needs to be devised to ensure its eco friendly and sustainable dispose. Rapid urbanization and population growth have magnified the necessity for adequate solid waste management throughout the world. In order to minimize the risk to the environment and human health, economically feasible solutions are sought for the treatment of solid waste, particularly in urban areas of low-and middle-income countries. This paper evaluates the suitability of a small-scale biogas system as a decentralized treatment option for the organic fraction of market and household solid waste. We have different techniques to convert this waste to useful materials like bio-fertilizers and bio-fuel. By using these techniques we can efficiently manage all waste and energy from it. Nevertheless there are successful projects mainly related to a few types of technologies. Based on the technologies being the most promising in the field of low-tech Anaerobic Digestion of biodegradable waste are ARTI (Appropriate Rural Technology Institute, Pune). About 2500 ARTI-plants are currently in use both in urban and rural households in Maharashtra. Urbanization and population growth are solely responsible for high increasing rate of solid waste and its proper management is a major problem of Municipal Corporation. In this study, the sources and components of solid waste were identified; type and the quantity of solid waste disposed, methods of solid waste disposal and impact of improper waste management on health were highlighted. Paper also criteria defined by the various green building certification program in India.
Chapter
Reduce, recycle, reuse and recover are the most important component of solid waste management. In the absence of these components, over a span of time there will be nothing left in the world for further use.
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The problem of solid waste management presents an issue of increasing importance in many low-income set- tings, including the progressively urbanised context of Kenya. Kisumu County is one such setting with an esti- mated 500 t of waste generated per day and with less than half of it regularly collected. The open burning and natural decay of solid waste is an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and atmospheric pollut- ants with adverse health consequences. In this paper, we use system dynamics modelling to investigate the ex- pected impact on GHG and PM2.5 emissions of (i) a waste-to-biogas initiative and (ii) a regulatory ban on the open burning of waste in landfill. We use life tables to estimate the impact on mortality of the reduction in PM2.5 exposure. Our results indicate that combining these two interventions can generate over 1.1 million tonnes of cumulative savings in GHG emissions by 2035, of which the largest contribution (42%) results from the biogas produced replacing unclean fuels in household cooking. Combining the two interventions is expected to reduce PM2.5 emissions from the waste and residential sectors by over 30% compared to our baseline scenario by 2035, resulting in at least around 1150 cumulative life years saved over 2021–2035. The contribution and novelty of this study lies in the quantification of a potential waste-to-biogas scenario and its environmental and health impact in Kisumu for the first time.
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With the aim of upgrading current food waste (FW) management strategy, a novel FW hydrothermal pretreatment and air-drying incineration system is proposed and optimized from an energy and exergy perspective. Parameters considered include the extracted steam quality, the final moisture content of dehydrated FW, and the reactor thermal efficiency. Results show that optimal working condition can be obtained when the temperature and pressure of extracted steam are 159 °C and 0.17 MPa, the final moisture content of dehydrated FW is 10%, and the reactor thermal efficiency is 90%. Under such circumstance, the optimal steam energy and exergy increments reach 194.92 and 324.50 kJ/kg-FW, respectively. The novel system is then applied under the local conditions of Hangzhou, China. Results show that approximately 2.7 or 11.6% (from energy or exergy analysis perspective) of electricity can be additionally generated from 1 ton of MSW if the proposed novel FW system is implemented. Besides, comparisons between energy and exergy analysis are also discussed.
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The local energy self-reliance approach represents one of the main targets of the current research on smart cities. These city models are based on the concepts of decentralised energy and integration of systems within the built environment. In developing countries, it is important to integrate the decisional planning process of large metropolitan areas with sustainable strategic guidelines, which link energy efficiency of the built environment with renewable energy infrastructures at urban scale. Emerging countries as South Africa, where the issues of energy efficiency and renewable energy policies are often still at the early stages, have a great potential for creating strategic frameworks that integrate sustainable urban planning with appropriate waste management strategies. These frameworks could assist the decision-making and policy-making process of local Municipalities to issue sustainable policies for urban integrated renewable energy systems and green districts, towards energy self-reliant scenarios. The rationale of this research is to investigate the feasibility of de-centralised urban anaerobic digestion (from organic waste food) as complementary to an energy efficient management programme of buildings and residential developments towards a self-reliant built environment.
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The study serves to clarify doubts on the potential of commercial microcredit as a strategic vehicle of implementing of small-scale biogas plants in Sri Lanka, as an alternative to subsidy-based process. The quantified sum of unsubsidized microloan interest born by the biogas users in a modelled situation of maximum potential of the biogas sector financed through microfinance institutions is compared with national technology savings on a macro level. The analysis concludes that an economic justification for the microfinance-fuelled implementation of small-scale biodigesters employing a market-based approach does exist. Annual savings on macroeconomic level surpass the annual cost expressed as a sum of unsubsidized interest. The study furthermore proposes a three-party credit contract, which prevents credit defaults caused by the lack of customary after-sales care by integrating the provision of service providers into a contractual agreement with both the user and the financing source, thus assuming part of credit responsibility.
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Biogas technology represents an option to enhance sustainable energy use in developing nations particularly in the rural context. However, the production and use of biogas could also take place in urban settings in these countries with potential benefits for their sustainability. The present work introduces a set of nine indicators in the economic, social and environmental sustainability dimensions for assessing the impact of a small-scale biogas plant on the energy sustainability of a restaurant located in Mexico City. Indicators were evaluated before (base scenario) and after (biogas scenario) biogas plant installation and then they were linearly normalized using a scale between 0 and 1 corresponding to a growing level of energy sustainability. Economic dimension indicators averaged 0.67 in the base scenario and 0.68 in the biogas scenario; those of the social dimension, 0.52 and 0.54; and those of the environmental dimension, 0.17 and 0.49, respectively. Results indicate a positive impact of biogas plant on restaurant energy sustainability. These indicators provide objective elements to examine in detail biogas contributions in strengthening energy sustainability of cities in developing countries.
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p>In this report, entitled “Poultry Faeces Management by Bioconversion Technology with Modified GGC 2047 model” focuses on various parameters relating to physico-chemical characteristics of the substrate, fertilizing value of digested poultry waste and potential to create profitability from biogas energy, thus generated and balancing the environmental aspects using poultry waste digestion. Also, biogas may be the tool of energy generation in rural areas while sanitation (waste management) in urban areas of developing countries asNepal. Biogas production from chicken faeces could be obtained more effectively by feeding around 8.5 kg per day. It is concluded that digester could be run by around 2.5 quintal chicken faeces per month. Hence those people, who can manage this quantity of waste, can utilize bio-digester without poultry farm. Journal of Advanced College of Engineering and Management, Vol. 1, 2015 , pp. 107-117</p
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Anaerobic digestion of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW) is investigated in continuous operation. During the reactor's start-up period (first phase), the process is stable and there is no inhibition occurred as methane composition increased and leveled off at 66% with higher rate of biogas production. In the second phase, the reactor was fed in continuous mode and the effect of mass retention time (MRT) on the digestion process was investigated. The highest VS degradation of 51%, with biogas production rate of 401 L/kg VSremoved was achieved with a retention time of 25 days. However, the methane content of the biogas produced was in the range of 30-40%. The drop of methane concentration was traced from the technical problems on reactor configuration and not on the process. Thus, designing a single stage reactor in dry-continuous anaerobic digestion system is a challenge for further investigation.
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Anaerobic digestion of animal waste in biogas plants for energy, manure and sanitation has made a significant impact in quality of rural life wherever it has been deployed. Insufficiency of animal dung resources limits the use of this technology to only an eighth of the overall Indian rural population. Yet the convenience of a biogas plant in rural households has led R&D efforts to extend the use of biogas plants to other non-animal dung biomass feedstock and rural residues. Fermenting typical biomass residues in conventional slurry-based biogas plants has been far from successful. Most attempts to convert rural biomass residues into 'flowable' slurries like animal dung have rarely been successful. Alternative concepts were required. Achieving successful quasi-continuous fermentation of biomass residues has come through a break away from the 'slurry' fixation and animal dung digester designs of the past. A better understanding of the underlying processes has greatly helped evolve new fermentation concepts. Success has emerged only through use of multi-stage processes, where key fermentation properties of biomass feedstock have been acknowledged and digesters designed accordingly. Here, a 25-year effort in understanding the processes of biogas and biomass fermentation, developing new techniques and technologies to ferment biomass feedstock and efforts at simplifying the technology to enable sustainability carried out at the Centre for Sustainable Technologies, IISc, Bangalore is described. Finally, integration of the two or three fermentation steps into a single reactor configuration has enabled evolving simple-to-use digester designs for biomass feedstock, namely the plug-flow and the solid-state stratified bed digesters.
Biogas and more -Systems and Market Overview of Anaeribic Digestion
  • I Bioenergy
Bioenergy, I. (2001). Biogas and more -Systems and Market Overview of Anaeribic Digestion, AEA Technology Environment, Culham, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, UK.
Emerging trends in small scale biogas plants for agro-residues and biomass feedstock -a case study from India
  • H N Chanakya
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Solid Waste Conversion -A review and database of current and emerging technologies
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