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Improving Filtrate Quality Using Agrobased Materials as Coagulant Aid

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Abstract

In the present study, an evaluation of agrobased materials (ABM) as a coagulant aid in conjunction with alum has been conducted to determine their efficacy in water treatment. The agrobased materials evaluated are Surjana seed (Moringa oleifera), Nirmali seed (Strychnos potatorum) and maize (Zeemays). Experiments have been conducted simulating a conventional water treatment train consisting of coagulation-flocculation-settling and granular media filtration. Emphasis has been given to the filtration aspect of the treatment train using synthetic turbid water. The filter performance was defined by water quality and head loss devel- opment across the filter bed. When Nirmali seed or maize was used as a coagu- lant aid, the alum dose required was 25 and 15 mg/L, respectively, and the filtrate turbidity achieved was less than 0.2 NTU, whereas alum alone with a dose of 45 mg/L achieved filtrate turbidity levels higher than 1 NTU. Thus, the use of ABM improved the filtrate quality. Head loss in filter with Surjana seed and Maize as coagulant aids was comparable to that of alum alone, whereas it was higher when Nirmali seed was used as a coagulant aid.

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... The usual method of removal is by flocculation through addition of coagulant or flocculation aids (AWWA, 1997). Raghuwanshi et al. (2002) defined flocculation as the process through which microfloc particles are brought together to form large agglomerations by mixing them together physically or through binding action of flocculants. Numerous substances has been used as coagulants in water treatments and this includes both synthetic and natural materials such as Aluminum sulphate (Alum), Ferric chloride, ferrous sulphate, lime, Zea mays, Moringa oleifera seed etc. (Ebeling et al., 2004). ...
... The primary disadvantage of Alum is that its effectiveness over a limited pH range of 6.5-7.5. Among the natural plants materials reported to have been used effectively as coagulants are Zea mays (Raghuwanshi et al., 2002) and Moringa oleifera seed powder (Akinwole and Jioke, 2006; Oluwalana et al., 2004). Akinwole and Jioke (2006) used Moringa oleifera seed powder as a coagulant to remove solid waste in aquaculture wastewater, the treated water was however not reused. ...
... Large amounts of these dissolved organic materials are responsible for undesirable water odor, taste, color and the presence of microorganisms. 26 Previous studies show that coagulation can remove suspended and dissolved particles by adsorption and charge neutralization, adsorption and inter-particle bridging, and precipitation. [27][28][29] The most common mechanism in coagulation/flocculation processes is the inter-particle bridging and charge neutralization. ...
... 45,46 Different kinds of natural coagulants obtained from apricots (beach kernels), groundnut seed, nirmali seed, pumice seed, maize and the Moringa oleifera (MO) coagulant protein have been described in various reports. 9,25,26,47 However, among the investigated natural materials, water soluble extracts from the seeds of MO have attracted particular attention since they possess dual functionality in water treatment by acting as coagulants as well as antimicrobial agents. 9, 48 Jahn, S.A.A 49, 50 and Madsen et al., 51 were among the first researchers to study the use of MO as natural coagulants/disinfectants in water treatment. ...
... Unlike most of the plant-based coagulants listed (Table 2), cereal crops are largely made up of carbohydrates with up to 94% of the total dry weight (Oko and Ugwu, 2011;Sobukola and Abayomi, 2011). Starch which is a form of carbohydrate has been identified as the possible active agent leading to coagulation in such coagulants (Raghuwanshi et al., 2002). Likewise, the excellence of M. subcordata in removing turbidity could also be due to the presence of polysaccharides mainly amylopectin (Mavura et al., 2008). ...
... In some cases, the sole use of natural coagulants may be inadequate to achieve the desired turbidity removal. However, they can certainly be added as an aid to the latter (Bhole, 1995;Thakre and Bhole, 1985;Raghuwanshi et al., 2002;Swati and Govindan, 2005). The blending of both coagulant types can reduce the reliance on chemical coagulants while addressing the lower turbidity removal and unavailability of certain plant-based coagulants which may be seasonal. ...
Article
Rapid industrial developments coupled with surging population growth have complicated issues dealing with water scarcity as the quest for clean and sanitized water intensifies globally. Existing fresh water supplies could be contaminated with organic, inorganic and biological matters that have potential harm to the society. Turbidity in general is a measure of water cloudiness induced by such colloidal and suspended matters and is also one of the major criteria in raw water monitoring to meet the stipulated water quality guidelines. Turbidity reduction is often accomplished using chemical coagulants such as alum. The use of alum is widely associated with potential development of health issues and generation of voluminous sludge. Natural coagulants that are available in abundance can certainly be considered in addressing the drawbacks associated with the use of chemical coagulants. Twenty one types of plant-based natural coagulants categorized as fruit waste and others are identified and presented collectively with their research summary in this review. The barriers and prospects of commercialization of natural coagulants in near future are also discussed.
... Unlike most of the plant-based coagulants listed (Table 2), cereal crops are largely made up of carbohydrates with up to 94% of the total dry weight (Oko and Ugwu, 2011;Sobukola and Abayomi, 2011). Starch which is a form of carbohydrate has been identified as the possible active agent leading to coagulation in such coagulants (Raghuwanshi et al., 2002). Likewise, the excellence of M. subcordata in removing turbidity could also be due to the presence of polysaccharides mainly amylopectin (Mavura et al., 2008). ...
... In some cases, the sole use of natural coagulants may be inadequate to achieve the desired turbidity removal. However, they can certainly be added as an aid to the latter (Bhole, 1995;Thakre and Bhole, 1985;Raghuwanshi et al., 2002;Swati and Govindan, 2005). The blending of both coagulant types can reduce the reliance on chemical coagulants while addressing the lower turbidity removal and unavailability of certain plant-based coagulants which may be seasonal. ...
Article
Coagulation and flocculation provide a rather straightforward method towards water clarification. However, ongoing debates over worrying health issues linked to chemical coagulants have paved the way to develop plant-based natural coagulants. Natural coagulants are not only water clarifying agents, but they also have antimicrobial and heavy metal removal properties in some instances. These are highly attractive in the transformation of raw surface water into potable drinking water. A total of 14 plant-based natural coagulants categorized as common vegetables and legumes are identified and presented collectively in this comprehensive review. The two main coagulation mechanisms leading to the observed coagulation activities are postulated to be charge neutralization and bridging. Turbidity removal efficiencies were proven to be greatly affected by pH variations and the dosage of natural coagulants used. The existing research gaps are acknowledged in this work to provide a platform towards the necessity of further research in the water treatment processes.
... The plant-derived natural coagulants could create economic benefits, as cultivation of plants as a means of revenue generation would also provide new job opportunities for the local population. Bhole and Shrivastava (1983), Raghuwanshi et al. (2002), and Swati and Govindan (2005) used Strychnos potatorum (Nirmali seed) as a coagulant/coagulant aid and reported their suitability for turbidity removal. Jahn (1986) studied the coagulant potential of different species of Moringa oleifera and reported that out of 14 species of Moringacea, only Moringa oleifera and Moringa stenopetala possess efficient coagulation properties. ...
... The seeds from Burandi were found to be of superior quality than those of Madagascar. Other studies conducted to remove turbidity using Moringa oleifera include Raghuwanshi et al. (2002), Sudhirkumar et al. (2010) and Sarpong and Richerdson (2010). Montakhab and Gazali (2010) used Moringa oleifera seed powder extracted with NaNO 3 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Kernel of Moringa oleifera and Strychnos potatorum (Nirmali) seeds has the potential for turbidity removal. However, potential of seed kernel naturally dried in trees and that of sun-dried and oven-dried seeds and other parts, such as coat and wing of Moringa oleifera, has not been explored. In the present study, various forms of kernel and parts of Moringa oleifera seed were used to assess the removal of turbidity aided with/without coagulant aid and ballasting agent. Low (< 12 NTU), medium (> 13 <= 24 NTU) and high turbidity (>= 25 <= 35 NTU) water samples were used in the present study. Micro-sand and powdered activated carbon (PAC) were used as ballasting agents along with Aloe Vera as a coagulant aid/natural polymer. The kernel from seeds naturally dried in Moringa oleifera tree was found to possess more coagulant property. The optimum dose of Moringa oleifera for medium and high turbidity was found to be 50 mg/L and 100 mg/L, respectively, with turbidity removal of 90.46% and 88.57%. The optimum dose of Strychnos potatorum was 0.2 mg/L, 0.6 mg/L, and 0.8 mg/L for low, medium and high turbidity, with turbidity removal as 71.42, 64.28 and 57.14%, respectively. Aloe Vera acts as a coagulant aid with the natural coagulants and increases turbidity removal. Ballasting agents micro-sand and PAC, with Aloe Vera and coagulants, increase turbidity removal and reduce the settling time.
... Pramod Kumar et.al [39] revealed less sludge production in the case of natural coagulants (agro based material) as a coagulant aid compared to alum alone. Their observation was in agreement with the reported literature, that when synthetic polyelectrolytes are used as coagulant aid or alum sludge conditioning agents, they produced quite less sludge [40,41]. ...
... Many contaminants, such as viruses, heavy metals or some pesticides, may be associated with particulate, and thus efficient removal of particulates can improve the overall water quality [42]. Earlier studies have emphasized that at such low finished water turbidity (0-0.1 NTU) the bacterial removal efficiency would also be high [39].Metal hydroxide sludges from aluminiumsulphate or ferric salts tend to be hydrated and difficult to dewater. This is not the case with sludges from polymeric coagulants which dewater readily producing sludge with higher solids content. ...
Article
Full-text available
Availability of potable water has become one of the most problematic concerns in the present world. As the scarcity of water is increasing with the changing the climatic conditions, requirement of the potable water has become one of the key issues in the developing countries. Surface water, which has inevitable turbidity, has to be treated before consumption. Coagulation and flocculation is the process conventionally used for removing turbidity of water. Complications associated with chemical coagulants like specific pH conditions, voluminous sludge and coagulant dose have made it necessary to look for alternatives which are natural in origin. In the present study the efficiency of natural coagulants at optimized parameters that govern coagulation process: pH, coagulant dose and mixing speed have been studied. Efficiency of coagulants in the removal of turbidity (93 to 100%) have been in the order of chitin>alum=sago. One of the promising results was that the natural coagulants were stable at varied pH conditions of 6, 7 and 8. The concentration of suspended solids in the settled sludge was higher with alum, whereas the total solids residue was higher with both the natural coagulants resulting in sludges which dewater readily producing sludge with higher solids content that have improved characteristics with regards to handling.
... The usual method of removal is by flocculation through addition of coagulant or flocculation aids (AWWA, 1997). Raghuwanshi et al. (2002) defined flocculation as the process through which microfloc particles are brought together to form large agglomerations by mixing them together physically or through binding action of flocculants. Numerous substances has been used as coagulants in water treatments and this includes both synthetic and natural materials such as Aluminum sulphate (Alum), Ferric chloride, ferrous sulphate, lime, Zea mays, Moringa oleifera seed etc. (Ebeling et al., 2004). ...
... The primary disadvantage of Alum is that its effectiveness over a limited pH range of 6.5-7.5. Among the natural plants materials reported to have been used effectively as coagulants are Zea mays (Raghuwanshi et al., 2002) and Moringa oleifera seed powder (Akinwole and Jioke, 2006; Oluwalana et al., 2004). Akinwole and Jioke (2006) used Moringa oleifera seed powder as a coagulant to remove solid waste in aquaculture wastewater, the treated water was however not reused. ...
Article
Full-text available
Possibility of reusing fish culture effluent water for the culture of Clarias gariepinus was evaluated after treatment of the water using alum or Moringa oliefera seed powder to remove wastes solids. The effects of alum or Moringa oleifera seed powder treated wastewater on the health and well-being of Clarias gariepinus juveniles was investigated for a period of twelve weeks using hematological parameters as indices of fish health C. gariepinus juveniles of average weight 10 g were randomly distributed into plastic tanks at 10 fish/tank in triplicates for each wastes solids removal treatments, while the fish reared in deep well water served as control. Haematological parameters; red blood cell (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb), platelet, white blood cell (WBC) and packed cell volume (PCV) were evaluated. Significant increase (P<0.05) was observed in WBC, platelet and heterophils for fish cultured in alum powder treated wastewater compared to that of moringa seed powder treated wastewater and the control. There was also significant decrease in the PCV, RBC, Hb and lymphocytes in alum powder treated wastewater (17.00±1.73%, 1.14±0.01x103 mm-3, 5.37±0.12 g/100 ml and 48.67±2.31% respectively) compared to that of the control (25.67±5.03%, 2.18±1.04x103 mm-3,8.37±1.60 g/100 ml and 64.67±5.86%) and moringa seed powder treated wastewater (27.00±1.73%, 2.58±0.55x103 mm-3, 8.53±0.15 g/100 ml and 60.00±5.57%). Fish cultured in moringa treated water are healthy, considering the haematological indices, hence moringa seed powder is recommended for wastes solid removal in fish culture systems.
... Concentration of hydrogen ions in water can be measured in terms of p H . [22] Acceptable range of p H suggested by ISI, WHO & IS is 6.5 -8.5. p H of the investigated sample ranges from 7.4-8.3 ...
Article
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In the current scenario health of people has been greatly incriminated due to heavy metal defilement. Modernization and industrial enterprise are the major cause for the incorporation of heavy metals in the environment. The most precarious heavy metals which are found to impinge water bodies are chromium, mercury, lead, cadmium, and iron etc. Most of the treatment techniques are found to be risk due to the production of secondary pollutant. Such problem can be rectified by the use of natural adsorbents which will reduce the secondary pollutant to large extent. The most efficacious and economic process for the removal of toxic heavy metal is biosorption. Present investigation aims to analyse the effluent water generated from steel plant and remove heavy metals like iron and chromium from it using Syzigium Cumini seed powder as adsorbent.
... In current years, many studies were carried out on utilizing the different plant materials as natural coagulants for the removal of turbidity from the drinking water. Some of them include Moringa oleifera [9][10][11][12][13], Phaseolus vulgaris [14][15][16], Strychnos potatorum [17,18] etc. The extract of S. potatorum seeds consists of anionic polyelectrolyte. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this research an attempt has been made to utilize the Strychnos potatorum seed powder as an environmentally friendly coagulant for the removal of turbidity from washing machine discharge. The performance of this system was also compared with synthetic water. Experimental studies were conducted for the maximum removal of turbidity from washing machine discharge and synthetic turbid water which were varied from 50 to 145 NTU. The effect of operating parameters such as initial turbidity, S. potatorum dosage and pH of the solution was optimized for the maximum removal of turbidity. It was seen that the percentage removal of turbidity lay was between 68–89% and 65–84% for synthetic turbid water and washing machine discharge sample respectively, at an ideal pH of 6–7. The experimental values were compared with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models to understand the extent of influence of the sorption of the particles onto the S. potatorum seed powder. Better results with respect to concordance of experimental data were observed with Langmuir isotherm model, indicating a monolayer sorption of particles onto the S. potatorum seed powder. It was observed from the isotherm study that the sorption may also be influenced in the removal of turbidity to some extent from the washing machine discharge and synthetic water. The prepared material can be effectively utilized for the removal of turbidity from the water.
... Extensive studies have been carried out since last three decades and results are being attempted, mostly at lab-scale to pilot-plant scale. Researchers have proved a significant coagulating potential of Moringa oleifera (Jahn, 1988), nirmali (Tripathi et al., 1976), okra (Al -Samawi and Shokrala, 1996), Cactus latifaira and Prosopis juliflora (Diaz et al., 1999) tannin from valonia (Ozacar and Sengil, 2000), apricot, peach kernel and beans (Jahn, 2001), and maiza (Raghuwanshi et al., 2002). Bhole (1995) compared 10 natural coagulants from plant seeds. ...
... Most of the natural extracts are derived from the seeds, leaves, barks or saps, roots and fruits extracted from trees and plants [3]. Among those which are used there are the seeds of the Nirmali tree Strychnos potatorum, roasted grains of maize Zea mays [4], the Strychnos potatorum (5)(6)(7), Moringa oleifera (8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17), okra [18], cassava [19], rice [20], starch [21][22], Cactus Latifaria and Prosopis julifora [23], valonia tannins [24][25][26], tamarind [27], Samanea saman [28], seaweed [29], Alubia blanca, white bean [30], cactus [31], the Opuntia cochinellifera cactus [32] and sweet corn [33]. In many countries aluminum sulfate (Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3(s) ), commonly known as alumina, and ferric chloride (FeCl 3 ) are traditional coagulants. ...
Article
Full-text available
At the present time,aluminum sulfate(Al2(SO4)3(s))is used as a traditional coagulant. In the developing countries,supplies of it are short,thus,there is a need for an alternative,taking into account the diversity of promising native plants they has more than 23,500 species distributed among 1600 genera,which means that they are the family of Angiosperms with the greatest biological weal than diversity.The effectiveness as coagulants of extracts with a medium-high polarity of species of the Asteraceae family in the waters from the upperbasin of the Bogota river were evaluated. To do that,the optical density at500nm(DO50) of a suspension of turbid water from the Bogotá river(upperbasin) was measured, with variable volumes of the extracts obtained from the Asteraceae family.The species from the waters of the Bogotá river which showed the greatest coagulant capacity ,at 50ppm, are:Chromolaena perglabra(57.1%), Achyrocline vell.aff. bogotensis(43.4),Chromolaena odorata(41.1%) and Chromolaena bullata(39.8%),with respect to the aluminum sulfate,(72.7%),zincsulfate(43.3%)andammoniumchloride(45.5%).At100ppm the coagulant capacities were:Chromolaena perglabra(41.1%)and Lourtegiastoe chadifolia(32.3%),with respect to the aluminum sulfate(83.6%),zinc sulfate(55.0%)and ammonium chloride(66.7%);and at 250 ppm Lourtegiastoe chadifolia(26.2%),with respect to the aluminum sulfate(87.5%),zinc sulfate(64.9%)and ammonium chloride(83.3%).
... Most of the natural extracts are derived from the seeds, leaves, barks or saps, roots and fruits extracted from trees and plants [3]. Among those which are used there are the seeds of the Nirmali tree Strychnos potatorum, roasted grains of maize Zea mays [4], the Strychnos potatorum (5)(6)(7), Moringa oleifera (8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17), okra [18], cassava [19], rice [20], starch [21][22], Cactus Latifaria and Prosopis julifora [23], valonia tannins [24][25][26], tamarind [27], Samanea saman [28], seaweed [29], Alubia blanca, white bean [30], cactus [31], the Opuntia cochinellifera cactus [32] and sweet corn [33]. In many countries aluminum sulfate (Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3(s) ), commonly known as alumina, and ferric chloride (FeCl 3 ) are traditional coagulants. ...
Article
Full-text available
At the present time, aluminum sulfate (Al 2 (SO 4) 3(s)) is used as a traditional coagulant. In the developing countries, supplies of it are short, thus, there is a need for an alternative, taking into account the diversity of promising native plants they may be used as a source. One such source are the Asteraceae, a family which has more than 23,500 species distributed among 1600 genera, which means that they are the family of Angiosperms with the greatest biological wealth and diversity. The effectiveness as coagulants of extracts with a medium-high polarity of species of the Asteraceae family in the waters from the upper basin of the Bogota river were evaluated. To do that, the optical density at 500 nm (DO50) of a suspension of turbid water from the Bogotá river (upper basin) was measured, with variable volumes of the extracts obtained from the Asteraceae family. The species from the waters of the Bogotá river which showed the greatest coagulant capacity, at 50 ppm, are: Chromolaena perglabra (57.1%), Achyrocline vell. aff. bogotensis (43.4), Chromolaena odorata (41.1%) and Chromolaena bullata (39.8%), with respect to the aluminum sulfate, (72.7%), zinc sulfate (43.3%) and ammonium chloride (45.5%). At 100 ppm the coagulant capacities were: Chromolaena perglabra (41.1%) and Lourtegia stoechadifolia (32.3%), with respect to the aluminum sulfate (83.6%), zinc sulfate (55.0%) and ammonium chloride (66.7%); and at 250 ppm Lourtegia stoechadifolia (26.2%), with respect to the aluminum sulfate (87.5%), zinc sulfate (64.9%) and ammonium chloride (83.3%). Those results show that the extracts of the species under study, when subjected to this electroscropic technique, have a smaller coagulant capacity at a higher concentration, in contrast with the case of aluminum sulfate, zinc sulfate and ammonium chloride. The Chromolaena perglabra, Achyrocline vell. aff. bogotensis and Chromolaena odorata species show the greatest coagulant capacity with respect to the zinc sulfate and are very close to that of aluminum sulfate and ammonium chloride.
... The majority of COD removal occurred during the filtration process. This removal may also be attributed to the relatively strong M. oleifera flocs that formed: being nonsettleable but filterable [9] The increase in removal efficiency of COD can be attributed to the coagulant powder of the moringa seed extract, as there was agglutination of the solid particles present in the wastewater, increasing its size and making it difficult to traverse the filter pores. ...
Article
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Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose, medium or small-sized tree, from regions of North West India and indigenous to many parts of Asia, Africa, and South America. Its pods are a non-toxic natural organic polymer, which have been employed as an inexpensive and effective sorbent for the removal of organics, and coagulant for water treatment. The main objective of this work was to use the Moringa oleifera seeds as a natural adsorbent for the treatment of dairy industry wastewater. In present study various doses of Moringa oleifera seed coagulant viz. 100 mg/L, 200 mg/L and 400 mg/L were taken and checked for the efficiency dose on treated and untreated wastewater. After treatment of water samples with Moringa oleifera coagulant were analyzed for different parameter like pH, turbidity, COD and salinity. All parameters were reduced with increased dose of Moringa oleifera except pH. Application of this low cost Moringa oleifera seed coagulant is recommended for ecofriendly non toxic, simplified waste water treatment.
... Other natural coagulants are proposed as an important alternative in the water treatment plant. The coagulants are from plant origin such as nirmali seed and maize [5], cassia angustifolia seed [6], mesquite bean and cactus latifaria [7], chestnut and acorn [8], Cocciniaindica fruit mucilage [9] and from different leguminous species [10]. Also, the Bhindi seed, Methi, Beheda, Guar seeds and Drum stick can be used as coagulant in 100 to 1200 NTU turbid water range with remarkable percentage removal from 70% to 93% [11]. ...
Article
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In the drinking water treatment processes, the optimization of the treatment is an issue of particular concern. In general, the process consists of many units as settling, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. The optimization of the process consists of some measures to decrease the managing and monitoring expenses and improve the quality of the produced water. The objective of this study is to provide water treatment operators with methods and practices that enable to attain the most effective use of the facility and in consequence optimize the cubic meter price of the treated water. This paper proposes a review on optimization of drinking water treatment process by analyzing all of the water treatment units and gives some solutions in order to maximize the water treatment performances without compromising the water quality standards. Some practical solutions and methods are performed in the water treatment plant located in the middle of Morocco (Meknes).
... Hank's buffered salt solution (HBSS) at 23°C (Medema et al., 1998). Numerous studies have proven the efficiency of MO seed extract in removing suspended material (Ndabigengesere and Narasiah, 1998a;Ndabigengesere and Narasiah, 1998b;Raghuwanshi et al., 2002) and microorganisms by increasing the sedimentation speed (Madsen et al., 1987;Olsen, 1987;Sengupta et al., 2012b). ...
Article
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The use of different types of low quality water for irrigation in agriculture is common practice in many countries due to limited freshwater resources. Pathogens may contaminate fruit and vegetables when feces contaminated water is used for irrigation or postharvest processing. A laboratory study was carried out to investigate the effect of a coagulant produced from seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree (MO) in reducing Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and turbidity in wastewater and stream water. Glass jars (n = 60) containing 500 mL wastewater obtained from the inlet to the primary settling tanks from a Danish sewage treatment plant were spiked with 6.1 x 105 ± 6.2 x 104 oocysts L−1, while glass jars (n = 18) containing 500 mL stream water were spiked with approx. 100, 1000 or 10,000 oocysts. To half of the wastewater and stream water 4 mL L−1 of a 5% w/v MO seed extract was added, while the remaining water was left untreated. The water was stirred slowly for 20 min and subsequently left to sediment for 15, 30, 45, 60 or 90 min (wastewater) or 60 min (stream water), with three (stream water) or six (wastewater) replicate glass jars representing each time point. In wastewater, MO seed extracts reduced the C. parvum oocyst load significantly (p = 0.03) by 38% in the interval 15 to 90 min compared to a 0.02% reduction in the untreated wastewater. Furthermore, the number of oocysts L−1 was significantly (p > 0.0001 – p = 0.041) reduced in the treated wastewater at all five sampling times compared to untreated wastewater. Likewise, the oocyst loads in the supernatant of MO treated stream water were noticeably lower compared with untreated stream water at all three spikes. The turbidity was reduced to 10.9 ± 0.3 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU) (i.e. 94.7% reduction) and 13.7 ± 2.1 NTU (i.e. 91.7% reduction) in the treated wastewater and stream water, respectively. In contrast, the turbidity was 55.3 ± 4.4 NTU and 46.2 ± 1.6 NTU in untreated wastewater and stream water, respectively. M. oleifera seeds are readily available in many tropical countries where the tree is common, and our results clearly demonstrate that MO seed extract may be used by farmers for treatment of different types of surface water prior to irrigation use. Yet, adding MO seed extract to the low quality water did not successfully remove all oocyst. However, treatment of wastewater with MO seed extract significantly improved the water quality with regard to number of oocysts present and turbidity of the water. Further experiments with addition of higher concentrations of MO are needed to establish whether MO seed extract can be used to obtain safe irrigation water free of C. parvum oocysts and other protozoan parasites.
... Contamination of drinking water sources by fecal matter, inorganic and organic substances represents a major health hazard in many parts of the developing world ( [3], [4]). In the treatment of this contaminated water, removal of turbidity is of paramount importance because suspended particles represent transport vehicles for undesirable organic and inorganic contaminants, taste, odour and colour-causing compounds as well as pathogenic organisms ( [4], [5]). ...
Article
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Recent studies have pointed out several serious drawbacks of using chemical coagulants such as aluminium and iron salts. These drawbacks include Alzheimer's disease occurring as a result of residual aluminium normally present in treated water and production of large sludge volumes [1]. To eliminate the problems associated with these chemical coagulants, the use of natural coagulants produced from microorganisms, animals, or plants have been found promising. Based on that, in this work, coagulation process has been used to treat dairywastewater that was synthesized by dissolving instant powdered milk in borehole water for turbidity removal. The coagulant used, which was aided with tamarind tree bark, was prepared from pumpkin seed.In order to investigate turbidity removal efficiency of the coagulants and coagulation process kinetics, three sets of experiments were carried out using conventional jar method. The first and second experimental sets were carried out to determine the optimum pH and optimum time for the coagulation. In the third set of experiments, the coagulant and the aid concentration were varied while keeping pH and time at their optimum values already found. The results showed that the optimum operating conditions for turbidity r e m o v a l f r o m t h e d a i r y w a s t e w a t e r w e r e p H o f 5 , c o a g u l a t i o n t i m e o f 1 5 m i n a n d concentrations of both coagulant and its aid were 0.5 g/L aid each. Under these optimum conditions, 93.67% turbidity removal was found to be achieved. The results of this work were found to be better than those of [2] in which the maximum efficiency obtained was 71.09%. Therefore, it can be said that the efficiency of the coagulant has been enhanced with the addition of the tamarind tree bark, which is a polyelectrolyte coagulant aid. Furthermore, the kinetics study carried out on the process at the obtained optimum conditions revealed that the process reaction order and rate constant were 3.48 and 2.35×10-6 min-1 NTU-2.48 , respectively.Based on the results obtained, the use of pumpkin seed as natural coagulant and tamarind tree bark as aid for treatment of industrial wastewater is recommended as a pre-treatment step for industries because of its promising environmental friendliness.
... In recent years, numerous studies on a variety of plant materials which can be used as sources of natural coagulants have been reported. For example, natural coagulants from Calostropis procera (Okonku and Shittu, 2007), Nirmali seed and maize (Raghuwanshi et al., 2002), mesquite bean and Cactus latifaria (Diaz et al., 1999), Cassia angustifolia seed (Sanghi et al., 2002), different leguminous species (Antov et al., 2010) and chestnut (Sciban et al., 2009) have been investigated. The material which has received the greatest degree of attention is the seed of Moringa oleifera (Antov et al., 2010;Ndabigengesere et al., 1995;Madrona et al., 2011;Okuda et al., 1999;Nkurunziza et al., 2009). ...
Article
An improved and alternative method for the extraction of the active coagulant agent from Jatropha curcas seeds was developed and compared with the conventional water extraction method (JCSC-DW). In the new method, the seeds were extracted using different solvents at different concentrations, using NaCl (JCSC-NaCl) and NaOH (JCSC-NaOH) to extract the active coagulant agent in Jatropha. In addition, ultrasound was also investigated as a potential method to assist the extraction process. Batch coagulation experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the extracted coagulant achieved through various schemes. The effects of the dosage, pH and concentration of solvents were investigated for optimum turbidity removal at different values of initial synthetic wastewater turbidity from 50 to 500 NTU. JCSC-NaCl at 0.5 M was found to provide high turbidity removal of >99% compared to JCSC-DW and JCSC-NaOH at pH 3 using 120 mg/L of the coagulant agent. Among these three solvents, NaOH demonstrated the lowest performance in turbidity removal. Conventional extraction of the active coagulant agent by blending seeds in solvents for 2 minutes alone sufficiently extracted most of the coagulant component from Jatropha seed and provided 99.4% turbidity removal. Blending assisted by ultrasound demonstrated comparable turbidity removal in a shorter period of time and thus showed the potential to be used on larger scale. Analysis was done to determine the protein content which is believed to be the suspected coagulating agent. It was found that extraction of coagulant agent using NaCl yielded more protein compared to when using water and NaOH.
... A number of effective coagulants have been identified of plant origin. Some of the common ones include nirmali (Tripathi et al., 1976), M. oleifera (Olsen, 1987;Jahn, 1988), okra (Al-Samawi and Shokrala, 1996), Cactus latifaira and Prosopis juliflora, tannin from Valonia (Özacar and Sengil, 2000), apricot, peach kernel and beans (Jahn, 2001), and maize (Raghuwanshi et al., 2002). Bhole (1995) compared 10 natural coagulants from plant seeds. ...
Article
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This study presents the effects of storage duration and temperature of Strychnos potatorum stock solution on its coagulation efficiency. Coagulation efficiency of the seed extracts on water samples depended on the initial turbidity of the water sample. The stock solutions could clarify only highly turbid solutions. The optimum dosage of the stock solutions was 5% and optimal time required was 50 minutes. S. potatorum stock solutions, which were kept at room temperature (28 °C), had a shelf life of only five days and were able to remove turbidity from high and low turbidity water samples and no coagulation activity was observed for medium turbidity. The highest turbidity removals were observed for stock solutions, which were kept for three days. For stock solutions which were stored in refrigerator, shelf life was extended upto seven days, and the turbidity removal efficiencies improved from 45.9 to 63.8 for low and 43.7 to 64.9 % for high turbidity water samples, respectively.
... The dried seed were crushed and powdered and sieved through 200 µm nylon sieves and used as coagulant. Researchers had tried to utilize maize seed as coagulant/ coagulant aid (Raghuwanshi et al., 2002;Mandloi et al., 2004;Bhole, 1995). ...
Article
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The wastewater generated by the textile industry is rated as the most polluting among all industrial sectors considering both volumes discharged and effluent composition. Present investigation intended for COD and color removal from textile wastewater using naturally prepared coagulants i.e. Surjana Seed Powder (SSP), Maize Seed Powder (MSP) and Chitosan. Effect of coagulant dose, flocculation time and temperature has been studied. The Sludge Volume Index (SVI) and turbidity were examined for various effects. SSP was more effective than Chitosan and MSP for the removal of COD and color and also, Chitosan was more efficient than SSP and MSP considering SVI and turbidity. Maximum percentage reduction corresponds to 75.6 and 62.8 was obtained for removal of COD and color respectively, using SSP.
... These coagulants produce readily biodegradable and less voluminous sludge that amounts only 20% -30% that of alum treated counterpart [11]. Different environmentally friendly coagulants are proposed as an important alternative for water treatment from plant origin such as nirmali seed and maize [12], mesquite bean and cactus latifaria [13], cassia angustifolia seed [14], different leguminose species [15], acorn [16], coccinia indica fruit mucilage [17]. Nowadays, the material which has recently received the greatest attention of many researchers such as [18,19] is moringa oleifera. ...
Article
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Turbidity is a characteristic related to the concentration of suspended solids particles in water and has been adopted as an easy and reasonably accurate measure of overall water quality. The most widely applied water treatment processes, a combination of some or all of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation and filtration to reduce or eliminate turbidity and improve water quality. In this research, proposed approach was adopted on the basis of applying two sequent treatments that used coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes under certain operating conditions of mixing speed, mixing time and settling time for each treatment. The environmentally friendly natural coagulants of date seeds (DS) or pollen sheath (PS) from local Iraqi palm was used in the first treatment and alum was used in the second treatment at their predetermined optimum doses to treat low ( NTU), medium ( NTU) and high ( NTU) ben- tonite synthetic turbid water. Experimental results clearly show that the proposed approach was superior in perform- ance in terms of residual turbidity compared with conventional approach using both of (DS) and (PS) natural coagulants in which it achieved a significant reduction in turbidity to less of 5 NTU that meeting WHO drinking water guidelines for all tested synthetic turbid water. Moreover, in some cases, it produced excellent water quality having residual tur- bidity less of 0.1 NTU. In addition to decrease the settling time to 30 minutes and minimize risks of alum dose required to 60%. These viable advantages are significant to current practices in advanced water treatment technologies such as reverse osmosis in cost, energy, effectiveness, safety and maintenance. So, it is recommended to consider proposed approach in this research work to be a novel pretreatment approach in advanced water treatment.
... A polyelectrolyte in conjunction with a metal coagulant improves coagulation by accelerating the process of coagulation. The coagulant aid reduces the requirement of alum and improves the physical characteristic of flocs, which results in better quality of treated water [8]. Other coagulants can also be used. ...
Article
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The local wastewater treatment facility in Yanbu Industrial City receives 24,000 m 3 /day of industrial wastewater. This wastewater, mostly from refineries and petrochemical industries, goes through physical, biological and chemical stages of treatment. However, the treated water still fails to pass some of the permissible levels set by governmental agencies. This research paper investigated the enhancement of the treatment processes to reduce the turbidity of the effluent treated water. Ferric chloride, ferrous sulfate, alum and commercial synthetic cationic polymer were tried as coagu-lants. Different conditions (i.e., pH, temperature, dose, stirring rate) were searched. Ferrous sulfate and polymer re-duced the final turbidity to acceptable values with very low doses compared with other coagulant.
... Therefore, natural coagulants play a vital role in water sector that is facing challenges today on how to give people more access to clean drinking water by cost effective means, especially the rural poor who are incapable to afford any water treatment chemicals [11]. At present times, a large number of plant based materials such as Nephelium lappaceum, Jatropha curcas, Plantago ovato, Guar gum and others, are used as effective coagulants and also agro based materials are being used as coagulant aid [18].Nowadays various types of natural polyelectrolytes such as Chitosan [7] are also used in potable water treatment. ...
Article
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In this review, understanding the role of recently discovered new natural coagulants plays a significant role. Though Moringa olifera has maintained its role in water treatment, it cannot be depended whole heartedly because of the followings drawbacks: i) Large amount of seeds required for small water treatment, and ii) Increased settling time. Here, some of the new materials such as Plantago ovata, Rambutan, Cocinia indica, Cyamopsis tetragonobola and others are discussed for under-standing its role in treatment of water and wastewater. For instance, as per the research conducted, the Rambutan seed, results in more than 90% turbidity removal. FCE (FeCl3 induced crude extract) as an eco-friendly biocoagulant was revealed to be a very efficient coagulant for removing turbidity from waters; and the conventional extraction method of the active coagulant agent by blending the seeds in solvents for 2 min alone sufficiently extracts most of the coagulant component from the Jatropha seed and provides up to 99.4% turbidity removal. Likewise, the active components from other natural materials have also been extracted to overcome the difficulties posed by chemical coagulants.
... Other natural substances tried as coagulant aids include Moringa Olifera, red bean, and red maize (Gunaratna et al., 2007;Poumaye et al., 2012). Performance of agro-based materials, Surjana seeds, Nirmali seed, and maize as coagulant aids with alum as a coagulant was investigated by Raghuwanshi et al., (2002). ...
Conference Paper
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Production of potable water from most raw water sources usually uses the coagulation/flocculation process to remove turbidity. Alum is widely used as a coagulant. However, there is concern about its associated risk of Alzheimer disease. As a result, there has been considerable interest in the development of natural coagulants and coagulant aids in order to reduce the dose of alum. This study aimed to evaluate the use of the Corchorus Olitorius L. (COL), a leaf vegetable grown in Africa and the Middle East, as a novel coagulant aid. COL has important advantages over other coagulant aids. It is an agricultural waste that is widely produced and does not require further chemical treatment. Tests were carried out to evaluate the optimal dosages and conditions required to achieve optimum removal of both turbidity and humic acid. Based on the results of jar test, COL is an efficient coagulation aid. It has the ability to reduce both the primary coagulant dose from 600 mg l(-1) to 300 mg l(-1) and the residual turbidity from 5.63 to 0.26 NTU. This novel coagulant aid also reduced the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration to zero level. It also increased the rate of flocculation.
... As flocs density increases, inter particle contact increases due to Brownian motion, promoting agglomeration of colloidal particles into larger flocs for enhanced settling (Qasim et al. 2000). The removal of turbidity in water treatment is essential because naturally suspended particles are transport vehicles for undesirable organic and inorganic contaminants, taste, odour and colour-imparting compounds and pathogenic organisms (Raghuwanshi et al. 2002). The turbidity of water often results from the presence of colloidal particles that have a net negative surface charge. ...
Article
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An investigation on the effectiveness of Moringa oleifera seed for the treatment of domestic sewage was carried out in 15 litres plastic pots. Completely randomized design (CRD) experimental design was adopted. The treatments included: the control culture (no Moringa seed), 2 g of Moringa oleifera, 4 g of Moringa oleifera and 6 g Moringa oleifera. Physical, bacteriological and chemical properties of domestic sewage were investigated before and after treatment. The turbidity value was reduced drastically for the treatments. Water hardness was reduced from 64.2 mg/l to 36 mg/l for the treatments. Alkalinity was reduced from 148 mg/l to 114 mg/l for the treatments, total solids were reduced from 1280 mg/l to 1129 mg/l for the treatments, suspended solids were reduced from 384 mg/l to 306.3 mg/l for the treatments, dissolved oxygen was reduced from 124.8 mg/l to 112.7 mg/l for the treatments, dissolved solids were reduced from 896 mg/l to 820.3 mg/l for the treatments, and acidity was increased from 0.84 to 2.02 for the treatments. The pH value was reduced from 9.6 to 7.5 for the treatments. BOD was reduced from 96.5 mg/l to 80.2 mg/l for the treatments and COD was reduced from 81.6 mg/l to 72 mg/l for the treatments. Generally, the results showed that the higher the quantity of Moringa oleifera seed applied to sewage, the better the purification of the sewage.
... Vetiveria zizanoides plant was reported for its ability to improve the water quality in terms of clearness and pleasant smell [10]. Herbals like Strychnos potatorum, Moringa oleifera and Zee mays had been reported for their ability to reduce alum in drinking water through its coagulation property [11]. Literatures of Indian Traditional Siddha Medicine also mention various methods to purify drinking water. ...
Article
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About 10 different drinking water samples of BDU, Tiruchirappalli were collected for the water analysis and treatment with natural product. The physico chemical and biological parameters such as colour, odour, taste, pH, acidity, alkalinity, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, chloride, nitrate, PO 4 , SO 4 , bacteria, and fungi were examined. The values were compared with Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) values. The results revealed that the alkalinity, total hardness and chloride content of the water samples tested were more than the standard values. BDU samples were treated with Moringa oleifera to remove the hardness. Based the results obtained it was found that Moringa oleifera had the tendency to change the total hardness and reduce the microbial load.
... The removal of turbidity in water treatment is essential because naturally suspended particles are transport vehicles for undesirable organic and inorganic contaminants (Raghuwanshi, 2002) and electrostatic forces prevent agglomerating, making it impossible to remove them by sedimentation without the aid of coagulants (Diaz et al, 1999). Coagulants are added to water is to increase the number of flocs present in the treatment, as flocs density increases, inter particle contact increases due to Brownian motion, promoting agglomeration of colloidal particles into larger flocs for enhanced settling (Qasim, 2000). ...
Article
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The prevalence of water related diseases has led to the critical need for water treatment before domestic use; water treatment usually comprises several processes needed to improve the quality of raw water. This research aimed at comparing the efficiency of Moringa seed extract on twelve drinking water quality parameters, evaluating and comparing the performance and effectiveness of Moringa seed extract to alum in different domestic water samples in Ikole-Ekiti, Nigeria. Moringa Oleifera extract was added to collected water samples which were subjected to laboratory investigations, results showed that the Moringa oleifera seed extract improved the characteristics of odour, total solids, turbidity, pH, nitrate, chloride, hardness, iron and sulphate parameters in collected water samples; to levels that met standards for drinking water. It was recommended that private investors are encouraged to invest on the production and use of Moringa Oleifera based on its high economic value.
... Nirmali seed can be used as a coagulant to extract turbidity, bacteria, and viruses from water [15,25]. The extracted seed of chestnut and corn species could also be used as natural coagulants to eliminate the turbidity [29]. Chitosan can be used as a coagulant and the mechanisms for the reduction of turbidity have generally been charged neutralization due to positive amino grouping and bridging [33]. ...
Article
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Natural materials must be introduced as common as possible into the coagulant-flocculation process. Literature has indicated that it is worth developing and if possible turning natural material into commercial material. However, natural coagulants themselves are not adequate as the key treatment as their efficiency is restricted by growing constraints. Emerging technology and comprehensive studies actually contribute to the production of these limited conditions as well as to chemicals' success. Additionally, natural coagulants are widely used alongside artificial coagulants as coagulant aids. This analysis involves the form of coagulants used in the treatment of waste-water coagulation, in particular in the use of natural coagulants. This analysis paper also describes natural materials' potential for future growth as aids and their potential as sustainable composite coagulants.
... Also, elevated concentrations of organic and suspended particles in water raise water turbidity, serving as media of transmitting pathogenic organisms, hence, turbidity removal is an important process in water treatment (Choubey et al., 2012). Removal of turbidity in water treatment is basically achieved via simple and cheap processes such as coagulation in most rural and developing communities (Raghuwanshi et al., 2002;Miller et al., 2008); coagulation is mostly achieved via addition of conventional chemicals such as aluminum and ferric salts (Teh and Wu, 2014;Rocha et al., 2019). Aside from generation of toxic large sludge volume by these chemical coagulants, aluminium originally has been implicated as possible trigger of neurological disorder (Sethi et al., 2008;Ribes et al., 2010;Walton, 2013;Farhaoui and Derraz, 2016;Carnacho et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Health related and environmental side effects associated with conventional chemical coagulants used in water treatment has prompted the search for natural alternatives, especially of plant origin. This study investigated the water coagulation activities of a purified protein from Moringa oleifera seeds on the water from Opa reservoir of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. M. oleifera coagulant protein (MoCP) was purified via ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography respectively. Subunit and native molecular weight as determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and gel filtration was 14.2 kDa and 30.3 kDa respectively. Modified jar test was used to investigate the coagulation activity of the purified protein in comparison to that of conventional chemical coagulant (aluminium sulphate). MoCP significantly reduced turbidity (p < 0.05) and organic load which contributed to about 58.18% reduction in total coliform of treated water. MoCP also elicited promising antimicrobial activity against bacterial isolates in the water from Opa reservoir.
... These coagulants can be extracted either from different plant or animal sources. However, natural coagulants obtained from plant sources such as Moringa Oleifera [3], Maize [4], and Cactus Latifaria [5] etc., are more widely studied by researchers. Feculent water can be treated effectively by utilizing these natural coagulants, with ease of regeneration and lower stress on environment [6,7]. ...
Article
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Turbidity is a characteristic impurity of groundwater in Pakistan. Turbid water is not suitable for drinking purposes. The main objective of this study is to reduce water turbidity using natural coagulant, extracted from pine cones. The coagulation activity of coagulant is tested using synthetic turbid water. Coagulant activity is affected by various factors such as coagulant dose, water turbidity, pH, extract density and settling time. The optimum coagulant dose and water turbidities are fixed; 0.5 ml/L, 67, and 75 NTU, respectively. The highest coagulation activities are observed at pH values 2 and 12. Further, coagulation activity of pine cone extract is maximized to 82% when its density is 1.8 g/cm3. Moreover, most of the coagulation activity takes place in the first hour. The results recommend the potential use of pine cone extract for turbid water purification.
... household) production of drinking water. The removal of turbidity in water treatment is essential because naturally suspended particles are transport vehicles for undesirable organic and inorganic contaminants, taste-, odour-and colour-imparting compounds and pathogenic organisms (Raghuwanshi et al., 2002). The turbidity of water often results from the presence of colloidal particles that have a net negative surface charge. ...
... In this sense, several pieces of research have been carried out in an attempt to find natural coagulants economically feasible and coherent with the environmental issues. Thus, among them, the seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam (MO) stand out (Antov et al., 2010;Baptista et al., 2015;Raghuwanshi et al., 2002). MO extract can be used to treat several wastewater types, ...
Article
Many efforts have been made to minimize the polluting effect of wastewater containing dyes that are potentially toxic to the environment. The association of the coagulation/flocculation (CF) process, using saline extract of Moringa oleifera Lam (MO) seeds and subsequently ultrafiltration (UF) in TiO2-modified membranes was performed to remove reactive Black 5 dye (10 ppm, RB5) from aqueous solution. The efficiency of the hybrid process was measured by the removal of the dye concentration, apparent color and fouling parameters. The membranes were successfully modified as supported by characterization methods of SEM, FTIR-ATR and WCA. The efficiency of the processes, when applied separately was low. However, after CF and subsequently the filtration in a TiO2-modified membrane both parameters assessed (dye concentration, apparent color) reached 100% of the removal rate. The modified membranes substantially improved permeate fluxes, for instance, after CF the dye flux for modified membrane enhanced around 49% compared with the flux in the pristine membrane. According to these results, the combination of methods was able to effectively remove RB5 dye, in addition to improving permeate fluxes and keeping fouling at low levels.
... Based on this problem, an intensive research effort is being made worldwide to develop an effective, economically viable, and eco-friendly replacement for the conventional coagulants and flocculants currently used by different industries with high pollution potential (Sharma et al. 2006). Prominent among the new techniques for water and wastewater treatment is the use of natural coagulants, such as chitosan (Bergamasco et al. 2011), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) (Antov et al. 2010), fava bean (Vicia faba) seed (Kukić et al. 2015), Nirmali seed (Strychnos potatorum) (Raghuwanshi et al. 2002), and Moringa oleifera, whose use results in better quality water and a decrease in the use of inorganic coagulants. ...
Article
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The main objective of the present paper is to evaluate the use of Moringa oleifera (MO) as a natural coagulant in coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation (CFS) followed by the microfiltration (MF) or nanofiltration (NF) process in dairy wastewater treatment, focusing on determining the best association of treatments that can generate wastewater for reuse purposes. The association of CFS-MF-NF treatments showed a high removal efficiency for chemical oxygen demand (COD) (mean of 96%), turbidity, and color (mean of 99%) meeting water reuse standards, allowing the reutilization of the wastewater, in relation to the analyzed parameters. The results indicate a lower membrane fouling rate (63%), an increase in permeate flow, and better quality of the permeate, proving that the CFS-MF-NF treatment is the most suitable among all the tested treatments. Finally, the treated wastewater obtained with this process presents better quality than the wastewater obtained with the conventional treatments.
... Other natural coagulants are proposed as an important alternative in the water treatment plant. The coagulants are from plant origin such as nirmali seed and maize [8], Cassia angustifolia seed [9], mesquite bean and cactus latifaria [10], chestnut and acorn [11], Cocciniaindica fruit mucilage [12], and from diferent leguminous species [13]. Those natural products have coagulating activity in the treatment of turbid water and can be used as coagulant or as coagulant aid with other synthetic and industrial coagulants (aluminum sulfate…) in order to reduce the coagulant consumption in the water treatment plant [14]. ...
Chapter
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A Survey of Deep Learning Methods for WTP Control and Monitoring Bouchra Lamrini and El-Khadir Lakhal Additional information is available at the end of the chapter http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.77196 © 2016 The Author(s). Licensee InTech. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Drinking water is vital for everyday life. We are dependent on water for everything from cooking to sanitation. Without water, it is estimated that the average, healthy human won’t live more than 3–5 days. The water is therefore essential for the productivity of our community. The water treatment process (WTP) may vary slightly at diferent locations, depending on the technology of the plant and the water it needs to process, but the basic principles are largely the same. As the WTP is complex, traditional laboratory methods and mathematical models have limitations to optimize this type of operations. These pose challenges for water-sanitation services and research community. To overcome this mater, deep learning is used as an alternative to provide various solutions in WTP optimization. Compared to traditional machine learning methods and because of its practicability, deep learning has a strong learning ability to beter use data sets for data mining and knowledge extraction. The aim of this survey is to review the existing advanced approaches of deep learning and their applications in WTP especially in coagulation control and monitoring. Besides, we also discuss the limitations and prospects of deep learning. Keywords: artiicial neural networks, deep learning, machine learning, coagulation process, water treatment
... Natural coagulants have been used in water treatment for centuries. For example, Nirmali seed and maize [3], mesquite bean and Cactus latifaria [4], chestnut [5], Jatropha curcas [6], Moringa Oleifera [7] and leguminous species [8] have been used to remove turbidity of water. ...
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Studiile efectuate la nivel monsial au arătat că utilizarea reactivilor de coagulare-floculare asigură reducerea aldehidelor, fenolilor și aminoacizilor. Substanțele organice cu masa moleculară mare sunt ușor îndepărtate, în timp ce zaharurile și hidrații de carbon sunt relativ puțin reduși. Faza de coagulare este capabilă de a reduce 30-50% din concentrația de carbon organic biodegradabil (BDOC) și între 50-80% a carbonului organic asimilabil (AOC). Apariția coagulanților prehidrolizați și apoi a celor bicomponenți a crescut eficiența în reducerea conținutului mineral, organic şi biobacteriologic al apelor de suprafață folosite pentru potabilizare, concomitent cu obținerea unor concentrații minime de metal rezidual Într-un proces convențional de tratare a apei, coagularea și flocularea reprezintă etapele cheie ce determină destabilizarea particulelor și aglomerarea lor, care pot fi apoi eliminate prin procese de sedimentare și filtrare. Utilizarea eficientă a acestor procese ca parte a unei strategii de bariere multiple pentru reducerea materiei organice naturale și microbiene reprezintă o abordare operațională pentru producătorii de apă în asigurarea biostabilității apei livrate. Datorită complexității conceptului de biostabilitate a apei, este necesară definirea unui set de indicatori şi a unor limite acceptabile la nivel internațional. Determinările privind indicatorii de biostabilitate din punct de vedere al tehnicii de laborator trebuie să fie simple şi rapide, astfel încât să asigure implementarea de măsuri corective şi preventive.
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The brine shrimp lethality assay is considered a useful tool for preliminary assessment of toxicity. Food items and materials are essentially important to be screened (regularly) for toxicity. Coagulants used in preparing soft cheese or 'Wara' or 'Tofu', and in portable water treatment needed to be assessed preliminarily for toxicity and a simple bench top bioassay, brine shrimp lethality assay, is suitable for such preliminary investigation. Thirteen extracts obtained from seven coagulants, comprising five plants (natural) and two chemical coagulants used in this study showed different toxicity to brine shrimps. Aqueous extract of Terminalia cattapa displayed the highest toxicity (0.1 µg/ml), while the aqueous extract of Carica papaya was the least toxic of the plant extracts. MgCl 2 was the least toxic of the two chemical coagulants. At high concentrations all the coagulants were toxic to brine shrimps but toxicity reduced as concentration decreased. © 2010 International Formulae Group. All rights reserved.
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Agriculture is the important process of cultivating food and some other materials. The necessity of the agriculture is more. In Tamil Nadu, large amount of agricultural lands are available. Especially in hilly region some kind of special vegetables are cultivated. It includes carrot, beet root, potato, raddish, etc,. Some of those vegetables are washed with water before it comes to the market for sale. The surrounding of Ooty contains nearly 240 washing plants. Each plants are using more than 5000 litres of water in a single day to wash carrots. This waste water is directly mixed with water bodies like river. It may cause water pollution, soil erosion, growth of micro-organisms like bacteriae. So it needs to be recycled and reused for the same or various purpose. As the advanced technologies for the recycling or treatment process are economical, an alternate change is needed. The raw sample of carrot cleaning water is collected from Ketti Palada of Nilgiri District. This water is first coagulated with some natural coagulants such as Lime Powder, Aluminium Sulphate, Ferric chloride, Industrial Grade Alum, Powdered Stone Alum (Potash Alum) and the turbidity content is tested. As the turbidity decrement is better when coagulate with the powdered stone alum (potash alum), it is chosen to use in the natural filter media set up. This natural filter media set up contains a PVC pipe having 135mm diameter and 700mm height, cotton layers, aggregate (10mm and 20mm in size) layers, river sand, filter paper and potash alum. The basic tests for both raw and treated water have done and the results are compared. These tests include pH, Turbidity, Calcium hardness, Total hardness, Total dissolved solids (TDS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Sulphate, Nitrate, Phosphate, Chloride and coagulation tests. Another overhead tank contains normal tap water for backwash purpose. This treatment process is effective and low cost.
Article
This study investigates he optimization of coagulation–flocculation process for turbid water using Coccinia indica as a coagulant by the use of response surface methodology (RSM). To minimize residual turbidity, the experiments were carried out using jar test for low, medium, and high turbid water by varying pH and dosages of C. indica. A central composite design, which is the standard design of RSM, was used to evaluate the effects and interactions of three major factors: coagulant dosage, initial turbidity, and pH on the turbidity removal efficiency with 23-factorial design having three star points, six center points, and two replications. The quadratic model developed for the response studied indicates the optimum conditions to be 0.6 mg/L, 6.5, and 300 NTU for coagulant dosage, coagulation pH, and initial turbidity, respectively. At optimum conditions, turbidity removal was found to be 92.60%. The experimental findings were in close agreement with the model predictions. The response model was developed in this study with the value of R 2 as 94.1 and R 2 adjusted as 92.6%. Thus, RSM has demonstrated to be an appropriate approach for the optimization of the coagulation–flocculation process by statistical evaluation.
Chapter
Water pollution arising from the presence of heavy metals including arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury above their permissible limits set by the World Health Organization and Environmental Protection Agency has affected agriculture, human health, and aquatic life widely across the world. The toxic nature of heavy metals is due to their nonbiodegradable nature; hence they accumulate in living cells affecting their normal functions, therefore their removal from water is of the utmost importance. Natural polysaccharides originating from different bacteria, fungi, algae, and plant materials provide an efficient alternative to conventional techniques for the treatment of wastewater contaminated by heavy metals. This chapter describes various natural polysaccharides and their composites which can be used as efficient biosorbents for the removal of various heavy metals from wastewater and industrial effluent.
A coagulant protein from seeds of Moringa concanensis was isolated and purified using CM-Sepharose column chromatography. The column matrix was equilibrated with ammonium acetate buffer and maximum protein was eluted at 0.8 M NaCl. The molecular mass of the purified protein was identified as 14 kDa and its pl value was around 9.5. The purified coagulant protein retained 90% coagulation activity even after incubation at 90 degrees C for 3 h. The purified protein does not release organic content to the water. This paper suggests that coagulant protein from M. concanenesis can be used in drinking water treatment.
Article
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The treatment of yellow water which is collected from a urinal is treated in a way to reuse it as a flushing water effectively. An existing methodology was differently tried and worked it out to treat the yellow waters. The two parameters were concentrated much for the safety reusing of the treated yellow water. Those two are Odor and Color which has a great impact in the reusing. There are many existing methods to treat the yellow water and reusing it for gardening purpose and reusing many more. But those methods involve addition of chemicals and very high cost of budgeting. The core of the project is to treat that yellow water effluent in a natural method without using any chemicals. We tried with many of the natural coagulants such as Vetiver, Guava leaf, Tamarind, Rose and more. But the result was not concluded. Hence, we got existing methodologies using natural materials and we colloid them to a single structure and the process carried. The process consists of a Dilution, Aeration and two filtrations of Sand filter and Carbon filter. While those yellow water passing through those chambers sequentially it gets its results as the Aeration part removes the foul odor while Sand and Carbon filters removing the color in the yellow water. Eventually the phenomenal result is achieved.
Chapter
In order to optimise the coagulation efficiencies of polysaccharide-based coagulants (PBC), it is expedient that the underlying coagulation mechanism of this green resource should be elucidated to enable proper understanding of the process. Consequently, the present chapter provides an overview of the active coagulating species in PBCs that have been investigated in water and wastewater treatment operations. Based on the identities of the different active coagulating species in PBC, an insight into the underlying coagulation mechanisms of these varieties of coagulants are provided in this chapter.
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Cassava starch (CS) was evaluated as coagulant aid in the alum coagulation of an acid dye, Congo red (CR), from aqua system. The use of CS, as coagulant aid reduced the value of the optimum alum dose, required for coagulation of CR, by 50%. The abilities of alum and CS were assessed, separately, on the coagulation of varying concentrations of CR contaminated water by method of continuous variation of the alum and CS dosages. Alum coagulated the CR while the CS performed poorly. Varying dosages of the CS were combined with half the optimum alum dose, for each concentration, and reduction in the aqua CR concentration was observed. The percentage of CR removed was appreciable at all the pH studied and the amount of CR removed increased with increase in the flocculation time. The kinetics of the flocculation process was studied by fitting the data obtained to a kinetic model and the flocculation rate constant increased with increase in the initial CR concentration.
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Laboratory scale experiments were carried out to study the effectiveness of plant materials, viz. Polygonum sps, Typha sps, Limnophyton sps, Commelina sps and Ipomoea sps towards removal of hazardous components including certain important physico-chemical parameters of contaminated Water. The polluted water when treated with the plants extracts selected for the study removed turbidity upto 97 % following Coagulation-flocculation process. Maximum turbidity from the polluted water was removed by Typha sps.The pH of water tends to be neutral, the most suitable pH for drinking water which was slightly acidic before treatment with plant extracts. The wastewater revealed better Conductivity results after the treatment. Simultaneously, amount of solid waste get decreased, making the water more potable. Aquatic plants thus act as the best natural coagulants, thereby reducing the level of contaminants from the polluted water. Also, other natural bodies which are used by the rural people for domestic purposes can be purified by implementing this cost effective and ecofriendly technology.
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Water is indispensable and one of the precious natural resources of our planet and it is getting polluted. So there is a great need for treating water that too a cheap and safe method. Hence an attempt was made in this study to treat water with bioproduct. About 10 different drinking water samples of Bharathidasan University (BDU), Trichirappalli were collected, analyzed and treated with natural product. The physico chemical and biological parameters such as colour, odour, taste, pH, acidity, alkalinity, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, chloride, nitrate, PO4, SO4, bacteria, and fungi were examined before and after treatment with Phyllanthus embilca. The values were compared with Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) values. The results revealed that the alkalinity and total hardness of the water samples tested were more than the standard values before treatment. Treatment of the samples with Phyllanthus embilca removed the hardness.
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The wastewater generated by the textile industry is rated as the most polluting among all industrial sectors considering both volumes discharged and effluent composition. The present investigation is intended for the removal of COD, BOD, and color from textile wastewater using naturally prepared coagulants, namely, Surjana seed powder (SSP), maize seed powder (MSP), and chitosan. The effects of coagulant dose, flocculation time, and temperature are studied. The sludge volume index (SVI) and turbidity are examined for their various effects. SSP is more effective than chitosan and MSP for the removal of COD and color, and chitosan is more efficient than SSP and MSP in terms of SVI and turbidity. Maximum percentage reduction corresponding to 75.6 and 62.8 is obtained for the removal of COD and color, respectively, using SSP.
Article
During the past few years, many processed natural coagulants were developed and studied in India and abroad. A few edible materials were used as coagulants. In the present paper, attempt is made to evaluate their relative performance. The edible materials chosen for the present studies were terminalia chebula, terminalia belerica and morinda citrifolia. The experiments were conducted on batch basis and aspects like effect of pH, sequence of addition of main coagulant and coagulant aid and variation in the amount of coagulant were studied.
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Removal of trace contaminants from wastewaters (metals, chlorinated hydrocarbons, viruses) to meet increasingly stringent effluent discharge standards may often require treatment levels beyond secondary. Based on analysis of the partition of adsorbed pollutants between size classes in a distribution of particulates, and experimentally determined removal efficiencies of granular filters as a function of particulate size, the feasibility of granular filters for meeting effluent standards for trace pollutants is demonstrated. A hypothetical example using published data for discharges into southern California coastal waters illustrates the suggested methodology, which should also be applicable to evaluating trace contaminant removal for water treatment applications.
Article
Alumininum is one of the trace inorganic metals present in drinking water. Aluminum present in alum (a widely used coagulant for water treatment) as well as naturally occurring aluminum in raw water is transformed into various forms (speciation) during drinking water treatment. Speciation of aluminum during drinking water treatment is essential to understand the behavior of aluminum and aluminum species removal during water treatment and also to identify the factors influencing residual aluminum in treated waters. In this connection, an aluminum speciation study was conducted at the Buffalo Pound water treatment plant. Aluminum was fractionated into eight different forms (total, soluble + colloidal, soluble, organic, inorganic, particulate, suspended, and colloidal aluminum). Speciation results showed that raw lake water total aluminum concentrations were highly variable, and almost all of the raw water particulate aluminum (predominant species of total aluminum) was present in suspended form. Soluble aluminum levels throughout the plant (raw to treated) were less than 50 μg/L and most of the soluble aluminum was in organic form. The study showed that granular activated carbon was capable of removing soluble aluminum in organic form. Residual aluminum present in treated water consisted of mostly particulate and organic forms of aluminum. Raw water particulate aluminum correlates well (R2 = 0.90) with raw water turbidity, implying that removal of turbidity from raw water will reduce particulate aluminum in treated waters. Similarly the organic fraction of residual aluminum was influenced by the high dissolved organic carbon present in the raw water. As the soluble aluminum concentrations were less than 50 μg/L, the plant would not have any difficulty to meet a guideline value for aluminum in treated waters in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 mg/L as dissolved aluminum.
Article
The work done to study the relative performance of some natural products as coagulants and coagulant aids is reported in this paper. The results of the batch experiments on aspects such as effect of pH, effect of sequence of addition of coagulant and coagulant aid and the effect of variation of coagulant dose are reported and discussed. It is felt that these products can be used as coagulants and coagulant aids and the question of toxicity does not arise as they are edible.
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A random selection of 186 water utilities was used for this study in which raw and finished water samples were collected from each facility five times throughout a year and analyzed for iron and aluminum by atomic absorption techniques. The water samples were categorized by the supply source, the type of water, and the type of coagulation used in the treatment process (aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride, other coagulants such as cationic polymers, or no coagulant). The samples were also categorized according to the 10 US Environmental Protection Agency regions and 4 population categories. The results indicate that aluminum is more likely to exist in surface waters than in groundwaters and that there is a 40-50% chance that alum coagulation increases the aluminum concentration of finished water above its original concentration in the raw water.
Article
This paper evaluates direct filtration as a treatment method for water from five sources in Virginia. The most effective filtration scheme consisted of a three-minute rapid mix with alum and a cationic polymer used in combination as primary coagulants. The rapid mix was followed by filtration at 3.5 mm/s (5 gpm/sq ft) through 51 cm (20 in.) of 1.3-mm effective size (e.s.) anthracite coal and 25 cm (10 in.) of 0.45-mm e.s. silica sand. This configuration produced filtered water that met the AWWA goal for turbidity with filter run times of at least eight hours when color and turbidity in the raw water were less than 15-20 units.
Article
Cationic polymers used for water treatment have proved to be very effective either as filter aids or as primary coagulants. However, which polymer works best seems to depend upon several variables including mixing conditions and polymer molecular weights. This study evaluates the performance of several different commercial polymers in direct filtration applications.
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This article demonstrates how cationic and anionic polymers coagulate or flocculate (or both) dilute clay suspensions under controlled solution conditions. Because the concentrations of polymer required to destabilize dilute clay suspensions may be in the magnitude of a few micrograms per liter, an extremely sensitive and accurate method was developed by the authors for determining microquantities of residual polymer in the supernatant of the destabilized and settled clay suspensions to fully evaluate the polymer-clay interactions. This method uses C14-labeled polymers and liquid scintillation counting techniques.
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This work involves a laboratory-scale investigation of the effects of suspended particle size and coagulant type on the performance of contact or inline direct filtration (no flocculation). Dilute monodisperse and polydisperse suspensions of polystyrene particles (0.27-, 1.24-, 1.32-, and 10-1xm diameters) were applied to shallow beds of 0.4-mm glass-bead filter media after destabilization with either cationic polymer or calcium chloride. The particle removal and head-loss results show dramatic effects of particle size on filtration performance. Submicron particles significantly improve the removal of larger particles in mixed size suspensions and also dominate head-loss development. Head-loss development is typically linear with time and for mixed suspensions is the same as, or somewhat lower than, head loss for monodisperse suspensions of the smaller-sized particle. Polymer destabilization generally causes more head loss than calcium chloride destabilization for a similar extent of particle deposition.
Article
Minor-element content of water supplies has received relatively little study. A Denver investigation compares trace mineral contents of raw water against that of processed water.
Article
In order to better understand the processes that affect the chemistry and transport of residual Al, solutions were monitored prior to and following water treatment. The use of alum increased the total Al concentration from 0.37 ± 0.33 μmol · L−1 in raw water to 1.8 ± 0.33 μmol · L−1 in filtered water. Approximately 11% of the Al input (raw water and alum) was not retained during treatment, and this residual Al was conservatively transported throughout the distribution system. The treated water contained only a small amount (0.26 ± 0.26 μmol · L−1) of particulate Al. Of the remaining Al (1.5 ± 0.33 μmol · L−1), 29% was associated with organic matter (0.44 ± 0.30 μmol · L−1), 52% was present as monomeric alumino-hydroxide complexes (0.81 ± 0.37 μmol · L−1), and 19% was complexed with F (0.30 ± 0.15 μmol · L−1). Results indicate that chemical addition associated with water treatment (e.g., fluoridation, H2SO4 addition) and seasonal variations in water temperature were largely responsible for changes in the speciation of Al.
Article
With recognizing that particles represent transport vehicles for undesirable chemical contaminants, and potentially disease causing microbial pathogens, the removal of particle materials becomes important to protect the public health. However, due to the complicated filtration mechanisms and interactions between the polymer and particles, the selection of polymers currently remains empirical. This study was initiated to investigate the feasibility of the use of polymers as filter aids for water containing lime softening particles; explore the roles of polymer characteristics in the filtration process; and examine major factors affecting the performance of polymer aided filtration. Seven representative polymers with different molecular weights and charges were tested using a declining rate filter pilot plant. The results show that at a starting flow rate of 15 m/h, the removal of turbidity particles could be significantly improved by using polymers as a filter aid. It was also found that the impacts of initial filter ripening could be substantially reduced and no turbidity breakthrough was observed after 3 days of operation. However, the use of polymer might significantly increase the filtration headloss, especially for the polymers with high molecular weight. To produce a high quality filtrate while ensuring the acceptable filtration productivity, low or moderately low molecular weight polymers are recommended. For a low molecular weight polymer, its optimum mixing intensity and polymer dose were found around 700 s−1 and 0.01 mg/l, respectively. On the basis of the results and particle properties, it is believed that interparticle bridging is the dominant mechanism underlying the interactions between polymers and lime softening particles.
Article
Moringa oleifera is a tropical plant whose seeds contain an edible oil and water soluble substance which has excellent coagulation properties for treating water and wastewater. The efficiency and properties of Moringa oleifera as a natural coagulant in water treatment were studied and compared with alum, which is presently the most widely used industrial coagulant. It is show that the active agents in aqueous Moringa extracts are dimeric cationic proteins, having molecular weight of 13 kDa and isoelectric points between 10 and 11. The mechanism of coagulation with Moringa oleifera appears to consist of adsorption and neutralization of the colloidal charges. Compared to alum, the optimal dosage of shelled Moringa oleifera seeds was almost the same (50 mg/l). In case of the non-shelled seeds, the dosage is greater (500 mg/l) for low initial turbidity waters. The purified proteins are more effective coagulants than alum. As a coagulant, Moringa is non-toxic and biodegradable. It is environmentally friendly, and unlike alum, does not significantly affect the pH and conductivity of the water after the treatment. Sludge produced by coagulation with Moringa is not only innocuous but also four to five times less in volume than the chemical sludge produced by alum coagulation. So, as a coagulant, Moringa oleifera may be a potentially viable substitute to alum.
Article
Contenido: 1) Administración del diseño del proyecto; 2) Estudios preliminares; 3) Diseño del tratamiento básico de los procesos unitarios; 4) Instalaciones subordinadas de la planta; 5) Diseño de los componentes de la planta; 6) Elementos del diseño detallado; 7) Tratamientos específicos del agua; 8) Administración de la procuración y fases de construcción; 9) Manual de operaciones y mantenimiento y formación del operador; 10) Inicio de operación de la planta y servicios de continuidad.
Article
The aluminum content of muscle, bone and brain was measured in control subjects and in uremic patients on dialysis who had been maintained on phosphate-binding aluminum gels. The mean muscle aluminum was 14.8 ppm, and the trabecular-bone aluminum 98.5 ppm in the patients on dialysis, as compared with 1.2 and 2.4 in control subjects (P less than 0.05). Brain gray-matter aluminum values in a group of uremic patients on dialysis who died of a neurologic syndrome of unknown cause were 25 ppm as compared with 6.5 ppm in a group of uremic patients on dialysis who died of other causes and 2.2 ppm in control subjects. The fact that brain gray-matter aluminum was higher in all patients with the dialysis-associated encephalopathy syndrome than any of the control subjects or other uremic patients on dialysis suggests that this syndrome may be due to aluminum in intoxication.
Article
Neurofibrillary degeneration is an important pathological finding in senile and presenile dementia of the Alzheimer type. Experimentally, aluminum induces neurofibrillary degeneration in neurons of higher mammals. Aluminum concentrations approaching those used experimentally have been found in some regions of the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease.
Natural polyelec-trolytes as coagulant aid
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Bulusu KR, Thergaonkar VP, Kulkarni DN, Pathak BN. 1968. Natural polyelec-trolytes as coagulant aid. Indian J. Environ. Health 10:239–264
Turbidity removal using alum and polya-luminum silicate sulphate
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Selvapathy P, Vijayaraghavan K. 1994. Turbidity removal using alum and polya-luminum silicate sulphate. Indian J. Environ. Prot. 14:161–166
Nirmali seed – a naturally occurring coagulant Improving removal of turbidity causing materials by using polymers as a filter aid
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Aluminum in water: how it can be removed? Use aluminum salts in treatment
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Jekel MR. 1991. Aluminum in water: how it can be removed? Use aluminum salts in treatment, p. 25–31. In Proceedings of Conference of the International Water Supply Assoc., Copenhagen
Studies on Nirmali seed extract as a coagulant and coagulant aid
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