Prevalence of and risk factors for asymptomatic rotator cuff tears in postmenopausal women
From the Department of Medicine and Science of Aging, University G. d'Annunzio, Chieti-Pescara, Chieti Scalo, Italy. Menopause (New York, N.Y.)
(Impact Factor: 3.36).
06/2013; 21(3). DOI: 10.1097/GME.0b013e31829638e3
Rotator cuff tendon tears increase with age, but no study has specifically addressed prevalence changes in women from premenopause to postmenopause. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of rotator cuff asymptomatic tears in postmenopausal women and to study their relationship with anthropometric and metabolic measures.
Premenopausal and postmenopausal women who were free from shoulder pain/functional impairment were enrolled. Body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were evaluated. Both shoulders were examined by ultrasound imaging. For the purposes of this study, only full-thickness tears (classified as small, large, or massive) were taken into account.
The prevalence of full-thickness tears (mainly localized in the supraspinatus tendon of the dominant side) was significantly higher in the postmenopausal group (8.9% vs 3.1%), with small, medium, and large tears in 60%, 20%, and 20% of cases, respectively. In women with tears, intragroup comparison showed significantly higher values for BMI and fasting glucose, and lower levels of HDL cholesterol; no difference was found for triglycerides and total cholesterol in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. On multiple logistic regression analysis, the probability of detecting a tear in both groups was positively related to high values of BMI and lower levels of HDL cholesterol.
The prevalence of asymptomatic full-thickness tears is increased in the postmenopausal period, and there is an association between tears and metabolic disorders. Because asymptomatic tears have a great potential to evolve into symptomatic painful shoulder, a precocious discovery of this pathology may allow the planning of preventive and therapeutic measures.
Available from: Emanuele Maiorano
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ABSTRACT: Calcifying tendinopathy (CT) of the shoulder is a common painful disorder, although the etiology and pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Recent theories about the role of excessive mechanical load in the genesis of CT have been proposed. Driven by the interest for these new theories, we investigated the hypothesis of a relationship between work-related repetitive movements of the upper arm, considered a potential cause of shoulder overload, and the presence of shoulder CT. A secondary aim was to obtain data on CT prevalence in a female sample from the working-age general population, as little data currently exist. 199 supermarket cashiers and 304 female volunteers recruited from the general population underwent a high-resolution ultrasonography of the rotator cuffs of both shoulders, and the presence of tendinopathies, with or without calcification, was recorded. The prevalence of calcific tendinopathy was 22.6 % in the cashiers group and 24.4 % in the control group. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence of calcifications between the two groups (p = 0.585), either for the dominant shoulder [OR = 0.841 (95 % CI 0.534–1.326)] or for the non-dominant shoulder [OR = 0.988 (95 % CI 0.582–1.326)]. We observed bilateral calcifications in 8.5 % of cashiers, and 9.6 % of controls, and an increase in prevalence of CT with age in both groups. Work-related repetitive movements of the upper arm did not induce a higher prevalence of shoulder CT compared with the female sample from the general population. If CT etiopathogenesis is related to mechanical load, CT onset may be influenced not only by loading history, but also by individual factors.
Level of evidence Prognosis study, Level II.
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To evaluate the efficacy of a specific rehabilitation program for patients in whom ultrasound-guided percutaneous treatment (UGPT) was performed for rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy (RCCT).
Subjects and methods:
In this prospective observational study, 86 patients (22 males and 64 females) with shoulder calcific tendinopathy treated with UGPT were enrolled. At the end of the procedure, a corticosteroid injection into the subacromial-subdeltoid bursa was performed. The patients were then asked to follow a specific rehabilitation protocol (2 times/week for 5 weeks) that focused on mobility, strength and function. At baseline and after 6 weeks, clinical parameters, visual analog scale (VAS) and Constant-Murley scale (CMS) scores and ultrasound (US) features were collected.
The mean age of the patients was 48.9 ± 8.4 years and their mean BMI was 22.7 ± 2.1. Considering the whole cohort, the treatment was effective, with a significant decrease in the VAS score and an improvement in the CMS score. Thereafter, on the basis of the compliance to the rehabilitation program (by self-report), 53 and 33 patients were included in the rehabilitation group (Rehab group; performed exercises ≥2 times/week) and the No Rehab group (performed exercises <2 times/week), respectively. The comparison between the groups showed that the subjects who performed the exercises regularly had better results in terms of pain and functional recovery, and less associated diseases (e.g. adhesive bursitis and tenosynovitis of the long head of the biceps) than those who were less compliant with the program.
UGPT, followed by a specific postprocedure rehabilitation program, was an effective treatment for RCCT.
Available from: Teun Teunis
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ABSTRACT: Abnormalities of the rotator cuff are more common with age, but the exact prevalence of abnormalities and the extent to which the presence of an abnormality is associated with symptoms are topics of debate. Our aim was to review the published literature to establish the prevalence of abnormalities of the rotator cuff and to determine if the prevalence of abnormalities increases with older age in 10-year intervals. In addition, we assessed prevalence in 4 separate groups: (1) asymptomatic patients, (2) general population, (3) symptomatic patients, and (4) patients after shoulder dislocation.
We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to February 24, 2014, and included studies reporting rotator cuff abnormalities by age. Thirty studies including 6112 shoulders met our criteria. We pooled the individual patient data and calculated proportions of patients with and without abnormalities per decade (range, younger than 20 years to 80 years and older).
Overall prevalence of abnormalities increased with age, from 9.7% (29 of 299) in patients aged 20 years and younger to 62% (166 of 268) in patients aged 80 years and older (P < .001) (odds ratio, 15; 95% confidence interval, 9.6-24; P < .001). There was a similar increasing prevalence of abnormalities regardless of symptoms or shoulder dislocation.
The prevalence of rotator cuff abnormalities in asymptomatic people is high enough for degeneration of the rotator cuff to be considered a common aspect of normal human aging and to make it difficult to determine when an abnormality is new (e.g., after a dislocation) or is the cause of symptoms.
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