Prevalence of and risk factors for asymptomatic rotator cuff tears in postmenopausal women

ArticleinMenopause (New York, N.Y.) 21(3) · June 2013with18 Reads
DOI: 10.1097/GME.0b013e31829638e3 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Objective: Rotator cuff tendon tears increase with age, but no study has specifically addressed prevalence changes in women from premenopause to postmenopause. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of rotator cuff asymptomatic tears in postmenopausal women and to study their relationship with anthropometric and metabolic measures. Methods: Premenopausal and postmenopausal women who were free from shoulder pain/functional impairment were enrolled. Body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were evaluated. Both shoulders were examined by ultrasound imaging. For the purposes of this study, only full-thickness tears (classified as small, large, or massive) were taken into account. Results: The prevalence of full-thickness tears (mainly localized in the supraspinatus tendon of the dominant side) was significantly higher in the postmenopausal group (8.9% vs 3.1%), with small, medium, and large tears in 60%, 20%, and 20% of cases, respectively. In women with tears, intragroup comparison showed significantly higher values for BMI and fasting glucose, and lower levels of HDL cholesterol; no difference was found for triglycerides and total cholesterol in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. On multiple logistic regression analysis, the probability of detecting a tear in both groups was positively related to high values of BMI and lower levels of HDL cholesterol. Conclusions: The prevalence of asymptomatic full-thickness tears is increased in the postmenopausal period, and there is an association between tears and metabolic disorders. Because asymptomatic tears have a great potential to evolve into symptomatic painful shoulder, a precocious discovery of this pathology may allow the planning of preventive and therapeutic measures.
    • "Very few studies have investigated menopause-or HRT-related associations with tendon properties and tendon health. Those that have done so reported an increase in the prevalence of tendinopathy and tendon tears during the postmenopausal period [75]. The study by Hansen et al. [76] showed that long-term use of estradiol supplementation was associated with an increased patellar tendon mature collagen synthesis rate, higher collagen fibril density, presence of smaller fibrils, and lower tendon stiffness in postmenopausal women of mean age 60 years. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure to ovarian sex steroids during different life phases has long-term effects on women's health and wellbeing. Menopause is characterized by rapid decline in ovarian sex steroids already during mid-life, between the ages of 46 and 52. Due to the menopause-related hormonal changes, women in most western countries live more than one-third of their lives in postmenopausal status. The role of ovarian steroids on neuromuscular function in middle-aged and older women has been investigated since the 1980s with increasing volume of research during the last decades. This review considers how different components of the neuromuscular system may be influenced by estrogens and so affects neuromuscular function in postmenopausal women. The main focus is on muscle strength and power, which are closely associated with mobility and functional capacity among older populations. In the end of the review, we summarize recent findings on the underlying biological mechanisms in skeletal muscle that could explain the association between hormone replacement therapy and neuromuscular function among postmenopausal women.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014
    • "Our data also support the role of aging in the formation of calcifications, as the percentage of subjects with calcific deposits increased with age in both groups. The overall increase observed with age is comparable with the existing data regarding rotator cuff injuries and aging both in the general population [38, 39] and among women [40]. In the oldest age-class of cashiers, the results for the dominant arm did not show the same steady increase of CT observed in their non-dominant shoulder and in the control group, although this difference was not statistically significant . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calcifying tendinopathy (CT) of the shoulder is a common painful disorder, although the etiology and pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Recent theories about the role of excessive mechanical load in the genesis of CT have been proposed. Driven by the interest for these new theories, we investigated the hypothesis of a relationship between work-related repetitive movements of the upper arm, considered a potential cause of shoulder overload, and the presence of shoulder CT. A secondary aim was to obtain data on CT prevalence in a female sample from the working-age general population, as little data currently exist. 199 supermarket cashiers and 304 female volunteers recruited from the general population underwent a high-resolution ultrasonography of the rotator cuffs of both shoulders, and the presence of tendinopathies, with or without calcification, was recorded. The prevalence of calcific tendinopathy was 22.6 % in the cashiers group and 24.4 % in the control group. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence of calcifications between the two groups (p = 0.585), either for the dominant shoulder [OR = 0.841 (95 % CI 0.534–1.326)] or for the non-dominant shoulder [OR = 0.988 (95 % CI 0.582–1.326)]. We observed bilateral calcifications in 8.5 % of cashiers, and 9.6 % of controls, and an increase in prevalence of CT with age in both groups. Work-related repetitive movements of the upper arm did not induce a higher prevalence of shoulder CT compared with the female sample from the general population. If CT etiopathogenesis is related to mechanical load, CT onset may be influenced not only by loading history, but also by individual factors. Level of evidence Prognosis study, Level II.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a specific rehabilitation program for patients in whom ultrasound-guided percutaneous treatment (UGPT) was performed for rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy (RCCT). Subjects and methods: In this prospective observational study, 86 patients (22 males and 64 females) with shoulder calcific tendinopathy treated with UGPT were enrolled. At the end of the procedure, a corticosteroid injection into the subacromial-subdeltoid bursa was performed. The patients were then asked to follow a specific rehabilitation protocol (2 times/week for 5 weeks) that focused on mobility, strength and function. At baseline and after 6 weeks, clinical parameters, visual analog scale (VAS) and Constant-Murley scale (CMS) scores and ultrasound (US) features were collected. Results: The mean age of the patients was 48.9 ± 8.4 years and their mean BMI was 22.7 ± 2.1. Considering the whole cohort, the treatment was effective, with a significant decrease in the VAS score and an improvement in the CMS score. Thereafter, on the basis of the compliance to the rehabilitation program (by self-report), 53 and 33 patients were included in the rehabilitation group (Rehab group; performed exercises ≥2 times/week) and the No Rehab group (performed exercises <2 times/week), respectively. The comparison between the groups showed that the subjects who performed the exercises regularly had better results in terms of pain and functional recovery, and less associated diseases (e.g. adhesive bursitis and tenosynovitis of the long head of the biceps) than those who were less compliant with the program. Conclusions: UGPT, followed by a specific postprocedure rehabilitation program, was an effective treatment for RCCT.
    Article · Sep 2014
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