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Technology and Informal Education: What Is Taught, What Is Learned


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The informal learning environments of television, video games, and the Internet are producing learners with a new profile of cognitive skills. This profile features widespread and sophisticated development of visual-spatial skills, such as iconic representation and spatial visualization. A pressing social problem is the prevalence of violent video games, leading to desensitization, aggressive behavior, and gender inequity in opportunities to develop visual-spatial skills. Formal education must adapt to these changes, taking advantage of new strengths in visual-spatial intelligence and compensating for new weaknesses in higher-order cognitive processes: abstract vocabulary, mindfulness, reflection, inductive problem solving, critical thinking, and imagination. These develop through the use of an older technology, reading, which, along with audio media such as radio, also stimulates imagination. Informal education therefore requires a balanced media diet using each technology's specific strengths in order to develop a complete profile of cognitive skills.
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DOI: 10.1126/science.1167190
, 69 (2009); 323Science et al.Patricia M. Greenfield,
Taught, What Is Learned
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19. E. Klopfer, Augmented Reality: Research and Design of
Mobile Educational Games (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA,
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multiuser virtual environments (MUVEs) are funded by
the NSF, and our research on augmented reality is
funded by the U.S. Department of Education. Any
opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations
expressed in this material are those of the author and do
not necessarily reflect the views of these funding
Supporting Online Material
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Technology and Informal Education:
What Is Taught, What Is Learned
Patricia M. Greenfield
The informal learning environments of television, video games, and the Internet are producing learners with a
new profile of cognitive skills. This profile features widespread and sophisticated development of visual-spatial
skills, such as iconic representation and spatial visualization. A pressing social problem is the prevalence
of violent video games, leading to desensitization, aggressive behavior, and gender inequity in opportunities
to develop visual-spatial skills. Formal education must adapt to these changes, taking advantage of new
strengths in visual-spatial intelligence and compensating for new weaknesses in higher-order cognitive
processes: abstract vocabulary, mindfulness, reflection, inductive problem solving, critical thinking, and
imagination. These develop through the use of an older technology, reading, which, along with audio
media such as radio, also stimulates imagination. Informal education therefore requires a balanced media
diet using each technologys specific strengths in order to develop a complete profile of cognitive skills.
Informal educationwhat goes on outside
of the classroomshapes our thought pro-
cesses as they develop from early childhood.
Media technologies are an extremely impor-
tant part of informal learning environments.
Media are also part of formal learning envi-
ronments, the subject of other papers in this
special issue on educational technology. The
technologies composing the informal learning
environment are generally intended for enter-
tainment rather than education. However, they
are important sources of cognitive socialization,
often laying the foundation for knowledge ac-
quisition in school.
In the midst of much press about the de-
creasing use of the print medium and failing
schools, a countervailing trend may come as a
surprise: the continuing global rise in IQ per-
formance over more than 100 years. This rise,
known as the Flynn effect, is concentrated in
nonverbal IQ performance (mainly tested through
visual tests) but has also occurred, albeit to a lesser
extent, in verbal IQ (15). Rising IQ performance
is attributable to multiple factors: increased levels
of formal education, urbanization, societal com-
plexity, improved nutrition, smaller family size,
and technological development (57). These
are interrelated rather than independent fac-
tors; they are part and parcel of the worldwide
movement from smaller-scale, low-tech com-
munities with subsistence economies toward
larger-scale, high-tech societies with commer-
cial economies (8). Which specific factor is
most important in raising
IQ performance at a given
time and place depends on
the locus of social change
occurring then and there
(6,8). Increasing levels of
formal education and ur-
banization were particular-
ly important in the United
States and Europe in the
first half of the 20th century
(9,10). More recently, tech-
nological change may have
taken the dominant role.
The changing balance
of media technologies has
For example, as verbal IQ
has risen, verbal SATs have
fallen. Paradoxically, omni-
present television may be
responsible for the spread
of the basic vocabulary (11)
that drives verbal IQ scores,
while simultaneously the de-
cline in recreational reading
may have led to the loss of
the more abstract vocabulary
driving verbal SAT scores
Evidence for the Flynn Effect
Among several kinds of test data from 20
industrialized countries, Flynn compared
records of British people tested in 1942 and
1992 on Raven Progressive Matrices (Fig.
1 shows a sample item). Between 1942 and
1992, average performance incr ea se d f or all age
groups (Fig. 2) (4). Note that the oldest members
of the first cohort tested grew up in the last two
decades of the 19th century, extending the baseline
back that far.
The new organization of Flynns data in
Fig. 2 reveals another important point: Not only
is performance on the matrices better in the lat-
er cohort but cognitive aging is also reduced
witness an almost flat slope of performance
across the age groups tested in 1992. This slope
contrasts with the age-related decline seen in the
groups tested in 1942.
Male military recruits supplied most of Flynns
data, skewing samples toward a relatively low
socioeconomic population and excluding wom-
en. A University of California, Los Angeles, team
(5) later demonstrated the Flynn effect in rural
Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles,
CA 90095, USA.
12 3
45 6
Fig. 1. A simple item from Raven Standard Progressive Matrices. From
the six inserts at the bottom of the figure, the participant selects the one
that logically fits in the matrix above. [Figure A5 of the Raven Standard
Progressive Matrices, by J. C. Raven. Copyright 1938, 1976 by J. C. Raven
Ltd. Reprinted with permission] SCIENCE VOL 323 2 JANUARY 2009 69
on January 1, 2009 www.sciencemag.orgDownloaded from
Kenya, testing younger people, both boys and
Technology and Visual Intelligence
Raven Progressive Matrices, like most so-
called nonverbal IQ tests, provide a measure
of visual intelligence, a concept that includes
but is broader than Gardnersspatial intel-
ligence(14). From the second half of the 20th
century to the present time in the United States,
highly popular forms of technology, such as
television (currently with 99% penetration) (15)
and, more recently, video games (currently with
97% penetration) (16), have taken a major role
in developing visual intelligence on a mass
scale, producing learners with capabilities that
match the visual demands of modern science
and technology.
The understanding of pictures or icons de-
velops at an earlier age than the ability to read
words (17). Building on this ontogenetic pri-
macy, television, film, and video games augment
basic visual literacy skills such as iconic repre-
sentation (18), spatial orientation (19,20), spa-
tial visualization (2026), and other visual skills
(27) that are important in the virtual world of
computers (28,29). This cognitive socializa-
tion produces learners who are particularly well
suited to take advantage of media-rich environ-
ments for formal education (30,31) and possess
the visual literacy skills used in many modern
Iterative and reciprocal processes are un-
doubtedly involved: Designers raised on visual
media themselves create ever-more-sophisticated
visual environments, in turn augmenting the vi-
sual skills of the next generation of young con-
sumers. Take divided attention: keeping track of
multiple events at different locations on a screen.
Correlational and experimental data collected
a decade apart show that divided attention is en-
hanced by playing action video games (32,33).
However, the game Medal
of Honor,usedasanexper-
imental treatment in the more
recent study, was much more
visually sophisticated and
had broader effects on visual
attention than did Robotron,
used as an experimental treat-
ment a decade earlier [see
also (3436)].
Technology and
Multitasking: Benefits
and Costs
Divided attention is the pre-
cursor and prerequisite for
multitasking, defined as car-
rying out more than one
task simultaneously. So do
video games promote skill
in multitasking? Research
provides an affirmative answer. Kearney mea-
sured multitasking with SynWork, which simulates
elements of work-based activities and measures
composite performance on four tasks carried out
simultaneously. Playing 2 hours of a shooting
game called Counter-Strike improved multitask-
ing scores significantly over those of a no-play
control group (37). What we do not know from
this study is whether each of the four tasks
could have been performed better or processed
more deeply if done alone, rather than in a mul-
titasking environment. This is an important ques-
tion, given the all-pervasiveness of multitasking
in todays technological environment, especially
for youth (38,39).
An experimental study by Foerde and col-
leagues answers this question (40). They developed
a weather prediction task in which one condition
used a distractor task (multitasking condition),
whereas the other did not (single-task condition).
In both conditions, participants learned to use cues
equally well to predict the weather; however, they
often were unaware of what cues they had used
when they were in the dual-task distractor condi-
tion. Under multitasking conditions, cognitive pro-
cessing was less mindful and more automatic.
Another study of the cognitive effects of mul-
titasking used CNN Headline News to simulate
a socially realistic and important cognitive task;
understanding the news. While news anchors
present their stories as talking heads on Head-
line News, weather forecast icons, sports scores,
stock quotes, and textually delivered news crawls
all appear at the bottom of the screen. To process
these simultaneous stimuli requires multitasking.
Such formats are very popular with younger viewers
(ages 18 to 34), whereas older viewers (over 55)
dislike them most (41,42). Nonetheless, the dis-
tracting information exacts a cognitive cost, even
from the younger generation who have had more
experience with multitasking. A controlled exper-
iment showed that college students recalled sig-
nificantly fewer facts from four main news stories
in CNNs visually complex environment than from
the same stories presented in a visually simple
format, with the news anchor alone on the
screen and the news crawls etc. edited out (41).
Implications for Education and Training
Internet multitasking also has costs for classroom
learning. What is the effect on learning if college
students use their laptops to access the Internet
during a classroom lecture? This was tested in a
communication studies class where students were
generally encouraged to use their laptops during
lectures, in order to explore lecture topics in greater
detail on the Internet and in library databases (43).
Half of the students were allowed to keep their
laptops open, while the other half (randomly as-
signed) had to close their laptops. Students in the
closed laptop condition recalled significantly more
material in a surprise quiz after class than did stu-
dents in the open laptop condition. Although these
results may be obvious, many universities appear
to be unaware of the learning decrement produced
by multitasking when they wire classrooms with
the intention of improving learning.
Laparoscopic surgery provides an example
in which visual skills developed by video games
have implications for training. Surgeons recog-
nize that laparoscopy has changed the required
skill profile of surgeons and their training needs
(44). In laparoscopic surgery, a small incision is
made, and a viewing tube with a small camera
on the eyepiece is inserted through it. The surgeon
examines internal organs on a video monitor con-
nected to the tube and can also use the viewing
tube to guide actual surgical procedures. Navigat-
ing through and operating in a three-dimensional
space represented on a two-dimensional screen
with minimal tactile feedback constitute basic
parallels between laparoscopy and action video
games. A study of the relation between video game
skill and success in training for laparoscopic s ur-
gery yielded positive results (44): Action video
game skill (as demonstrated in the laboratory) and
past video game experience (assessed through self-
report) predicted laparoscopic skills; in contrast,
neither laparoscopic experience in the operating
room nor years of training significantly predicted
laparoscopic skill. The best game players (the top
third) made 47% fewer errors and performed 39%
faster in the laparoscopy tasks than the worst
players (the bottom third). These results indicate
the value of video game play as informal educa-
tional background for specific training in laparo-
scopic surgery, a finding that is applicable to other
lines of work (such as piloting a plane) whose skill
profiles overlap with those required by action
video games.
Violent Games: Are the Costs Worth
the Benefits?
Up to now, the discussion has ignored content
and centered on the cognitive effects of video
Fig. 2. Comparing performance on Raven Progressive Matrices in British
people of different ages tested in 1942 and 1992 (4). Each bar represents
50th-percentile performance for a particular age group tested in a particular
year. It is necessary to equate for age because of the influence of cognitive
aging, seen in the decline of raw scores for pairs of bars with increasing age.
However, decline was less pronounced in 1992 than in 1942.
Education & Technology
on January 1, 2009 www.sciencemag.orgDownloaded from
game forms, forms that can be used to present
any content. However, game content is crucial to
psychosocial effects, such as the effects of violent
screen activity. Indeed, more than 85% of games
contain violence (45). Research shows that play-
ing violent video games produces aggressive be-
havior, aggressive affect, aggressive cognition,
physiological arousal, desensitization to real-life
violence, and a decrease in prosocial behavior
(45,46). The cost/benefit tradeoff of violent games
is epitomized by the finding that Chinese chil-
dren who play video games extensively not only
have higher nonverbal IQs but also are more
aggressive (47).
Fostering Scientific Thinking Through
Informal Learning
Although visual literacy is a tool in scientific think-
ing and can lead to discoveries (such as Hacks
discovery of a new jaw muscle when he altered
the normal visual perspective used by dentists for
dissection) (6), scientific thinking goes beyond the
techniques provided by visual literacy, highlighting
the importance of a number of other qualities:
reflection, inductive analysis, critical thinking,
mindful thought, and imagination. We start with
reflection and inductive analysis.
By their very nature as a real-time medium,
action video games penalize the player who stops
to reflect. Indeed, no real-time mediumincluding
film, television, and radiopermits time to reflect
(28). The one communication technology that does
provide time to reflect is the written word. Indeed,
we have known for more than 40 years that there
is an association between reading skill and reflec-
tion: Starting in first grade, better readers are also
more reflective than less skilled readers (48). And
reflection (contrasted with impulsivity) is associated
with inductive problem-solving competence in
children as young as first grade (49). Whereas
reading is associated with reflection, television
is associated with impulsivity. Over a 6-week pe-
riod, an experimental reduction in television watch-
ing in a group of 6-year-olds decreased intellectual
impulsivity, increased reflection, and increased
time spent reading (50).
Reading is also key to the development of
critical thinking. The amount of out-of-class read-
ing done during the college years is a statistical-
ly significant predictor of critical thinking skills
(51). One reason for this may be that books are
perceived as a hardmedium, requiring mental
effort (52).
Imagination is important in scientific discov-
ery as well as in the creation of literature and art.
Here there is evidence that visual technology
inhibits imaginative response. In controlled ex-
perimental studies, the audiovisual (television)
presentation of stories, as compared with audio
or print presentation of the same stories, led to
better story recall and inferences (53,54). How-
ever, as compared with radio or print, the visual
element in television also led to weaker imagi-
native responses, defined as the creation of orig-
inal elements not found in the preceding stimuli
Schools often rely on older media such as print
and lectures to communicate with learners who
increasingly lack the cognitive socialization
the informal educationthat would enable them
to process these media with maximum efficiency.
Not only that, but schools rely almost entirely
on the print medium to test that knowledge.
Indeed, as science and technology have become
increasingly visual in their intrinsic nature, there
may be a mismatch between the structure of the
knowledge and the structure of the print and
oral language media traditionally used to both
impart and test that knowledge.
However, the preceding makes it clear that no
one medium can do everything. Every medium
has its strengths and weaknesses; every medium
develops some cognitive skills at the expense of
others (28). Although the visual capabilities of
television, video games, and the Internet may de-
velop impressive visual intelligence, the cost seems
to be deep processing: mindful knowledge acqui-
sition, inductive analysis, critical thinking, imagi-
nation, and reflection. It is difficult for schools to
teach reflective habits of mind to children whose
informal education and cognitive socialization have
not prepared them for this kind of learning and
thinking. Yet society needs reflection, analysis,
critical thinking, mindfulness, and imagination
more than ever. The developing human mind still
needs a balanced media diet (28), one that is not
only virtual, but also allows ample time for the
reading and auditory media experiences that lead
to these important qualities of mind.
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10.1126/science.1167190 SCIENCE VOL 323 2 JANUARY 2009 71
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... According to social change and human development theory, sociodemographic shifts promote changes in cultural values, which in turn modify the learning environment. Thereafter, the transformational learning environment alters individual development (Greenfield, 2009a(Greenfield, , 2009b(Greenfield, , 2013. Previous research indicates that the rapid development and popularization of communication technologies drives cultural values and learning environments in an individualistic direction (Uhls & Greenfield, 2011). ...
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Full-text available
China has achieved great economic and technological development, with the internet emerging as a further significant factor. Chinese millennials have grown up with the internet, which has shaped their ideas and behaviors. According to social change and human development theory, rapid development and popularization of communication technologies drive human change. Compared with traditional media, social media has become more integrated into people’s daily lives, which makes the effects of social media more potent. The current study tested the mediating role of desire for fame in relation to the connection between active WeChat use and future goals, including intrinsic and extrinsic goals. A sample of 422 Chinese university students completed a survey measuring active WeChat use, future goals, desire for fame, and narcissism. Results indicated that active WeChat use was associated with both extrinsic and intrinsic goals. Moreover, desire for fame mediated the association between active WeChat use and external and intrinsic goals. The mediation path linking active social media use to intrinsic goals differed from that linking active social media use to external goals. Compared with individuals with low-level narcissism, individuals with high-level narcissism who actively use WeChat were more likely to desire fame, which further drives them to pursue external goals. These findings advance understanding of how and when active WeChat use is associated with future goals for millennials, thus providing more empirical data at an individual level to enrich theory in the Chinese context.
... Всеобщий характер данного увлечения дает основания считать его универсальной характеристикой поколений геймеров и бывших геймеров, на психологическое развитие, особенности поведения и интересы которых увлеченность компьютерными играми оказала значительное воздействие [Бек, Уэйд, 2006; Керделлан, Грезийон, 2006]. Характер данного влияния оценивается исследователями неоднозначно: как правило, при объективном рассмотрении отмечаются как положительные, так и отрицательные последствия [Шапкин, 1999;Greenfield, 2009; Войскунский, 2010]. ...
... В психологической литературе широко распространено предположение о высокой импульсивности геймеров (в наиболее общем виде под импульсивностью подразумевается индивидуальная склонность совершать необдуманные поступки под влиянием момента) [Greenfield, 2009]. Это позволяет предположить, что игроки в компьютерные игры характеризуются импульсивным когнитивным стилем, то есть склонны к принятию быстрых, но неточных решений: по свидетельству М.А.Холодной, это свидетельствует о низком уровне развития непроизвольного контроля [Холодная, 2002]. ...
Представлены результаты исследования степени выраженности когнитивных стилей полезависимость / поленезависимость, импульсивность / рефлективность, гибкий / ригидный познавательный контроль у геймеров (активных игроков в компьютерные игры) и у людей, в компьютерные игры не играющих. Объем выборки составил 145 человек, средний возраст 24 ± 5 лет, из них 88 играют в компьютерные игры, 57 – не играют в компьютерные игры и составляют контрольную группу исследования. В качестве измерительной процедуры использовались традиционные методики исследования когнитивных стилей: тест встроенных фигур Г.Уиткина, тест сопоставления знакомых картинок Дж.Кагана, тест словесно-цветовой интерференции Дж.Струпа. Методологическим основанием работы послужил когнитивно-стилевой подход и концепция когнитивного стиля как квадриполярного измерения М.А.Холодной. Исследование показало, что в группе геймеров по сравнению с контрольной группой более выражены поленезависимый и рефлективный когнитивный стили. Значимых различий по выраженности когнитивного стиля гибкий / ригидный познавательный контроль обнаружено не было. Выявленная когнитивно-стилевая специфика, характерная для геймеров, указывает на особенности первичной переработки информации геймерами и, предположительно, может быть связана с особенностями функционирования механизмов непроизвольного интеллектуального контроля.
... Okwelle and Assor cautioned that the greatest way for a teacher to make his or her teaching and learning unforgettable for the student is to go all out and gain additional abilities. The classroom teacher/instructor should learn as many skills as feasible, according to Orupabo and Anwuri (2022) and Greenfield (2009), as this is the characteristic of teaching. When students are taught, the achievement of the lesson objectives is satisfying to the teacher and thus create more room for further developments. ...
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The study's primary goal was to evaluate the methodological skills required by instructors in Radio Television and Global System Mobile Servicing in Vocational Centers in Gombe State, Nigeria. The study used a descriptive survey research approach and was carried out in Gombe State, Nigeria. 55 respondents made up the study's population, including 42 teachers and 13 principals. There was no sampling because the population was of a manageable size, hence whole-population-sampling technique was employed for the study. The structured questionnaire "Questionnaire on the Appraisal of Skills Required by Instructors (QASRI)" designed by the researchers served as the instrument for data collection. The instrument was validated by three professionals, and Cronbach Alpha yielded a reliability value of 0.72. The mean statistics were utilized to answer the research questions, and the null hypotheses were tested using the t-test at a significance threshold of 0.05. According to the statistics, 51.2% of the respondents in Nigeria meet the minimal teaching standards, while 41.8% do not. Additionally, the study found that although teachers in the Radio Television and Global System Mobile Service trade in Vocational Centers in Gombe State, Nigeria, has some abilities in the profession, much more is still needed. It was suggested that the Gombe State Ministry of Education make sure that instructors appointed to vocational centers are well qualified and hold at least the Nigerian minimum for instructors. Additionally, the government should provide on-the-job training for instructors at vocational centers so they may develop more technical skills for efficient teaching and learning.
... Созданные условия электронной среды непосредственно влияют наповедение человека, который оказывается в новой ситуации (Дятлова, Михина, 2019). Исследования показывают психологические особенности изменения, связанные: с определенными ценностными ориентациями личности вследствие игровой зависимости (Ефремов и др., 2015); с проблемами внимания и импульсивностью (Gentileetal., 2012); с нейронной основой компьютерных игр (Kühnetal., 2011); с пространственным мышлением (Greenfield, 2009). Термин «зависимость» характеризуется как поведенческая девиация, однако, на примере рассмотрения проблемы компьютерной зависимости на основе представлений отечественной психологии (Зарецкая, 2017; Никишина, Запесоцкая, 2012; Хохлова Н. И., Муллер О. Ю., Савостина Л. В. Опосредствование продуктивной деятельности как условие преодоления компьютерной зависимости... Российский психологический журнал, 2022, Т. 19, № 2, 150-160. ...
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Introduction. The relevance of the problem under study is associated with the specifics of the social situation of development, especially at a younger age, as a determining factor in the formation of addiction. The purpose of the study is to study the perception of parents about the peculiarities of using the Internet by younger students and to develop a project aimed at reducing computer addiction in such children. Theoretical justification. The theoretical substantiation of the study lies in the fact that modern digital opportunities in creating animated films become a condition for mediating and coordinating productive forms of activity for younger students. The system of productive activities within the framework of the Plasticine Cartoons project, through the systematic organization of joint activities of parents and children, made it possible to minimize computer addiction among younger students. Results. The practical significance of the work is determined by the designation of the problem and the consideration of one of the options for an effective form of organizing the activities of children and adults, mediated by the use of digital technologies. As a result of the project implementation, children noted changes in the following areas: cognitive, emotional and behavioral. The discussion of the results. During the implementation of the project, due to the variety of means of interaction between the child and peers and parents, computer addiction in children decreased in the following parameters: reduction in the time spent at the computer, gadgets; an increase in the use of gadgets by children as a means of implementing any activity; increasing the level of communication with peers; expanding the idea of options for joint activities with parents and their own pastime; an increase in situations in which children are oriented towards a dialogue with their parents; no negative reaction to the request to turn off the computer (phone).
Historical change in the definition of intelligence has a globalized direction under the influence of sociodemographic change. The main sociodemographic shifts are ever more technology, urbanization, formal education, wealth, and commercialized economies. Under the influence of these sociodemographic shifts, the direction of change in valued intelligence is from the integration of social responsibility, wisdom, and spirituality with cognitive intelligence toward purely cognitive skills; from practical, detailed, and contextualized to abstract, decontextualized cognition; from slow and careful thinking to speeded cognition; from repetition of the known to extrapolation and novelty; from habitual practice to innovation; and, using the language of IQ tests, from crystallized to fluid intelligence. These changes in definition have taken place and continue to take place around the world. While shifts in the definition of intelligence may be more visible in fast-changing societies, they have also taken place in the United States, as seen most dramatically in “what the IQ tests measure.”
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The web and learning have evolved parallel as technological changes have influenced teaching and learning processes. In this study, I intend to extend this parallel with two other dimensions, namely, human 1.0-3.0 and influencer 1.0-3.0. The concepts are closely related to how the online world became popular abroad and what their impact is on learning and education. Thus, the question, “what is the significance of social media, and of its latest, most popular actors, of the “work” of influencers (which can be interpreted as fake news) in the lives of students in higher education?”, is also a very pertinent issue to touch on. Its involvement in our lives is ever growing and very often influences our media literacy. This gives us even more reason to look into social media’s impact. However, our main goal is to find answers to the following questions: • What opportunities does the digital toolkit give to students? What kind of digital literacy do students think they need to thrive in the job market? • To what extent does the ICT literacy of pedagogical students differ from that of other students (lawyer, economics, doctor, technical)? What form of cognitive development is used for lifelong learning? • To what extent are students’ IT literacy influenced by cultural, material, and family capital? • How is information acquisition implemented in education? How conscious is the use of media among university students, and what is their critical attitude? • To what extent does online media penetrate the medium of formal-informal and non-formal learning? How does the influencer activity of professional opinion leaders help students to think critically and thoughtfully? The sample of the survey is made up of students from the University of Debrecen. From the results we can see, that university students behave differently in the online space, on social media platforms and on messengers than they would elsewhere, thus this affects how they get information. The current situation, the pandemic, clearly demonstrates that advanced digital competence is essential for a confident presence in the online space and advanced critical thinking. Problems of digital inequality and division have surfaced, and the constructed reality mediated by the media is becoming increasingly distorted. During this period, the relationship between the media and media consumers has changed greatly, and the interaction has intensified.
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In recent years more and more people use their mobile phones daily for work or entertainment. The increasing use of mobile devices has led researchers to seek new ways of learning with their support, beyond the confines of formal education. The increasing computing power of mobile devices has contributed to the emergence of new, rapidly evolving technologies, with augmented reality (AR) applications being at the forefront of these developments. This article provides a literature review of AR applications for mobile devices related to informal education. It analyses their structural elements to examine if they exploit powerful features such as collaboration and content modification, as well as storytelling potentials. The findings show that most of these applications use those learning affordances only to a very limited extent, as they are mainly designed for individual usage, do not allow user-originated contribution to the digital material, and do not incorporate elements of any storytelling model.
Didactic sound addition is a basic procedure for implementation in music classrooms in compulsory education. This strategy combines aspects of active musical methodologies (especially the use of instruments) with the need to analyze and interact with film products. It involves application of sounds on a specific audiovisual by the student. This sound insertion can be of various types: through live music or pre-recorded sounds, maintaining the original soundtrack, removing sounds from the original audiovisual, etc. In all cases, the potential benefits are obvious and the simplicity of the action model makes it easily applicable at all levels from the earliest ages. Attempts at motivating its generalization in the K-12 classroom environment are shown together with examples of the application of sound in its various modalities.
The present study tested the mediating role of self-esteem and the moderating role of mindfulness in the association between upward social comparison on social network sites (SNSs) and adolescent materialism. A sample of 880 Chinese adolescents completed measures of upward social comparison on SNSs, materialism, self-esteem, mindfulness, and demographic information. Results showed that self-esteem mediated the link between upward social comparison on SNSs and adolescent materialism. That is, upward social comparison on SNSs was positively associated with adolescent materialism through the decreased self-esteem. Moreover, mindfulness acted as an important moderator in the mediation model. Both the direct association between upward social comparison on SNSs and materialism and the indirect association via self-esteem were moderated by mindfulness. These two associations were both weaker for adolescents with higher mindfulness than for those with lower mindfulness. These findings would advance our understanding of how and when upward social comparison on SNSs is associated with adolescent materialism. Limitations and implications of the present study are discussed.
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Previous research has documented specific changes in visual attention as a result of playing action-based video games (Green and Bavelier, 2003). Typically, these games require players to make responses to selected stimuli, distribute their attention across the visual field, and orient to multiple moving targets. We sought to extend these findings by examining whether children who play these types of video games display changes in visual spatial attention relative to non-game playing children. A total of 114 children between the ages of 7 and 17 years were tested. Children were classified post-hoc as 'game players' if they reported playing first-person perspective action video games or ball-based sports video games in the 12 months prior to testing. The effect of age on the measures tested was first assessed by comparing 7-10, 11-13 and 14-17 years old. The impact of game playing was then assessed by comparing gamers and non gamers across these age ranges. Consistent with previous findings in the literature, game players demonstrated faster processing in a selective visual search task. More interestingly, game players exhibited a larger flanker compatibility effects (administered as part of the Attentional Network Test - Fan et al., 2002) and better performance on a children friendly version of the Useful Field of View (Ball et al., 1993), similarly to what Green and Bavelier (2003) have observed in adult gamers. These findings indicate enhanced visuo-spatial attention in young gamers compared to non-gamers. Furthermore, game players could apprehend more objects as measured by a ball tracking task (Pylyshyn and Storm, 1988), indicating an increase in the number of objects that can be attended. This confirmed our hypothesis that playing video games enhances different aspects of visual spatial attention in children as well as in adults. Thus, the normal developmental time course of visual spatial attention skills appears to be not only determined by maturational factors, but also quite plastic in the face of activities such as action or ball-sports gaming. This opens the possibility of using vdieo gaming as a tool to potentiate visual attention skills in patients, young or old, with visual deficits.
This experimental study investigated whether fifth, seventh, and ninth grade students participating in selected computer games utilizing spatial skills would improve their scores on a spatial ability measure. A significant treatment effect in favor of the experimental conditions was found in the analyses of covariance. No significant interaction or main effects were found for grade level or sex, indicating that males and females at all three grade levels seemed to benefit from this experience. These results suggest that certain computer games may enhance the development of spatial ability as measured by the Mental Rotation Test. Identified spatial components of the two games included visual perception and discrimination, differentiation of opposite obliques, visualization of transformations in series, the use of referent systems, and the development and updating of cognitive maps.
Data from 14 nations reveal IQ gains ranging from 5 to 25 points in a single generation. Some of the largest gains occur on culturally reduced tests and tests of fluid intelligence. The Norwegian data show that a nation can make significant gains on a culturally reduced test while suffering losses on other tests. The Dutch data prove the existence of unknown environmental factors so potent that they account for 15 of the 20 points gained. The hypothesis that best fits the results is that IQ tests do not measure intelligence but rather a correlate with a weak causal link to intelligence. This hypothesis can also explain differential trends on various mental tests, such as the combination of IQ gains and Scholastic Aptitude Test losses in the United States.
This study found that an intercohort decline in vocabulary at all or most educational levels in the United States in recent years was closely related to an intercohort decline in newspaper reading. The decline in newspaper reading, in turn, may have resulted largely from an increase in television watching, but other influences, such as those from women's increased participation in the labor force, seem to have been involved as well. Other types of reading apparently declined in tandem with newspaper reading, and thus differences in reading are the most promising explanation for differences in the verbal ability of the various cohorts.
"What is most unique about man is that his growth as an individual depends upon the history of his species [as reflected in culture]… . the growth of the mind is always growth assisted from the outside… . What a culture does to assist the development of the powers of mind of its members is, in effect, to provide amplification systems… ." These are amplifiers of action, of the senses, and of thought processes. In considering the distinctiveness of man and his potentiality for further evolution: "The 5 great humanizing forces are… tool making, language, social organization, the management of man's prolonged childhood, and man's urge to explain… . [The] psychologist cannot alone construct a theory of how to assist cognitive development and cannot alone learn how to enrich and amplify the powers of a growing human mind." The task belongs to the whole intellectual community. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Gender differences in mental rotation and computer experiences were investigated. Undergraduates, 27 men and 83 women, completed a brief self-report inventory of computer experiences and were pretested on the Vandenberg Test of Mental Rotation (VTMR). Students then participated in two 30-min sessions, spaced 1 week apart, in which they played a computer game. One half played a game that required mental rotation of geometric figures (‘Blockout’), the other half played a card game that did not involve mental rotation (‘Solitaire’). After the second computer game session, students retook the VTMR. A gender difference favoring men over women was obtained on the pretest VTMR. On the posttest VTMR, women in each group and men who played Blockout outperformed men who played Solitaire. Differences in selfreported computer use and efficacy were associated with differences on the VTMR. Success on Blockout was correlated with success on the VTMR. Computer experiences, including game playing, are a factor in VTMR performance differences among undergraduates.
The study compared children's learning from structurally equivalent television and print versions of two stories. Three hypotheses derived from Salomon's (1984) model were tested: (a) children invest more mental effort in processing print stories compared to television stories; (b) story recall is not affected by the medium through which the story is presented; and (c) print stories lead to more inferential learning than television stories. Fourth and sixth grade students watched the television film version of one story and read the text version of the other story. Mental effort was assessed during television viewing and reading by measuring secondary‐reaction times, and afterwards by means of Salomon's retrospective measure. Story retention and story‐related inferences were measured both immediately following each story and two to three weeks later. As assessed by Salomon's measure, children invested more mental effort in reading than in watching television, but on the reaction‐time measure the reverse was found. Contrary to the prediction, the television stories resulted in more inferential learning than the print stories. On the immediate‐retention tests, the print stories were recalled as well as the television versions, but on the delayed tests, viewers’ retention was superior to that of readers.
Each of 130 children was given visual-matching problems involving designs and pictures and reading-recognition tests at the end of the first and second grade. Ss with fast response times and high error scores on the visual-matching tests (impulsive children), in contrast to Ss with long decision times and low error scores (reflective children), made more errors in reading English words on both occasions.