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The cottonwood mushroom (Tricholoma populinum): A food resource of the Interior Salish Indian peoples of British Columbia

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Abstract

Tricholoma populinum Lange is identified for the first time as one of the edible mushroom species traditionally eaten by Interior Salish Indian peoples of British Columbia. A description of this species is given, and harvesting and preparation information is provided based on its use by contemporary Native people. Nutrient composition data are also reported. This mushroom continues to be an important food source for some Native people in British Columbia.
... In one early ethnobotanical publication (Steedman and Teit 1930), for example, three different types of mushrooms eaten by Nlaka'pamux (Thompson) Interior Salish people were identified simply as "variety of mushroom; Agaricus sp.". Later research indicated that none were actually true Agaricus species (Turner et al. 1987(Turner et al. , 1990. Nevertheless, taken together, ethnomycological reports from historical, ethnographic, and ethnobiological sources provide solid evidence for the cultural importance of many different species. ...
... Some of these, including our own authored or co-authored publications, are based on interviews and participatory observation with Indigenous knowledge holders over the past four or five decades (cf. Turner et al. 1983Turner et al. , 1987Turner et al. , 1990Cuerrier and Aînés de Kangiqsujuaq 2011;Cuerrier and Aînés d'Umiujaq et Kuujjuarapik 2011;Cuerrier and Aînés de Kangiqsualujjuaq 2012), undertaken following the ethical codes of the Society of Ethnobiology, the International Society of Ethnobiology, and, most recently, the Tri-Council Research Ethics requirements (TCPS 2 2018), including collaborative research and informed consent. ...
... In October 1982, ethnonutritionist Harriet Kuhnlein and Nancy Turner accompanied Nlaka'pamux Elder Hilda Austin of Lytton to an area alongside the Nicola River where she and others customarily collected a mushroom called "m@tł'qíʔ". She carried a walking stick, which she used to probe the leaf-covered mounds in the sandy soil under the cottonwood trees to reveal the clusters of these mushrooms, subsequently identified by mycologist Keith Egger as T. populinum (Turner et al. 1987). She used the flat side of a knife to rap each mushroom sharply on the top, to dispel the sand from its gills. ...
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This paper describes the importance of fungi to Canadian Indigenous Peoples. Based on collaborative research with Indigenous knowledge holders and a review of literature, approximately 30-40 fungi are documented as having cultural roles for Canadian Indigenous groups. Some peoples have not eaten mushrooms traditionally, whereas others have a history of harvesting, cooking, storing and trading mushrooms as part of their diets. Perennial tree fungi have application as tinder, fire starter, and for carving masks. They also have a range of medicinal uses, some being consumed as medicinal teas, and others applied externally, in some cases by moxibustion to relieve underlying pain. Puffballs also have a range of material and medicinal applications, especially for stopping haemorrhages. Fungi are widely known for spiritual or sacred associations, and play key roles in rituals, ceremonies, stories and beliefs, which are also reflected in the names of some species. The antiquity of peoples’ relationships with fungi is likely very deep, extending back to ancient Asian or European ancestors of Pleistocene times, whose descendants on those continents have used them in similar ways. Fungi continue to play important roles for Indigenous Peoples today, with some being harvested commercially, and many still used in traditional ways.
... While T. matsutake and T. magnivelare are both highly popular among consumers in Asia and America because of their unique spicy odor and taste, T. populinum is less significant as food material. Even if it has a lower culinary value than the above mentioned species, T. populinum is however consumed in North America by Salish Indian people from British Columbia [4] and the Native American tribe of Taos Pueblo in New Mexico [5]. Furthermore, according to Lentini and Venza (2006) sporocarps of cottonwood mushroom ("funci di chiuppu") are eaten by locals in Sicily, during the fall season [6]. ...
... All compounds have been identified for the first time in T. populinum, except nicotinamide (7), which has been detected by Turner et al. [4] in cottonwood mushroom samples collected in British Columbia (Canada). Among the isolated compounds six constituents (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6) belong to the group of triterpene steroids of ergostane skeleton. ...
... All compounds have been identified for the first time in T. populinum, except nicotinamide (7), which has been detected by Turner et al. [4] in cottonwood mushroom samples collected in British Columbia (Canada). Among the isolated compounds six constituents (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6) belong to the group of triterpene steroids of ergostane skeleton. Ergosterol (1) and 3β-hydroxyergosta-7,22diene (2) are common steroids with a widespread distribution among fungal species, as well as cerevisterol (3), and 3β,5α,6β,9αtetrahydroxyergosta-7,22-diene (4), which are di-and trihydroxlated derivatives of 3β-hydroxyergosta-7,22-diene (2). ...
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Ten compounds have been identified in the methanol extract of cottonwood mushroom (Tricholoma populinum J.E. Lange), 9 of them for the first time in this species. Besides adenosine (8) and nicotinamide (7) the isolated compounds were ergostane type steroids (1-6) and rare sulfinyladenosine constituents (9 and 10). The chemical structures of these compounds were elucidated by means of extensive spectroscopic methods (NMR and MS). Compounds 3-6 were evaluated for their potential antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity of 7-10 has been examined by spectrophotometric method. Cerevisterol (3), its methylated derivative (5) and 3-glycoside of ergosterol peroxide (6) showed significant antiproliferative activity on human breast cancer cell lines.
... The study of traditional mycological knowledge (TMK) in areas with little taxonomical information commonly results in the description of new species, new edibility records or new records for the region (e.g. Devi et al., 1980; Turner et al., 1987; Härkönen et al., 1993a; Moreno-Fuentes et al., 1996; Das et al., 2004). Wild mushrooms are a valuable non-timber forest resource used by mycophilic societies and their use has been documented in many countries around the world (Thoen, 1982; Prance, 1984; González-Elizondo, 1991; Härkönen et al., 1993b; Jones and Whalley, 1994; Chang and Lee, 2004). ...
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Traditional mycological knowledge of most Mexican ethnic groups has proven to be extensive and profound, consuming nearly 300 species of wild mushrooms. In this paper, we identified the mushrooms used by Zapotecs of Ixtlan, Oaxaca, compiled their traditional knowledge and analyzed their relation to macro-fungal diversity and usage. We collected mushrooms and conducted ethnomycological research between 2000 and 2003. We used participant observation and applied 50 interviews and 47 questionnaires to a randomly selected sample pool of local informants. Forty-three mushroom taxa had local anthropocentric interest and corresponded to 26 folk species. Thirty-seven taxa were wild edibles, three were cultivated edibles, two toxic and one had recreational use. Wild edible taxa represented 38.54% of useful species recorded in the zone. Taxa belonged to 19 families, with Pluteaceae being the most represented with six species, followed by Hydnaceae and Hydnangiaceae with five. From the 20 genera represented, Amanita had six species and Hydnum and Laccaria had five. Informants knew aspects of fungal nature and life-cycle, substrates, habitats and ecological relations of mushrooms with plants. Edible fungi were the most used non-timber forest resource, with 65.96% of informants reported to collect them. On average, interviewees consumed mushrooms 3.04 days a month. Everyone had access to mushrooms independently of age, sex or occupation. The mechanisms involved in the mushroom appropriation process were gathering, purchasing and reciprocal gifts. The mushroom exploitation was composed of different gathering strategies: casual or intentional and randomly or directed. We also found inside-forest promotion of Tricholoma magnivelare development, and outside-forest semiculture of Neolentinus lepideus. These people use macro-fungal diversity, mainly for food, in an integrated subsistence system that joins modern and traditional practices.
... Five mushroom species were mentioned, including matsutake and shiitake (Institute of Korean Culture 1971). According to Jung (1993) (Tricholoma populinum), slippery top (Hygrophorus gliocyclus), unidentified puffballs, and a mushroom called "thunder-storm head" or "lightning" mushroom (Turner et al. 1987(Turner et al. , 1990Turner 1997). In contrast, the British Columbia coastal First Nations are not known traditionally to have consumed mushrooms (Turner 1995). ...
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Inspired by collaborative work among researchers from the two jurisdictions, we explore the commercial mushroom industry in the Republic of Korea and British Columbia, Canada, searching for similarities and differences that may guide future development. First, we provide a history of forest mushroom use in both areas and summarize the development of the cultivated mushroom industry. Second, we describe the forest-harvested commercial mushrooms. We focus on pine mushroom (Tricholoma magnivelare) and provide an overview of the management in Korea of the closely related matsutake (Tricholoma matsutake) that could be translated to pine mushroom management in British Columbia. Generally, the cultivated mushroom industry in Korea is much larger and more diverse, reflecting local traditions of mushroom use. There is potential for expansion of the industries in both jurisdictions, especially in British Columbia, through the exploration and exploitation of novel native forest mushrooms and through the cultivation of additional exotic species with demonstrated market value.
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