Studies of virus diseases of strawberries in British Columbia. III. Transmission of strawberry viruses by aphids

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Eleven aphid species commonly found on rosaceous plants were tested as vectors of eight strawberry viruses. Amphorophora rubi (Kalt.), Aphis rubifolii (Thomas), Aulacorthum solani (Kalt.), Macrosiphum rosae (L.), Myzus ascalonicus Doncaster, M. ornatus Laing, M. persicae (Sulz.), Pentatrichopus fragaefolii (Cock.), P. tetrarhodus (Walk.), and P. thomasi Ris Lambers transmitted the vein banding virus from one or both of two sources. P. fragaefolii, P. tetrarhodus, and P. thomasi transmitted mild mottle, while only P. fragaefolii and P. thomasi transmitted curly-dwarf mottle. M. rosae transmitted vein banding and possibly mild yellow edge. Aphis forbesi Weed failed to transmit any of the viruses tested. None of the species tested transmitted witches’ broom, crinkle, or strawberry latent-A virus.

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... Virus-vector interactions (i.e., specificity of aphid species, acquisition access and retention times, semi-persistent manner of transmission, and transmission efficiency), and the inability to transmit the virus via sap were established by Frazier (1955) [1]. Similar studies focusing on aphid vectors of SVBV and symptomatology were used as the basis for naming the virus [2][3][4][5][6][7]. (Prentice, 1952;Schöniger, 1958;Frazier and Posnette, 1958;Frazier, 1960;Mellor and Forbes, 1960;Miller and Frazier, 1970;Frazier and Converse, 1980). ...
... Similar studies focusing on aphid vectors of SVBV and symptomatology were used as the basis for naming the virus [2][3][4][5][6][7]. (Prentice, 1952;Schöniger, 1958;Frazier and Posnette, 1958;Frazier, 1960;Mellor and Forbes, 1960;Miller and Frazier, 1970;Frazier and Converse, 1980). Stenger., et al. (1988) [8] purified and cloned the SVBV genome (pSVBV-E3). ...
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Due to lack of success in mechanical inoculation, and the low efficiency of particle bombardment inoculation, Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells carrying a partial tandem repeat construct of strawberry vein banding virus (SVBV) were used to inoculate plants to assess the host range of SVBV. An infection rate of 75 - 100% was achieved with agroinoculation of 23 different indicators and widely grown cultivars of strawberry (Fragarria spp.). Infected cultivars differed in symptom severity and had variable virus titers as relatively were quantified by end-point PCR analyses. Agroinoculation of SVBV to several common herbaceous indicator plants, close relatives of strawberry in the Rosaceae, and to plants infected by other caulimoviruses revealed that only burnet (Poterium sanguisorba) was a systemic host of SVBV. SVBV-infected burnet plants were symptomless, but were positive for virus infection by PCR. An ornamental strawberry (F. x ananassa cv. Temptation) was the least susceptible to SVBV infection. Several cultivars (e.g., the newly released Carlsbad) were found to be more susceptible. Keywords: Inoculation; Detection; Screening new strawberry cultivars for susceptibility to SVBV infection
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The green aphid Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is one of the most important pests of strawberry production systems worldwide. One of the fundamental points for developing management strategies for this aphid is the understanding of its population growth since this allows predictions about future population peaks and which are the most appropriate hosts for its survival and reproduction. Thus, the goal of this study was to evaluate the biological and population growth parameters of C. fragaefolii in four strawberry cultivars (Albion, Aromas, Camarosa, and San Andreas). The highest survival of the nymph stage was observed in ‘San Andreas’ (87%) and the lowest in ‘Camarosa’ (43%). ‘Albion’ had the highest net reproductive rate (R0 = 6.39) and the mean time for the population to double in number (TD = 5.61), thus presenting the best reproductive parameters for C. fragaefolii. ‘Camarosa’ and ‘Aromas’ had the lowest R0 values (2.65 and 2.70, respectively) and the highest TD values (10.89 and 10.34, respectively). We conclude that antibiosis mechanisms are involved in the resistance process of ‘Camarosa’ to C. fragaefolii. The characterization and the use of resistant cultivars can be an essential strategy to assist aphid management.
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The tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is a Bunyaviridae that causes different symptoms to plants, even death. In Argentina, there are 4 thrips species reported as vectors of Tospovirus: Frankliniella occidentalis, Frankliniella schultzei, Frankliniella gemina and Thrips tabaci. The spontaneous vegetation growing within uncontrolled weedy areas near greenhouse peppers were identified as true reproductive hosts of thrips vectors, by means of adult and larval identification. Three sites were studied within the horticultural belt, a strip of 40 km around La Plata City (34°54' lat. S, 57°55' long. O), Argentina. During 2000-2003, monthly surveys were performed in the areas of the greenhouses were weed control does not take place, extracting flowers from the spontaneous vegetation. Through 60 sampling dates, 14,636 flowers of spontaneous vegetation were collected, and 54,050 Thysanoptera individuals were obtained, 40,356 were adults (96.96% Thripidae vs. 3.04% Phlaeothripidae) and 13,694 were larvae of 1st and 2nd stage (94.1% Thripidae and 5.9% Aeolothripidae and Phlaeothripidae). The four species seem to have very similar requirements, due the overlap respect to their feeding and breeding hosts. The botanical family was not related to the presence of thrips vectors, neither in adult or larval stage. Out of 40 surveyed weed species, 19 resulted non-host (NoH), 21 feeding host (HA), and the remnant 19, reproductive hosts (HR), (18 in wide sense and 11 in strict sense) for one, two, three or four species of thrips.
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The strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) is vegetatively propagated, being the diseases caused by systemic pathogens one of the most important phytosanitary problems. More than 30 virus and phytoplasma diseases have been reported in strawberry crops worldwide. Virus-free and phytoplasma-free plants are used to control these diseases, which must be complemented with the regulation of the populations of vector insects , which are responsible of disseminating these diseases. The purpose of this review is to provide updated description of the virus and aphid species found in strawberry crops in Argentina, as a contribution to take phy-tosanitary actions in order to minimize the damage caused by these biotic threats. The virus species reported in Argentina are Strawberry mild yellow edge virus, Strawberry mottle virus, and Strawberry crinkle virus and Strawberry polerovirus 1, being described in this work their taxonomic and epidemiologic aspects, and their reported vectors. The aphid species found in strawberry crops in Argentina are Aphis forbesi Weed, Aphis gossypii Glover, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell), Chaetosiphon minor (Forbes), Chaetosiphon thomasii Hille Ris Lambers, Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), and Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Chaetosiphon species have been reported as responsible for most of the strawberry virus transmissions.
Infectivity of the cloned DNA genome of strawberry vein banding virus (SVBV) was demonstrated by particle bombardment of 4-week-old strawberry (Fragaria vesca L. var. UC-5) plants with gold particles coated with the putative full-length 7.9-kb viral DNA. Vein banding symptoms developed on 15% bombarded plants 6-7 weeks post-inoculation, whereas plants bombarded with gold particles did not develop symptoms. An approximate 1.25-mer of the viral DNA was cloned into the binary vector pCGN1547. Particle bombardment of this construct into strawberry plants gave an infection rate of 75%. The construct was transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404, and infiltration of this strain into leaves of strawberry plants resulted in development of vein banding symptoms in 100% of inoculated plants. No symptoms developed in plants inoculated with non-transformed A. tumefaciens. Gel electrophoresis, and Southern blot hybridization analysis with a SVBV probe, and sequence analyses of PCR-amplified DNA fragments were used to confirm SVBV infection in symptomatic plants. Sequence analyses of SVBV nucleic acid and inferred amino acid sequences were used to determine phylogenetic relationships between SVBV and other caulimoviruses. The highest homology was found for the replicase gene and SVBV was placed in a distinct cluster. 2
Strawberry vein banding virus (SVBV), a member of Caulimoviridae, has a double-stranded DNA genome 7.9 kilobase pairs in size, and a spherical particle approximaltely 45 nanometers in diameter. SVBV is transmitted by aphids, as well as by dodder and grafting. It is not sap-transmissible. An important means of virus spread is through the propagation of infected plant materials. The use of certified virus-free plants for generating strawberry seedlings has minimized economic losses caused by SVBV and other strawberry infecting viruses. After demonstrating the infectivity of genomic clone (pSVBV-E3) a new construct using a binary vector was prepared to be used in agroinoculation. This means of inoculation paved the road to confirm many biological characteristics and furthermore expanding host range studies. Sequence data was used to design a sensitive protocol for diagnosis of virus infection through PCR.
In Nova Scotia, strawberry virus disease symptoms appeared in 12% of the Fragaria vesca L. (EMC) plants present in faunal study plots planted in 1961 and in 14% in plots planted in 1962.Latent-C virus and mottle virus were the dominant diseases and were present in approximately equal numbers of the indicator plants. A smaller number of indicator planes were dwarfed but otherwise free of symptoms associated with previously described virus diseases.Known vectors present in the plots included Rhodobium porosum (Sanderson), Myzus persicae (Sulz.), Aulacorthum solani (Kalt.), Amphorophura rubi (Kalt.), and Pentatrichopus minor (Forbes). R. porosum was the dominant species.
Fifty-six species were recognized among 6886 aphids identified in 312 collections taken from strawberry plantations in Nova Scotia, 1961–1966. Forty-nine species were classed as errants and seven were classed as colonizers on strawberry. The most numerous colonizers were Rhodobium porosum (Sanderson) and Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas), averaging 71 and 18.5% respectively of all the aphids identified. The other colonizers were Aphis forbesi Weed (1.4%), Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach) (1.0%). Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (1.0%), Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell) (0.1%), C . minor (Forbes) (0.2%), and Chaetosiphon sp. (0.1%). Colonizers, mostly R . porosum , were observed on strawberry plantations from the time winter cover was removed in the spring until late in November when a winter cover was applied. Alate viviparous females were first observed during the second week of June on both old and new plantations and were most numerous during a period extending from the third week m June until nearly the end of August. Nymphs were first seen on new plantations when the first alatae were observed. Apterous viviparae reached near-maximum numbers early in July and were present, sometimes in relatively high number, until nearly the end of September. Sexuales began to appear late in September, reached peak numbers early in November, and were still present when observations were discontinued late in November. No consistent difference was noted in the numbers of aphids alighting on or colonizing plants of three different commercial strawberry varieties (Sparkle, Catskill, and Robinson). The amount of colonization was markedly greater on the commercial varieties than it was on Fragaria vesca L. (EMC). The significance of the results in relation to the control of aphid-borne viruses is discussed.
Oregon isolate My‐18 of strawberry mild yellow‐edge virus (SMYEV) was purified by comminution in liquid nitrogen, extraction in 0.1 M phosphate, 0.01 M DIECA, 1 % thioglycollic acid (pH 7.0) and differential and rate‐zonal density gradient (dg) centrifugation. The resulting ultraviolet‐absorbing dg band (A254 nm), not seen in healthy control preparations, contained isometric, 23 mm‐diameter, virus‐like particles. The partially purified MY‐18 virus was not transmitted to Fragaria vesca by means of membrane‐fed or injected Chaetosiphon fragaefolii. MY‐18 has an in vivo thermal inactivation point between 45 and 50 °C as determined by feeding C. fragaefolii on detached leaves that had been immersed in water for 10 min at various temperatures. In ELISA, rabbit antisera against MY‐18 differentiated between partially purified preparations from root and leaf tissue and between crude root but not crude leaf extracts from healthy and MY‐18‐infected Fragaria. Our data support the generally held hypothesis that SMYEV is a luteovirus. However, comparative ISEM and ELISA tests failed to reveal any serological releationship between MY‐18 and potato leafroll, beet western yellows, legume yellows, pea leafroll, or tobacco necrotic dwarf viruses.
Transmission of potato leaf roll and turnip latent viruses by Myzus persicae (Sulz.) were similar in that: (a) fasting aphids for 18 hours prior to inoculation feeding had no effect on the numbers that transmitted virus; (b) upper and lower surfaces of infected leaves of Physalis floridana Rydb. were equally good sources of virus; (c) top leaves of infected plants were better sources of virus than middle or bottom ones; (d) excised leaves were better sources of virus than whole plants for short acquisition feeding periods but not for longer ones; (e) when infective aphids fed on a small area of a leaf, they transmitted virus as often as those that fed on whole plants; (f) and more nymphs transmitted virus than adults.The transmission of the two viruses differed in that: (a) during comparable acquisition and inoculation feeding periods more aphids transmitted potato leaf roll than turnip latent virus; (b) fasting aphids for 18 hours prior to acquisition feeding had no effect on the numbers that transmitted potato leaf roll, but increased the numbers that transmitted turnip latent virus; (c) and three- or six-leaf P. floridana were equally good test plants for potato leaf roll, but more three-leaf ones became infected with turnip latent virus.
At the Vancouver laboratory a large number of cages were needed to confine aphids to single leaves in virus transmission experiments. The cages had to be of simple construction, light, and easily manipulared. The cage developed was similar to that of MacGillivray and Anderson (1957), but was simpler to make, and the materials were easily obtained locally. The materials are: acrylic plastic tubing, metal hair-curl clips, foam rubber, corks to fit the tubing, and muslin.
BRITISH workers with strawberry viruses have so far failed to obtain transmission of Fragaria virus 1 (yellow edge) or Fragaria virus 2 (crinkle) by aphides other than the `delicate strawberry aphis', Penta-trichopus (Capitophorus) fragarioe Theob., a species possibly identical with the American vector Capitophorus fragoefolii Ckll.
Progressive transfers of Capitophorus fragaefolii Ckll. from yellows-infected Marshall plants through a succession of Fragaria vesca L. plants resulted in the separation of at least two component viruses. One was of the nonpersistent type; it caused reduction in leaf size, mottle, crinkle, and leaf distortion, but the severity and dominance of these symptoms varied so widely that it is assumed that this component itself is a complex of viruses or strains. The other was of the persistent type; its principal effect was to reduce the vigor of the plant although there was some cupping of the leaves, and in the fall, under green-house conditions, a transitory yellow mottling of the tips and margins of some of the younger leaves.
From the time of first feeding on plants infected with strawberry virus 3, 10–19 days elapsed before Capitophorus fragariae became infective, a longer ‘latent period’ than any previously recorded for an aphid-transmitted virus. The time taken for aphids to develop infectivity after leaving infected plants decreased with increasing duration of the infection feed. Aphids which had fed for 16 days on an infected plant caused infection in the first day of test feeding.
Aphids (Capitophorus fragariae Theob.) allowed to feed for several days on a strawberry plant infected with yellow-edge transmitted two virus fractions. The isolation and properties of one (virus 1) have been described previously. The other (virus 2) was separated by transferring the aphids to fresh indicators after 24 hr.Virus 2 was retransmitted after infection feeding periods of 24 hr. or more and persisted in the vector for several days. There is some evidence that it is itself a complex of viruses which can be separated further. On Fragaria vesca virus 2 produced chlorotic spotting, slight marginal chlorosis of the leaves and slight cupping of the leaflets. On Royal Sovereign strawberry it produced slight chlorosis of the young leaves.On Royal Sovereign viruses 1 and 2 together produced symptoms of yellow-edge which is thus shown to be caused by a virus complex which can be resolved by means of the aphis vector.
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