Article

Studies of virus diseases of strawberries in British Columbia. III. Transmission of strawberry viruses by aphids

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Abstract

Eleven aphid species commonly found on rosaceous plants were tested as vectors of eight strawberry viruses. Amphorophora rubi (Kalt.), Aphis rubifolii (Thomas), Aulacorthum solani (Kalt.), Macrosiphum rosae (L.), Myzus ascalonicus Doncaster, M. ornatus Laing, M. persicae (Sulz.), Pentatrichopus fragaefolii (Cock.), P. tetrarhodus (Walk.), and P. thomasi Ris Lambers transmitted the vein banding virus from one or both of two sources. P. fragaefolii, P. tetrarhodus, and P. thomasi transmitted mild mottle, while only P. fragaefolii and P. thomasi transmitted curly-dwarf mottle. M. rosae transmitted vein banding and possibly mild yellow edge. Aphis forbesi Weed failed to transmit any of the viruses tested. None of the species tested transmitted witches’ broom, crinkle, or strawberry latent-A virus.

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... Virus-vector interactions (i.e., specificity of aphid species, acquisition access and retention times, semi-persistent manner of transmission, and transmission efficiency), and the inability to transmit the virus via sap were established by Frazier (1955) [1]. Similar studies focusing on aphid vectors of SVBV and symptomatology were used as the basis for naming the virus [2][3][4][5][6][7]. (Prentice, 1952;Schöniger, 1958;Frazier and Posnette, 1958;Frazier, 1960;Mellor and Forbes, 1960;Miller and Frazier, 1970;Frazier and Converse, 1980). ...
... Similar studies focusing on aphid vectors of SVBV and symptomatology were used as the basis for naming the virus [2][3][4][5][6][7]. (Prentice, 1952;Schöniger, 1958;Frazier and Posnette, 1958;Frazier, 1960;Mellor and Forbes, 1960;Miller and Frazier, 1970;Frazier and Converse, 1980). Stenger., et al. (1988) [8] purified and cloned the SVBV genome (pSVBV-E3). ...
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Thesis
Infectivity of the cloned DNA genome of strawberry vein banding virus (SVBV) was demonstrated by particle bombardment of 4-week-old strawberry (Fragaria vesca L. var. UC-5) plants with gold particles coated with the putative full-length 7.9-kb viral DNA. Vein banding symptoms developed on 15% bombarded plants 6-7 weeks post-inoculation, whereas plants bombarded with gold particles did not develop symptoms. An approximate 1.25-mer of the viral DNA was cloned into the binary vector pCGN1547. Particle bombardment of this construct into strawberry plants gave an infection rate of 75%. The construct was transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404, and infiltration of this strain into leaves of strawberry plants resulted in development of vein banding symptoms in 100% of inoculated plants. No symptoms developed in plants inoculated with non-transformed A. tumefaciens. Gel electrophoresis, and Southern blot hybridization analysis with a SVBV probe, and sequence analyses of PCR-amplified DNA fragments were used to confirm SVBV infection in symptomatic plants. Sequence analyses of SVBV nucleic acid and inferred amino acid sequences were used to determine phylogenetic relationships between SVBV and other caulimoviruses. The highest homology was found for the replicase gene and SVBV was placed in a distinct cluster. 2
Book
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Article
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At the Vancouver laboratory a large number of cages were needed to confine aphids to single leaves in virus transmission experiments. The cages had to be of simple construction, light, and easily manipulared. The cage developed was similar to that of MacGillivray and Anderson (1957), but was simpler to make, and the materials were easily obtained locally. The materials are: acrylic plastic tubing, metal hair-curl clips, foam rubber, corks to fit the tubing, and muslin.
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BRITISH workers with strawberry viruses have so far failed to obtain transmission of Fragaria virus 1 (yellow edge) or Fragaria virus 2 (crinkle) by aphides other than the `delicate strawberry aphis', Penta-trichopus (Capitophorus) fragarioe Theob., a species possibly identical with the American vector Capitophorus fragoefolii Ckll.
Article
Progressive transfers of Capitophorus fragaefolii Ckll. from yellows-infected Marshall plants through a succession of Fragaria vesca L. plants resulted in the separation of at least two component viruses. One was of the nonpersistent type; it caused reduction in leaf size, mottle, crinkle, and leaf distortion, but the severity and dominance of these symptoms varied so widely that it is assumed that this component itself is a complex of viruses or strains. The other was of the persistent type; its principal effect was to reduce the vigor of the plant although there was some cupping of the leaves, and in the fall, under green-house conditions, a transitory yellow mottling of the tips and margins of some of the younger leaves.
Article
From the time of first feeding on plants infected with strawberry virus 3, 10–19 days elapsed before Capitophorus fragariae became infective, a longer ‘latent period’ than any previously recorded for an aphid-transmitted virus. The time taken for aphids to develop infectivity after leaving infected plants decreased with increasing duration of the infection feed. Aphids which had fed for 16 days on an infected plant caused infection in the first day of test feeding.
Article
Aphids (Capitophorus fragariae Theob.) allowed to feed for several days on a strawberry plant infected with yellow-edge transmitted two virus fractions. The isolation and properties of one (virus 1) have been described previously. The other (virus 2) was separated by transferring the aphids to fresh indicators after 24 hr.Virus 2 was retransmitted after infection feeding periods of 24 hr. or more and persisted in the vector for several days. There is some evidence that it is itself a complex of viruses which can be separated further. On Fragaria vesca virus 2 produced chlorotic spotting, slight marginal chlorosis of the leaves and slight cupping of the leaflets. On Royal Sovereign strawberry it produced slight chlorosis of the young leaves.On Royal Sovereign viruses 1 and 2 together produced symptoms of yellow-edge which is thus shown to be caused by a virus complex which can be resolved by means of the aphis vector.
Article
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