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Nigella sativa Oil Has Significant Repairing Ability of Damaged Pancreatic Tissue Occurs in Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

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Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease that impairs production of insulin. The disruption of insulin synthesis is caused by an autoimmune destruction of pancreatic islet cells. Nigella sativa oil (NSO) was known as hypoglycemic agent in both types of diabetes but little known about its ability of repairing the pancreatic damage occurred in T1DM. By intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg), T1DM was induced in overnight fasted 24 rats. They were equally divided into four groups as following; (1) control group; (2) diabetic non treated group, (3) and (4) groups were treated with different doses of NSO (0.2 and 0.4 ml/kg) respectively, for a period of 30 consecutive days. Blood glucose was tested every morning through the experimental period. After completion the experimental protocol, blood samples were collected and serum insulin was assayed using ELISA. The pancreatic tail was dissected and kept in 10% formalin. The samples were processed using a tissue processor for histological study after H and E staining. The control group showed normal cells in pancreatic islet of Langerhans. The diabetic group with no treatment showed shrunken islets of Langerhans displaying degenerative and necrotic changes. Meanwhile, the treatment with low dose NSO protected the majority of cells in the islet of Langerhans, however the high dose NSO treatment showed a similar morphology as in normal control group (GA), so that resulted in significant elevation of serum insulin level (p<0.005). The data suggests that NSO treatment has a therapeutic effect against STZ induced T1DM rats.
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Global Journal of Pharmacology 7 (1): 14-19, 2013
ISSN 1992-0075
© IDOSI Publications, 2013
DOI: 10.5829/idosi.gjp.2013.7.1.7383
Corresponding Author: Muhamed T. Osman, Centre of Pathology, Diagnostic and Research Laboratories,
Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Sg. Buloh Campus,
47000 Sg Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia.
14
Nigella sativa Oil Has Significant Repairing Ability of Damaged Pancreatic
Tissue Occurs in Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Afaf Jamal Ali Hmza, Effat Omar, Ariza Adnan and Muhamed T. Osman
Centre of Pathology, Diagnostic and Research Laboratories, Faculty of Medicine,
Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Sg. Buloh Campus, 47000 Sg Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia
Abstract: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune disease that impairs production of insulin.
The disruption of insulin synthesis is caused by an autoimmune destruction of pancreatic islet cells. Nigella
sativa oil (NSO) was known as hypoglycemic agent in both types of diabetes but little known about its ability
of repairing the pancreatic damage occurred in T1DM. By intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of
streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg), T1DM was induced in overnight fasted 24 rats. They were equally divided into
four groups as following; (1) control group; (2) diabetic non treated group, (3) and (4) groups were treated with
different doses of NSO (0.2 and 0.4 ml/kg) respectively, for a period of 30 consecutive days. Blood glucose was
tested every morning through the experimental period. After completion the experimental protocol, blood
samples were collected and serum insulin was assayed using ELISA. The pancreatic tail was dissected and kept
in 10% formalin. The samples were processed using a tissue processor for histological study after H and E
staining. The control group showed normal cells in pancreatic islet of Langerhans. The diabetic group with no
treatment showed shrunken islets of Langerhans displaying degenerative and necrotic changes. Meanwhile,
the treatment with low dose NSO protected the majority of cells in the islet of Langerhans, however the high
dose NSO treatment showed a similar morphology as in normal control group (GA), so that resulted in
significant elevation of serum insulin level (p<0.005). The data suggests that NSO treatment has a therapeutic
effect against STZ induced T1DM rats.
Key words: Nigella sativa oil % Type1 diabetes mellitus % Blood glucose % Serum insulin % Pancreas
INTRODUCTION Streptozotocin (STZ) is the most commonly used
Type 1 Diabetes mellitus or insulin dependingtype 1 diabetes [6]. A single dose of 65mg/kg of STZ are
diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is the most severe form ofable to induced T1DM to experimental animals [6-7].
diabetes mellitus. According to WHO it accountsMore than 1000 different plants have been described
approximately 5-10% of all diabetic cases around thefor traditional treatment of diabetes [8]. Among these; the
world and usually appears during childhood [1]. T1DMNigella sativa (NS) which is a spice plant also knows as
is caused by an autoimmune destruction of pancreatic(black seed) has been used as an herbal medicine for more
$-cells, resulting in absolute deficiency in insulinthan 2000 years by different cultures to treat and prevent
production [2]. There are increase evidences that diabetes several diseases and illness. [9]. NS seeds have been
is combined by increase production of free radicals andreported to possess many biological activities including
reduction of antioxidant defense leading to developmentanti-inflammatory [10], anti-tumor [11], antihypertensive
of diabetes ant its complications [3]. Many mechanisms[12] and hypoglycemic properties [13, 14]. Moreover,
seem to be involved in the initiation of oxidative stressmany researchers have reported results supporting its
which has been reported in experimental diabetespotential value [15, 16]. NS is of great therapeutic benefit
animals as well as in T1DM [4]. Oxidative stress isin diabetic individuals and those with glucose intolerance,
involved in the origin of type 1 diabetes especiallyas it accentuates glucose-induced secretion of insulin,
through the destruction of pancreatic $ cells [5]. besides having a negative impact on glucose absorption
diabetogenic agent in the experimental animals to produce
Global J. Pharmacol., 7 (1): 14-19, 2013
15
from the intestinal mucosa [17]. NS was proved itintraperitoneal injection of a single dose of STZ (65 mg/kg
attenuates the damage to $-cells of the pancreas following body weight) to all animal groups except the normal
exposure to toxic elements such as cadmium [18].control group (25). STZ was dissolved in sodium citrate
Recently, it has been investigated that the effects of NSbuffer solution (pH 4.5) immediately before use. The rats
oil (NSO) on some physiological parameters inwith blood glucose above 13.9 mmol/L (250 mg/dL), which
streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. STZ inducedlasted for at least three days, were considered as type 1
diabetic rats showed a highly significant increase indiabetic rat [21-22, 25].
the levels of blood glucose compared to the controls.The experimental animal groups were divided into 4
Administration of NSO to diabetic rats resulted in agroups (6 rats each). The groups are: Group A (Normal
significant decrease in blood glucose levels after threecontrol group received 65mg/bw sodium citrate buffer),
weeks compared to untreated diabetic rats, indicated thatGroup B (Diabetic control group treated with STZ only 65
the oil of NS possess hypoglycaemic effect in STZ-mg/kg), Group C (Diabetic rats received i.p. NSO low dose
induced diabetic rats [19]. 0.2 ml/kg) and Group D (Diabetic rats received i.p. NSO
Many studies have been carried out to evaluate thehigh dose 0.4 ml/kg). Blood glucose was tested every
role of NSO for management of diabetes [20], but the exact morning (at 8 am) through the experimental period (30
antidiabetic mechanism is not yet established regardingdays). The blood glucose level was tested by using
type 1 diabetes mellitus, however, in this present studyglucometer purchased from (Roche, USA).
the effect of NSO on the reversal process of histological
damage caused by the disease process of IDDM wereLaboratory Tests: Blood samples were collected from
evaluated. overnight fasted rats, after completion of 30 days of
MATERIALS AND METHODS a chamber containing diethyl ether. Blood was collected
Experimental Animals: Twenty four Male Sprague-collection, the blood was transferred into fresh tube and
Dawley rats with an average weight of 150-250g and ancentrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes. The sera were
average age of 12-16 weeks were used throughout thestored at –80 °C until analysis. Serum was assayed for
experiments. The animals were obtained from Nano Lifeinsulin level by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent
Quest Company. Ethical clearance for performing theassay (ELISA) (USCNK, CHINA).
experiment on animals was approved by Animal Care and The animals were dissected after scarification and the
Use Committee (ACUC), Faculty of Medicine, Universitipancreas was taken for histology. This organ was placed
Teknologi MARA UiTM (ACUC-2/11). The rats werein 10% formalin for fixation. Paraffin was used to
acclimatized for a period of 21 days in the Laboratoryembedding the pancreas and then stained with
Animals Care Unit (LACU), Faculty of Medicine, Sg Bulohhematoxylin and eosin (H and E). The preparations were
Campus, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Malaysia.evaluated by Olympus multiheaded microscope and
A standard environmental condition such as temperaturephotographed by camera (Optiphot 2; Nikon, Tokyo,
(20-22°C), relative humidity (45-55%) and 12 hrs. dark/lightJapan).
cycles was maintained. The animals were fed daily with
rodent pellet diet and tap water ad-libitum under strictStatistical Analysis: Data were analyzed by comparing
hygienic conditions. values for different treatment groups with the values for
Chemicals: The Streptozotocin (STZ) (2-deoxy-2-expressed as mean ± SD. The significant differences
({[methyl (nitroso) amino] carbonyl} amino)-$-D-among values were analyzed using by one way analysis
glucopyranose) used in the present study was purchasedof variance (ANOVA) carried out by SPSS 16 software
from Sigma, Germany. The Nigella sativa oil wasfollowed coupled with post-hoc least a p-value of < 0.05
produced by Kausar, Iran. It is a pure preparation, with no was considered as statistically significance.
additive. The oil was administered once a day by
intraperitoneal (i.p) injection at doses of either 0.2 ml/kg or RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
0.4 ml/kg for 30 days.
Induction of Type 1 Diabetes and Experimental Design:effect of NSO on daily blood glucose and serum levels by
T1DM was induced to overnight fasted animals byusing two different doses during 4 weeks of experimental.
experimental protocols. The animals were anesthetized in
from the heart by the cardiac puncture. Immediately after
the positive and negative control groups. Results are
Biochemical Results: In this study we had evaluated the
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 days 10 days 20 days 30 days
DAYS
Fasting blood Glucose (mmol/l
control
STZ
0.2ml/kg oil
0.4ml/kg oil
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
(A) control (B) STZ (C ) NSO
0.2ml/kg
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
(A) control (B) STZ (D) NSO 0.4
ml/kg
Global J. Pharmacol., 7 (1): 14-19, 2013
16
Fig. 1: Effects of NSO administration on Blood Glucose level. GA; control group, GB; untreated diabetic rats;
GC, diabetic rats treated with (0.2 ml/kg) NSO. GD, diabetic rats treated with (0.4 ml/kg) NSO. Data are expressed
as mean ±SD.
Fig. 2: Effects of NSO administration on level of Insulin production. GA; control group, GB; untreated diabetic rats; GC,
diabetic rats treated with (0.2 ml/kg) NSO. GD, diabetic rats treated with (0.4 ml/kg) NSO. Data are expressed as
mean ±SD.
After 10 days treatment with NSO 0.2 ml/kg, there was adifferent doses (0.2 - 0.4 ml/kg) cause a significant
slight, but non-significant decrease in blood glucoseincrease in serum insulin level after 30 days of treatment
levels compared with those in the untreated diabetic(p> 0.05) (Figure 2).
group (Group B). Administration of NSO (0.2ml/kg)
resulted in a significant lowering of elevated bloodHistological Results: In normal control rat group (GA) the
glucose levels after 30 days treatment comparedhistological sections showed normal pancreatic structure.
with those in the untreated diabetic group (p> 0.05).The islet of Langerhans appeared regular in shape
Moreover, treatment of diabetic rats with NSO (0.4 ml/kg) surrounded by thin capsule of connective tissue. The
resulted in a significant decrease in blood glucose levelsclusters of cells are embedded in the pancreatic exocrine
compared with the untreated diabetic group after 10 daystissue. The cells are polygonal cells on shape and have
treatment. After 30 days, blood glucose levels hadregular nuclei (Figure 3.a). However, in STZ diabetic rats
decreased to levels that did not differ significantly fromgroup with no treatment (GB), the findings on histologic
basal levels seen in the control group (p> 0.05) (Figure 1). sections of pancreatic tissues were degenerative, necrotic
The present study has clearly shown that NSO at twochanges and shrinkage in the islets of Langerhans.
Global J. Pharmacol., 7 (1): 14-19, 2013
17
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
Fig. 3:a. Control group, b. STZ Diabetic group, c. 0.2 ml/kg (NSO) treated, d. 0.4 ml/kg (NSO) treated group.
The islets were relatively small, atrophied and showed aDISCUSSION
reduction in the number of polygonal islet cells. The
nucleuses of necrotic cells are pynotic. The atrophied and The present study have shown that NSO produced
degenerated cells show hydropic degeneration and lossa significant, consistent and time-dependent decrease in
of granules within the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm is darkblood glucose levels and elevate insulin level production
and esonophilic (Figure 3.b). in STZ-T1DM induced diabetic rats compared with the
In (GC) diabetic animals treatment with 0.2 ml/kg NSO,untreated diabetic animals. The hypoglycemic effect
the histological sections showed that the islets wereobserved in the present study became more significant
relatively small in size and irregular in shape comparedafter daily administration of the oil for one month to the
with normal control (Figure 3.c). There were less hydropic diabetic animals. These results were consistent with other
degeneration, degranulation and necrosis in the islet cells. studies like Houcher et al., 2007, who showed that the use
More viable polygonal islet cells were observed compared of the commercial oil at a dose of 2.5 mL/ kg per day for 25
with in GB. Meanwhile, islets of Langerhans of (GD) rats days significantly reduced blood glucose [5]. Data from
treated with a high dose of NSO (0.4 ml/kg), showedother experimental study reported that blood glucose
similar appearance as in GA, there were more viable cells lowering effect of black seed oil was due to improved
present and less hydropic degeneration, degranulated andinsulin insensitivity in diabetic rats [23]. A study done by
necrosis compared with GB. The polygonal islet cellsother investigators reported that treatment with NSO
appeared with nuclei of various sizes (Figure 3.d). commenced 6 weeks after induction of diabetes at a dose
Global J. Pharmacol., 7 (1): 14-19, 2013
18
of 400 mg/kg body weight by gastric lavage reducedislet of Langerhans, however the high dose of NSO
blood glucose after the first, second, third and fourthtreatment showed a similar morphology as in normal
weeks of treatment. They indicated that thecontrol group, so that resulted in significant elevation
hypoglycaemic effect of NSO is due to, at least in part, aof serum insulin level. The data suggested that NSO
decrease in hepatic gluconeogenesis [24]. treatment has a therapeutic effect against induced
In the present study we proved that NSO hasT1DM rats.
significant increase on serum insulin levels, this result
may be due to the effect of thymoqionone, a majorACKNOWLEDGMENT
component of NSO, These results are consistent with
pervious study that have shown that daily gastricThis research was completely funded by international
administration of 80 mg/ kg thymoquinone, for 45 daysgrant from Libyan Embassy in Malaysia (RMI/INT
produces significant increase in insulin levels in STZ-4/2011). The authors would like to thank all staff of IMMB
diabetic rats [25]. From in vitro study, scientificinstitute and CPDRL Laboratories, Faculty of
investigations to the isolated pancreatic Islets ofMedicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia for
Langerhans have proven that the N. sativa extract causestechnical help.
direct stimulation of insulin release [26].
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Effects of Nigella sativa Oil and Thymoquinone
on Oxidative Stress and Neuropathy in
... The pharmacological action of the NS expose a broad spectrum of activity including antidiabetic (19,20) , antihypertensive, anticancer, immunomodulator (20) , antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antihistaminic, bronchodialator, liver protection, kidney protection, spasmolytic and antioxidant qualities (21). ...
... The pharmacological action of the NS expose a broad spectrum of activity including antidiabetic (19,20) , antihypertensive, anticancer, immunomodulator (20) , antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antihistaminic, bronchodialator, liver protection, kidney protection, spasmolytic and antioxidant qualities (21). ...
... It has been widely used as antihypertensive, liver tonics, diuretics, digestive, anti-diarrheal, appetite stimulant, analgesic, anti-bacterial and in skin disorders [8]. Extensive studies on NS have been carried out by various groups of researchers, and a wide spectrum of its pharmacological actions have been explored which may include antidiabetic [9,10], anticancer, immunomodulator [10], analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilator, hepatoprotective, renal protective, gastro-protective, antioxidant properties [8]. The seeds of NS are widely used in the treatment of numerous diseases such as bronchitis, asthma, diarrhea, rheumatism, and skin disorders. ...
... It has been widely used as antihypertensive, liver tonics, diuretics, digestive, anti-diarrheal, appetite stimulant, analgesic, anti-bacterial and in skin disorders [8]. Extensive studies on NS have been carried out by various groups of researchers, and a wide spectrum of its pharmacological actions have been explored which may include antidiabetic [9,10], anticancer, immunomodulator [10], analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilator, hepatoprotective, renal protective, gastro-protective, antioxidant properties [8]. The seeds of NS are widely used in the treatment of numerous diseases such as bronchitis, asthma, diarrhea, rheumatism, and skin disorders. ...
Article
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Osteoporosis is the most common reason for a broken bone among the elderly. Several experimental studies have been reported that Nigella sativa (NS) and/or its major component thymoquinone (TQ) have good effects on osteoporosis and bone healing. We conducted this systematic review to evaluate these relevant studies to prove whether NS and/or TQ has potential effect on osteoporosis and can stop pathogenesis of this disease or this matter still just a fiction. A search on published studies was done using databases including Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and CINAHIL. Terms searched included “Nigella sativa, black seed, TQ, osteoporosis, bone healing.” Initially, 213 articles were extracted. After reviewing their titles and abstracts, 124 articles (Medline, 43; Scopus, 67; EBSCO, 14) were retrieved for further evaluation. However, after excluding the clinical trial studies, human reviews, removal of abstracts and unrelated studies, seven studies were considered finally as eligible for our review. Finally, seven studies were considered eligible for our review. The total number of animals used was 220 (150 rats and 70 rabbits) from different experimental study. Based on the results of this systematic review, we conclude that NS or TQ extract therapy for osteoporosis cannot be recommended yet and these data will not suffice to exclude the beneficial effects of NS on bone turnover reliably. Therefore, more studies are required to explore the specific cellular and molecular targets of NS or TQ using animal osteoporosis models. Once the anti-osteoporotic effectiveness of NS or TQ will be established, human studies can be carried out.
... These changes were the same as described in previous studies that demonstrated that STZ induces severe histopathological changes in the pancreas. In these studies, the changes were attributed to the ability of STZ to enter β-cells through a glucose transporter (GLUT2) and cause alkylation of the DNA of the β-cell, which leads to necrosis and damage of pancreatic β-cells [10,[21][22][23]. Some authors added that this damage to DNA induced activation of poly-ADP ribosylation, causing depletion of cellular NAD and ATP, and formation of free radicals, which finally lead to further DNA damage and β-cell loss [24][25][26]. ...
Thesis
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Abstract: Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic disorders. It is characterized by hyperglycemia and is associated with long term complications affecting almost every tissue in the body. Olive leaf is a medicinal plant which is known with its high antioxidant, antimicrobial and antibacterial activity. It has been reported that olive leaves extract (OLE) administration leads to reduction of blood glucose level in diabetic rats. Aim of the work: The present study was carried out to evaluate the role of OLE on the histological structure of the islets of Langerhans in diabetic rats. Materials and methods: animals of this study were divided into two main groups, control (15 rats) and experimental (25 rats). Diabetes was induced in the experimental group by single intra-peritoneal injection of Streptozotocin (70mg/kg). Diabetic animals received OLE (0.35gm/kg) daily for four weeks. Blood glucose level was assessed and histological changes were evaluated by light and transmission electron microscopy. Results: diabetic animals revealed hyperglycemia and some histological changes in islets of Langerhans in the form of irregular outline, disturbed architecture, reduction in the number of beta cells with subsequent decreased staining affinity with anti-insulin antibodies, in addition to the presence the of cytoplasmic vacuoles, multiple dilated Golgi and some degenerated mitochondria. Diabetic animals treated with OLE revealed a significant decrease of blood glucose level and showed partial improvement of their islets and beta cells morphology as detected by light and electron microscopy. Conclusion: From the present work it was concluded that OLE provided considerable functional and structural improvement of the islets of Langerhans in diabetic rats.
... It has been shown that black seed oil has a therapeutic effect on damaged pancreatic tissues, against the insulin resistance syndrome in the patients as well as a positive effect on the morphology of the Langerhans islets in diabetic rats. [88] In addition, black seed oil may be useful in the treatment of respiratory diseases such as bronchitis and asthma due to the prophylactic role of nigellone (a carbonyl polymer of thymoquinone). The antiasthmatic effect of nigellone is due to the release of histamine from the mast cells. ...
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Nigella sativa L. is an annual herb of the Ranunculaceae family, with the seeds called black cumin seed or black seed containing 34–39% oil. Its oil has many uses in traditional medicine and food industry. Black seed oil is a significant source of essential fatty acids, tocopherols (91–246 ppm), phytosterols (1993−2182 ppm), polyphenols (245–309 ppm), essential oils and other bioactive compounds. Thymoquinone is one of the important active compounds in the essential oil part of black seed oil with many health beneficial properties. Black seed oil is getting much attention either used alone or in combination with other vegetable oils. Therefore, providing information about the black seeds originating in different parts of the world, their oil composition and the effect of different oil extraction methods can be of great value. Environmental condition, cultivated areas, maturity period and storage conditions have significant effects on its properties. Black seed oil deserves more attention as a potential multi-purpose product. This article reviews the physicochemical properties, quality, and medicinal and nutritional aspects of black seed oil.
... Alloxan administration elicited significant morphological changes in diabetic rats with severe injury of pancreatic ßcells, such as decreasing the islets cell numbers, cell damage, and cell death [ fig 4B], this also similar to another study [37]. These effects of alloxan are may be due to that the thickened and hyalinised blood vessels causing not enough oxygen reach the tissue which resulted in degenerative changes and necrosis, these also similar with other studies [34][35][36][37][38][39]. ...
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Cinnamon has been widely recognized as hypoglycaemic agent against diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to investigate the potential histological repairing ability of damaged pancreatic tissue due to alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in 24 male Albino rats using alloxan (120mg/kg intraperitoneal). Four groups (n=6 each) received or not suspensions of cinnamon (50mg/ kg and 100mg/kg OD orally). Body weights, fasting blood glucose, and serum insulin levels were measured. All biochemical results were compared with cinnamon effects on pancreatic histological changes. Diabetes decreased serum insulin due to damaged Langerhans islet cells, however, treatment of diabetic rats with cinnamon up to 30 days, significantly increased serum insulin and reduced blood glucose level. Moreover, cinnamon-treated rats with a low dose showed that the shape of pancreatic islets cells relatively irregular with some normal cells. Meanwhile the cinnamon-treated with a high dose showed considerable repairing effects and islets cells looks like normal. The biochemical and histological findings suggested that cinnamon extract has therapeutic and protective ability against alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The hypoglycaemic effect observed could be due to high repairing ability on pancreatic tissues leading to increased insulin levels. Hence, cinnamon may be useful in the treatment of diabetics.
... 37 Its oil extract was shown to repair damaged pancreatic tissue induced by diabetes. 38 Additionally, supplementation with N. sativa extract incurred insulin secretion, glucose absorption and hepatic gluconeogenesis. 39,40 It has been reported that cellular energy homeostasis involves AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as a major enzyme. ...
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Prophetic medicine is the total authentic Hadith narrated by the Prophet, peace be upon him, in relation to medicine, whether Qur'anic verses or honourable Prophetic Hadith. It includes remedy recipes, by which the Prophet, peace be upon him, was cured or he called people to be cured by. Furthermore, it includes recommendations relevant to human health in the conditions of life, including eating, drinking, housing, and marriage. It comprehends legislations related to medication, medicine in practicing the profession, and the guarantee of the patient in the perspective of Islamic Law. Ibn Al Qayyim, may Allah be merciful with him, in his book Zad Al Ma'ad Fe Haday Khair Al Abad, said: “The medicine of the Messenger, peace be upon him, is not similar to the medicine of physicians. The medicine of the Prophet, peace be upon him, is certain, categorical, and godly medicine; issued by the Revelation, Prophethood niche, and sagacity; while the medicine of others is inductive, assumptive, and experimental.” In KSA alone, 3.8 million cases of diabetes were recorded, thus warranting increased global health concern. Scientific evidence has accorded the claim of several plants and honey listed in prophetic medicine, which improve glycaemic control in diabetes mellitus. In addition to their hypoglycaemic effect, studies indicate that extracts from those plants and honey ameliorate other associated metabolic derangements. In this review, we present several of the latest findings linking the bioefficacy of these plants and honey with the pathogenesis of diabetes and insulin secretion in diabetes mellitus subjects.
... The culture media for in-vitro fertilization in groups 2, 3 properties of the oil have been reported to include and 4 was supplemented with 1µM, 10µM and 100µM of anti-cancer [20], anti-diabetic [21], anti-microbial [22], thymoquinone. Male and female mice were sacrificed on anti-viral [23], anti-bacterial [24], anti-clastogenic [25] and day 33 and day 10 post-CPA exposure,respectively. ...
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Thymoquinone is the major active component derived from the traditional medicinal plant Nigella sativa, which has been shown to exhibit antioxidant property through different mechanisms in animal models. This study evaluates the prophylactic effect of thymoquinone supplementation on culture medium to ameliorate cyclophosphamide-induced alterations in cellular differentiation and proliferation during embryo development in vitro. Male and female mice were exposed to cyclophosphamide via a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection at 200 mg/kg. Sperms and oocytes were collected at day 33 and day 10 respectively, for insemination and fertilization in medium supplemented with thymoquinone (1µM, 10µM and 100µM). The stages of fertilization, embryo division, morphological effects and fragmentation were examined and compared between groups, 24 hours post-fertilization. Thymoquinone supplementation improved fertilization rates, significantly reduced the percentage of defects blastomeres of Type C (p<0.001) and significantly decreased the percentage of embryo fragmentation Grade IV (>50%, p<0.05) following paternal and maternal exposures to cyclophosphamide. The good quality embryos of Type A and Grade I fragmentation were not observed in the group without thymoquinone supplementation. The findings of this study showed that thymoquinone is a suitable exogenous antioxidant for preserving fair-quality embryos which can result into full term pregnancy.
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Nigella sativa (NS) is widely used in traditional medicine and several studies have been conducted to reveal NS effects on different medical disorders including hyperlipidemia. Since hyperlipidemia is a common risk factor for the development of cardiovascular illness. We evaluated the effects of NS supplementation on lipid profile in clinical trial performed among humans. A search on published studies was done by using databases including Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, Thomas Reuters Web of Science, and CINAHIL. Terms searched included “Nigella sativa, Black seed, Black cumin, Triglycerides, Cholesterol, Lipoproteins”. Initially 432 articles were extracted. However, four hundred eighteen papers were unrelated, reviews, animal studies, combined and duplicated studies were excluded, and finally only fourteen articles were eligible for this review. After analysing 14 articles including 738 participants from different countries and nations. Results of these clinical trials revealed that Nigella sativa is effective to change the lipid profile significantly in different conditions. This systematic review revealed that Nigella sativa supplementation might be effective in hyperlipidemic control in humans and seems potential target of future drug for hyperlipidemic conditions.
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Nigella sativa is the miraculous plant having a lot of nutritional and medicinal benefits, and attracts large number of nutrition and pharmacological researchers. N. sativa seed composition shows that it is the blessing of nature and it contains and many bioactive compounds like thymoquinone, α-hederin, alkaloids, flavonoids, antioxidants, fatty acids many other compounds that have positive effects on curing of different diseases. Several medicinal properties of N. sativa like its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, antioxidant activities and many others are well acknowledged. However, this article focuses on activity of N. sativa against cardiovascular diseases and cancer. For gathering required data the authors went through vast number of articles using search engines like Science direct, ELSEVIER, Pub Med, Willey on Line Library and Google scholar and the findings were classified on the basis of relevance of the topic and were reviewed in the article. N. sativa is rich source of different biologically active compounds and is found effective in controlling number of cardiovascular diseases and various cancers both in vivo and in vitro studies.
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This study investigated the effects of streptozotoci n (STZ) -induced diabetes mellitus (DM) on protein and cation levels in ocular tissues (lenses, cornea, lacrimal glands and retina with sclera) of rats. Diabetic rats and their lacrimal glands weighed significantly less (p < 0.05) than age -matched controls. Diabetic animals also had significantly (p < 0.05) elevated blood glucose and significantly reduced (p < 0.05) plasma insulin compared to controls. Total protein concentrations in the cornea, lens, lacrimal gland and retina with sclera were markedly reduced compared to controls (circa 50%-90%). Diabetic cornea, lenses, lacrimal glands, and retina with sclera contained more Ca2+ (p < 0.05) than age-matched controls (2-3 fold). Levels of Zn2+ were also elevated (p < 0.05) in the cornea and retina with sclera of diabetic rats, as compared to control rats (2-3 fold), but were unaffected in lenses and lacrimal glands. In contrast, levels of Cu2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+ were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in all ocular tissues of diabetic rats when compared to control animals (circa 30%-70%). These results show that STZ-induced DM is generally associated with significant physiochemical changes in ocular tissues of rats with changes observed in body weight, blood glucose, and insulin levels and protein and cation concentrations compared to healthy age- matched controls. Based on these data, it has been speculated that diabetes may induce changes in ocular tissues that include: higher protein turnover through increased protease activity and changes in Na+ / K + channel function. It is suggested that these changes may be associated with diabetic retinopathy, diabetic cornea and sight impairment. (Int J Diabetes Metab 13:154-158, 2005)
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The effects of Nigella sativa L. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume oils on some physiological parameters were investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male Wistar rats. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein LDL-cholesterol, urea, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) while body weight, high density lipoprotein HDL-cholesterol, total protein and uric acid levels were significantly decreased compared to normal rats. Administration of the tested oils to diabetic rats resulted in a significant decrease in blood glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and ALT while HDL-cholesterol level was markedly increased after three weeks compared to untreated diabetic rats. In addition, treating diabetic rats with N. sativa plus C. zeylanicum oils showed significant increases in the levels of total protein, uric acid and creatinine. In contrast, administration of C. zeylanicum oil to diabetic rats resulted in a significant decrease in ALT level compared to the untreated diabetic rats. The results of this study indicate that the tested oils possess hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
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Nigella sativa is a medicinal plant widely used in the Arabic and Islamic world against a number of human pathologies. In this present study the methanol extraction (85 % then 50 %) of plant seeds gave an important yield of 27 % of dry substance. The anti-hyperglycaemia effect of the crude methanolic extract and the commercial oil of these seeds were tested in alloxan-induced, intra peritoneal, diabetic rats (150 mg/kg). Effects of these two sub-stances on other diabetes-linked factors such as the reducing power of the plasma and the osmotic fragility of ery-throcytes. The daily orally administration of the crude methanolic extract (810 mg/kg/day) and the oil (2.5 ml/kg/day) for 25 days leads to a significant decrease of glycaemia, especially during the first 10 days of treat-ment (decreases of 58.09 and 73.27 % respectively). However, the dose of 270 mg/kg of crude methanolic extract had no effect, which is probably due to the low dose. In addition the antioxidant capacity, measured by the fer-ric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) technique, increased in all diabetic rats and the introduction of either the crude methanolic extract or the oil fraction showed any improvement on this factor. However, a slight resistance, not reaching significance, against the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes was induced in diabetic rats. The anti-hyperglycaemic effect of both substances is not related to inhibition of intestinal glucose absorption or stimula-tion of insulin secretion. We suggest that the action is a result of the inhibition of enzymes involved in the neoglucogenesis pathway in the liver. As shown the stress associated with the metabolic perturbation observed in diabetes induces a physiological anti-oxidant response, which probably masks the antioxidant effect of our two substances of this medicinal plant.
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We examined whether Nigella sativa (NS) oil and its active constituent thymoquinone (TQ) attenuate oxidative stress in the heart and brain in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus using streptozotocin (STZ). Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring cardiac and brain nitric oxide (NO), lipid peroxide levels, glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzyme activities, i.e. glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase. Cardiac metabolic damage was estimated by measuring cardiac creatine kinase muscle and brain types (CK-MB). Brain monoamine levels were also evaluated. STZ diabetes induced a significant increase in heart and brain NO and malondialdehyde concentrations compared with the control group. These changes were attenuated by posttreatment of rats with NS oil and TQ. STZ diabetes induced oxidative stress via a significant decrease in GST, GSH and catalase. These lowered levels were improved by either NS oil or TQ administration. Serum CK-MB was decreased in the diabetic rats, which recovered with NS oil and TQ administration. During the course of diabetes, there was a marked increase in norepinephrine and dopamine concentrations and a marked decrease in serotonin concentration compared to the control group. These findings were partly reversed by oral administration of either NS oil or TQ. It is concluded that NS and TQ correct STZ-diabetes-induced alterations in CK-MB and brain monoamines due to their antioxidant properties.
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The aim of the study was to investigate the role of aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seed, Nigella sativa oil and thymoquinone in ameliorating the cellular damage produced in pancreatic cells by streptozotocin (STZ). Five equal sized groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. The groups included; control, STZ induced diabetic, STZ diabetic-aqueous extract treated (2 mL kg -1), STZ diabetic-oil treated (0.2 mL kg -1) and STZ diabetic-thymoquinone treated (5 mg kg -1) groups. After 30 days of treatment, pancreatic tissues of the different groups were examined by the light and transmission electron microscope. The aqueous extract of N. sativa reduced some of the cellular damage caused by STZ on β cells. In contrast, the use of its oil exacerbated the destructive effect of STZ. The use of thymoquinone; the active ingredient of N. sativa, ameliorated the toxic effects of STZ on pancreatic β cells. The nuclear alterations observed including segregated nucleoli, marginating aggregates of heterochromatin and decreased heterochromatin indicate DNA damage in STZ-treated rats and are consequently responsible for the development of type 1 diabetes. The present study emphasizes that N. sativa extracts are effective in reducing the cellular damage caused by STZ. In addition, findings suggest that the active ingredient thymoquinone is the most effective against STZ diabetes as its administration ameliorated most ofthe pathological changes. This could be attributed to the antioxidant properties of N. sativa and thymoquinone that inhibit the cellular damage caused by STZ in pancreatic cells.
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Abstract The effects of the volatile oil extracted from Nigella sativa seeds on the levels of glucose and insulin were investigated in the rabbit. The i.p. administration of the volatile oil of N. sativa seeds (50 mg/ kg) to fasting normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits produced significant hypoglycemic effects. These effects were consistent and time-dependent. In normal animals, 15% and 23% decreases in fasting plasma glucose levels were detected 4 h and 6 h, respectively, after treatment. The same treatment produced 12% and 21% decreases in the fasting glucose levels in diabetic rabbits at the 4 h and the 6 h time intervals, respectively. The administration of the volatile oil was not found to alter basal insulin levels in all animal groups, which might suggest a non-insulin-mediated mechanism of action for the demonstrated hypoglycemic activity. The mode of action of the hypoglycemic effects exhibited by the volatile oil extracted from N. sativa seeds remains to be elucidated.
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It is well documented that oxidative stress is a basic mechanism behind the development of diabetic state. The current study was undertaken to elucidate the hypoglycemic role of zinc, selenium and vitamin E and their mixture in comparison with the antidiabetic drug glibenclamide. Male Wistar rats weighing 250 +/- 50 g were made diabetic by injection with a single i.p. dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (65 mg/kg b. wt). Diabetic groups were simultaneously i.p. injected either with zinc chloride (ZnCI2) (5 mg/kg) or with selenium and vitamin E (1.5 mg/kg as sodium selenite and vitamin E 1000 mg/kg) or with zinc, selenium and vitamin E each element i.p. injected according to its corresponding therapeutic dose daily for one month. Another group was orally treated daily with glibenclamide drug (5 mg/kg) for one month. Blood and tissue samples were collected at day 3 post STZ injection (from one group serum glucose level significantly elevated < or = 300, p < or = 0.05) and at day 30 post-treatment in other groups. Liver function, nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) were significantly increased, while superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), total protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), pyruvate kinase (PK) and hexokinase (HK) were inhibited after STZ treatment. Histological examination of diabetic liver showed necrosis and degenerative changes of hepatocytes. Treatment of diabetic rats with ZnCI2, selenium and vitamin E or their combination blunted the increment in serum glucose induced by STZ, preserved liver architecture and ameliorated all the previous mentioned biochemical parameters. It was found that, the combined administration of zinc, selenium and vitamin E exhibited a more remarkable effect than either zinc or selenium and vitamin E. So, the results clearly indicate the beneficial effects of micronutrients combination in controlling hyperglycemia.
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The present study was designed to evaluate the role of a medicinal plant for management of diabetes instead of manufactured drugs that led to much complication. Water extract of Nigella sativa was investigated for hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rats in addition to some hormones related to diabetes mellitus. The extract induced significant reduction in serum glucose from (7.83±1.25) to (6.7±1.10), serum insulin increased from (0.55±0.08) to (0.65±0.06) and testosterone concentration significantly increased in treated diabetic animals (7.58±0.21) compared to diabetic animals (6.63±0.58). The results suggest the beneficial role of N. sativa as hypoglycemic agents and as a protective effect against pancreatic β-cells damage from alloxan induced diabetes in rats by decreasing oxidative stress and preserving pancreatic β-cells integrity and also suggest that the anti diabetic effect of N. sativa may be attributed to increased glucose metabolism. This in turn produces increase level of insulin in serum and testosterone concentration. Which might be related with the functional activity of the reproductive glands and the correlation with the functional state of the pancreatic β-cells.
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The present study was designed to evaluate the antihyperglycemic potential of thymoquinone (TQ), major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds on the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide (NA)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in experimental rats weighing 180-220g, by a single intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of STZ (45mg/kg b.w), 15min after the i.p administration of NA (110mg/kg b.w). Diabetic rats were administered TQ intragastrically at 20, 40, 80mg/kg b.w for 45days. The levels of plasma glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1C)) and hemoglobin (Hb) were measured. The activities of hexokinase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose 6-phosphatase and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase were assayed in liver homogenates. Oral administration of TQ for 45days, dose dependently improved the glycemic status in STZ-NA induced diabetic rats. The levels of insulin, Hb increased with significant decrease in glucose and HbA(1C) levels. The altered activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes were restored to near normal. No significant changes were noticed in normal rats treated with TQ. These results show that TQ at 80mg/kg b.w is associated with beneficial changes in hepatic enzyme activities and thereby exerts potential antihyperglycemic effects.