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Ethanolic Extract of Moringa oleifera Increased Cytotoxic Effect of Doxorubicin on HeLa Cancer Cells

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  • Institut Teknologi Sumatera

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Moringa oleifera is a strong chemopreventive agent in several cells. The aim of this study was to investigate cytotoxic activities of ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera (EMO) alone and in combination with doxorubicin in HeLa cancer cells. Cell viability assay of EMO, doxorubicin and combination treatments were carried out by using MTT assay. Apoptosis assay was done by double staining method using Ethidium Bromide-Acridine Orange. EMO showed cytotoxic effect in HeLa cells with IC50 >250 μg/mL. MO (5, 50 and 250 μg/mL) increased cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin compared to doxorubicin alone 100 and 200 nM. The strongest cytotoxic activity was showed by the combination of 250 nM doxorubicin and 250 μg/mL EMO. Single treatment of 250 μg/mL EMO showed weak apoptosis induction, while combination of 250 nM doxorubicin and 250 μg/mL EMO increased apoptosis induction of doxorubicin compared to 250 nM doxorubicin single treatment. Moringa oleifera is potentially to be developed as co-chemotherapeutic agent for cervical cancer, while molecular mechanism need to be explored.
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... For example, Moringa oleifera leaf extract has been used to inhibit cancer 62 cells and to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy in humans [10,11,12]. The roots of Erythroxylum per-63 villei provide pervilleines A, B, C, and F, effective inhibitors of P-glycoprotein, which is linked to multi-64 drug resistance and low cancer therapeutic response [13]. ...
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Food-drug interactions (FDIs) arise when nutritional dietary consumption regulates biochemical mechanisms involved in drug metabolism. Towards characterizing the nature of food’s influence on pharmacological treatment, it is essential to detect all possible FDIs. In this study, we propose FDMine, a novel systematic framework that models the FDI problem as a homogenous graph. In this graph, all nodes representing drug, food and food composition are referenced as chemical structures. This homogenous representation enables us to take advantage of reported drug-drug interactions for accuracy evaluation, especially when accessible ground truth for FDIs is lacking. Our dataset consists of 788 unique approved small molecule drugs with metabolism-related drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and 320 unique food items, composed of 563 unique compounds with 179 health effects. The potential number of interactions is 87,192 and 92,143 when two different versions of the graph referred to as disjoint and joint graphs are considered, respectively. We defined several similarity subnetworks comprising food-drug similarity (FDS), drug-drug similarity (DDS), and food-food similarity (FFS) networks, based on similarity profiles. A unique part of the graph is the encoding of the food composition as a set of nodes and calculating a content contribution score to re-weight the similarity links. To predict new FDI links, we applied the path category-based (path length 2 and 3) and neighborhood-based similarity-based link prediction algorithms. We calculated the precision@top (top 1%, 2%, and 5%) of the newly predicted links, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and precision-recall curve. We have performed three types of evaluations to benchmark results using different types of interactions. The shortest path-based method has achieved a precision 84%, 60% and 40% for the top 1%, 2% and 5% of FDIs identified, respectively. We validated the top FDIs predicted using FDMine to demonstrate its applicability and we relate therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects of food items informed by FDIs. We hypothesize that the proposed framework can be used to gain new insights on FDIs. FDMine is publicly available to support clinicians and researchers.
... The bioactive constituents extracted from Moringa which are responsible for anticancer activities reported, were benzyl isothiocyanate and glucosinolates, niazimicin (Hermawan et al., 2012). Similarly, the potential of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) was suggested against malignancy. ...
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Moringa oleifera is a multi-purpose plant and a comprehensive source of dietary components such as proteins, essential amino acids, vitamins, antioxidants, etc. The plant is also a rich source of other bioactive components, including flavonoids, glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, etc. Incorporating M. oleifera in diet can improve the nutritional status of pregnant and nursing mothers and helps to combat malnutrition and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among children. The phytochemicals and secondary metabolites, especially the polyphenolic compounds from Moringa, have a significant free-radical scavenging effect attributed to this plant's therapeutic potential. Investigations targeting to explore M. oleifera for its nutritional makeup, novel bioactive components, and analysis of their health-promoting attributes have received much attention. This review demonstrates an overview of recent (past ten years) advancements and patenting activity in discovering different parts of M. oleifera plant for providing adequate nutritive and bioactive components. The pharmacological potential and action mechanisms of M. oleifera in many diseases like diabetes mellitus, cancer, hypertension, ulcer, etc., are also discussed. Practical applications Moringa oleifera is a vital plant that has a varied set of nutritional and therapeutic properties. The indigenous components of Moringa can treat humankind of its diseases and contribute to overall health. The qualitative and functional characteristics of its components indicate possible commercial exploitation of this high-value plant by utilizing its plant parts in many proprietary medicines and nutraceuticals. In conclusion, the Moringa plant needs to be used commercially. It can lead to tremendous economic development if the industries and researchers exploit its potential for highly nutritional super food and therapeutic application by undertaking further research to corroborate earlier studies.
... Moringa leaf extracts shows both antioxidants and anticancerous effects by inducing reactive oxygen species. The compounds in leaves due to which it has anticancer properties are niazimicin, glucosinolates, benzyl isothiocyanate (Hermawan et al. 2012). Benzyl isothiocyanate is found to be associated with cancer. ...
... Furthermore, the flavonoids present in MOE, such as quercetin and phenolics are responsible for the scavenging of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) released from mitochondria, which in turns serve to protect the cells against the deleterious effects of oxidative stress (Kamalakkannan & Prince, 2006;Al-Malki & El Rabey, 2015). In addition, phytochemical constituents of the leaves extracts such as glucosinolates, niazimicin, and benzyl isothiocyanate were reported to be responsible for the anticancer potential of MOE (Nakamura et al., 2002;Hermawan et al., 2012). ...
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Objective: Reproductive toxicity has been greatly linked with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) use. This study investigated the effects of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract (MOE) on HAART-induced testicular toxicity in adult male Wistar rats. Methods: Twenty adult male Wistar rats (150-200 g) were assigned into four groups (n=5). Group A received distilled water; Group B received (orally) 200 mg/kg BW HAART only; Group C received (orally) 200 mg/kg BW HAART and 100 mg/kg BW MOE (low dose group) and Group D received (orally) 200 mg/kg BW HAART and 300 mg/kg BW MOE. At the end of the 28-day experiment, body and testicular weights were measured; serum and testis obtained were subjected to hormone profiling, biochemical and histological studies. Results: HAART caused a significant decrease in body and testicular weight, testicular distortion and spermatogenic cell disorganization, altered semen quality and function, hormonal profiles, and oxidative stress markers (SOD, CAT, GSH) were significantly decreased with the concurrent increase in MDA level. However, treatment with MOE improved sperm parameters, testis morphology, antioxidants markers, and hormones assessments. Conclusions: The exposure to HAART produced marked testicular toxicity, ameliorated using Moringa oleifera leaf extract, thereby preserving testicular physiological function and morphology.
... Considering the potential for increasing or decreasing the absorption of a drug, FDIs can play a vital role 61 in drug discovery as well [9]. For example, Moringa oleifera leaf extract has been used to inhibit cancer 62 cells and to increase the efficacy of chemotherapy in humans [10,11,12]. The roots of Erythroxylum per-63 villei provide pervilleines A, B, C, and F, effective inhibitors of P-glycoprotein, which is linked to multi-64 drug resistance and low cancer therapeutic response [13]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Food-drug interactions (FDIs) arise when nutritional dietary consumption regulates biochemical mechanisms involved in drug metabolism. These interactions can create unexpected adverse pharmacological effects. By contrast, particular foods can aid in the recovery process of a patient. Towards characterizing the nature of food’s influence on pharmacological treatment, it is essential to detect all possible FDIs. In this study, we propose FDMine, a novel systematic framework that models the FDI problem as a homogenous graph. In this graph, all nodes representing drug, food and food composition are referenced as chemical structures. This homogenous representation enables us to take advantage of reported drug-drug interactions for accuracy evaluation, especially when accessible ground truth for FDIs is lacking. Our dataset consists of 788 unique approved small molecule drugs with metabolism-related drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and 320 unique food items, composed of 563 unique compounds with 179 health effects. The potential number of interactions is 87,192 and 92,143 when two different versions of the graph referred to as disjoint and joint graphs are considered, respectively. We defined several similarity subnetworks comprising food-drug similarity (FDS), drug-drug similarity (DDS), and food-food similarity (FFS) networks, based on similarity profiles. A unique part of the graph is the encoding of the food composition as a set of nodes and calculating a content contribution score to re-weight the similarity links. To predict new FDI links, we applied the path category-based (path length 2 and 3) and neighborhood-based similarity-based link prediction algorithms. We calculated the precision@top (top 1%, 2%, and 5%) of the newly predicted links, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and precision-recall curve. We have performed three types of evaluations to benchmark results using different types of interactions. The shortest path-based method has achieved a precision 84%, 60% and 40% for the top 1%, 2% and 5% of FDIs identified, respectively. We validated the top FDIs predicted using FDMine to demonstrate its applicability and we relate therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects of food items informed by FDIs. We hypothesize that the proposed framework can be used to gain new insights on FDIs. FDMine is publicly available to support clinicians and researchers.
... The exact behavior of the two contrary attributes of the leaves is yet to be explored. The compounds of leaves that are held responsible for the anticancer activities are glucosinolates, niazimicin and benzyl isothiocyanate [40]. In a study Bharali et al. have examined skin tumour prevention, following ingestion of drumstick (Moringa seed pod) extract in mouse model, which included appropriate positive and negative controls, a dramatic reduction in skin papillomas was demonstrated [41]. ...
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Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) has been used since times to treat various health ailments. Different parts of plant have been used by traditional physicians. However, the dried entire fruit is more commonly used as Sehjana in Unani Medicine. Sehjana is a famous Indian drug used in a number of pathological conditions. Various parts of this plant act as cardiac and circulatory stimulants, possess anti-tumour, antipyretic, antiepileptic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antispasmodic, diuretic, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, antibacterial and antifungal activities, and aphrodisiac, analgesic activities. This review is done to provide an electronic database regarding phyto-pharmacological properties of Moringa oleifera in particular with its description in Unani classical literature along with the recent research work done by many authors, so that future research work can be made at ease and it will help in revalidating scientifically the claimed activities of the drug mentioned in classical literatures and further exploration of any new therapeutic activity based on phyto-chemistry.
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Full-text available
Food-drug interactions (FDIs) arise when nutritional dietary consumption regulates biochemical mechanisms involved in drug metabolism. This study proposes FDMine, a novel systematic framework that models the FDI problem as a homogenous graph. Our dataset consists of 788 unique approved small molecule drugs with metabolism-related drug-drug interactions and 320 unique food items, composed of 563 unique compounds. The potential number of interactions is 87,192 and 92,143 for disjoint and joint versions of the graph. We defined several similarity subnetworks comprising food-drug similarity, drug-drug similarity, and food-food similarity networks. A unique part of the graph involves encoding the food composition as a set of nodes and calculating a content contribution score. To predict new FDIs, we considered several link prediction algorithms and various performance metrics, including the precision@top (top 1%, 2%, and 5%) of the newly predicted links. The shortest path-based method has achieved a precision of 84%, 60% and 40% for the top 1%, 2% and 5% of FDIs identified, respectively. We validated the top FDIs predicted using FDMine to demonstrate its applicability, and we relate therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects of food items informed by FDIs. FDMine is publicly available to support clinicians and researchers.
Chapter
The plant Moringa oleifera occurs in sub-Himalayan areas of Asia and in Africa. Named the Miracle Tree, moringa contains many micro and macro-nutrients of great value for human nutrition, in particular for the malnourished population. Moringa provides vitamins, minerals and essential amino acids that are helpful in preventing protein malnutrition. M. oleifera is also a powerful antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory agent. Leaves, pods, roots, seeds and flowers of M. oleifera contain bioactive compounds. After oil extraction from seeds, the left-over seed cake can be used as a protein-rich soil fertilizer. Moringa roots also reduce soil degradation.
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