Article

Flow State in the Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Dynamic Source Routing protocol (DSR) [22] is also a reactive protocol. Its route discovery process is similar to AODV [23]. ...
... Compared to AODV, the DSR protocol keeps the information about multiple routes to the destination. A node may choose to select the shortest sequence of hops to the destination, or it may use an alternative metric to select the route [22]. According to its RFC, DSR is designed for networks of up to two hundred nodes and of small diameter up to 10 hops [22]. ...
... A node may choose to select the shortest sequence of hops to the destination, or it may use an alternative metric to select the route [22]. According to its RFC, DSR is designed for networks of up to two hundred nodes and of small diameter up to 10 hops [22]. The next difference is that there is no expiration time for routes. ...
Article
Full-text available
In wireless ad hoc networks, security and communication challenges are frequently addressed by deploying a trust mechanism. A number of approaches for evaluating trust of ad hoc network nodes have been proposed, including the one that uses neural networks. We proposed to use packet delivery ratios as input to the neural network. In this article, we present a new method, called TARA (Trust-Aware Reactive Ad Hoc routing), to incorporate node trusts into reactive ad hoc routing protocols. The novelty of the TARA method is that it does not require changes to the routing protocol itself. Instead, it influences the routing choice from outside by delaying the route request messages of untrusted nodes. The performance of the method was evaluated on the use case of sensor nodes sending data to a sink node. The experiments showed that the method improves the packet delivery ratio in the network by about 70%. Performance analysis of the TARA method provided recommendations for its application in a particular ad hoc network.
... The brief overview of Reactive Routing Protocols has been discussed in this section. The Reactive Routing Protcols include: Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) [86], Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) [87], Time Slotted AODV [88], Multicast Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (M-AODV) [89] and are illustrated in Fig. 4. ...
... DSR [86] allows a network to self-configure, selforganize, and function without requiring any infrastructure. It is primarily used for wireless sensor networks consist of several hops and is used for its reactive structure. ...
... APAR (An ant colony optimization based Polymorphism-Aware Routing algorithm) [112] is a swarm-based routing technology developed exclusively for FANET. The wellknown DSR [86] is integrated to the particle swarm optimization technique in APAR. As during discovery phase, the number of pheromones as well as the distance travelled by packets are considered as performance evaluators for networking the route. ...
Article
When disasters such as floods or earthquakes occur, we may not have a support of regular infrastructure based networks. This proves fatal because people who are trapped can not be easily located by search and rescue team. In such cases, airborne network consisting of miniaturized drones can be extremely beneficial in providing quick and effective coverage of the affected area, in an on-demand manner providing instant insights to rescue teams. While the challenges offered by such networks are plenty, the ongoing research and development shows promise to make such a technology more reliable and effective. In this paper, we discuss various disaster events in which network of drones can play a vital role in offering support to rescue operations. Mainly, the article discusses the protocols proposed by researchers for various layers of protocol stack including physical layer, data link layer, network layer, transport layer, application layer along with clustering protocols, time synchronization protocols and localization protocols. Finally, a brief summary of software simulation platforms and testbeds, along with future trends of Flying Ad-hoc networks have been provided.
... A common method used by research groups is to build a routing metric taking into account performance parameters, and then choose a route with the best metric. HopCount is the simplest routing metric, used in traditional routing protocols such as Dynamic Source Routing Protocol (DSR) [3], and Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) [4]. In the case of WMNs with high traffic load, the HopCount metric may not be suitable because it can cause bottlenecks in the network. ...
... For the routing algorithms based on the RL, the reward function acts as the routing metric. Because the objective of the QGIR algorithm is to increase the PDP, we use the PDP metric of hops, determined according to (3) as the reward of the RL algorithm. ...
... It is also the PDP of the hop h i, j in our context, i.e. R i, j (h, t) is equal to P i, j (h, t), determined according to (3). L j is the set of the neighbors of the node J. ...
Article
Wireless Mesh Networks is increasingly being applied widely with explosive traffic demand. This leads to a great challenge for traditional routing protocols in ensuring Quality of Service. We propose a QoS-guaranteed intelligent routing algorithm in this paper for WMN with heavy traffic load using reinforcement learning to improve its performance. We build a reward function for the Q-Learning algorithm to choose a route so that the packet delivery ratio is the highest. Concurrently, the learning rate coefficient is flexibly changed to determine constraints of the end-to-end delay. Our performance evaluations show that the proposed algorithm has significantly improved performance compared with other well-known routing algorithms.
... However; with fast topology changes in IoV, proactive routing might also generate many control packets which cause more overhead. In reactive protocols [11], the required paths are only available when needed and designed to reduce broadcast and transmission delays when new routes are required. However, the route acquisition process causes significant delays before data transfer, which is not easy for IoV in the event of emergency information. ...
... LET metric is used for detecting the stability of the link [21], LET can be measured by (11), where the velocity of the sender and receiver are ( , ); respectively, ρ is the vehicle's communication range and is the direction factor between two vehicles. ...
Article
Full-text available
New vehicles are now expected to be involved in the rapid development of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). Vehicular Ad hoc NETwork (VANET) is the basic equipment used for the production of ITSs with a rapid and dynamic network topology. The increasing number of connected vehicles and the need for real-time data processing has created a growing demand for turning real VANETs into an automotive Internet of Vehicle (IoV) for achieving a goal of an effective and smart future transportation system. In this paper, an Advanced Greedy Hybrid Bio-Inspired (AGHBI) routing protocol with a greedy forwarding system is proposed to improve the performance of IoV, where a modified hybrid routing scheme with the help of a bee colony optimization is used to select the highest quality of service route and maintain the path with minimum overflow. Simulation results confirm that the proposed protocol can cope well with both Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V), and Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) environments and has a great impact on improving the packet delivery ratio, and the delay, while attaining acceptable overhead and hops count among all vehicles.
... Il existe différents protocoles mettant en oeuvre un routage dynamique au sein d'un réseau ad hoc mobile [22]. Leurs principes et politiques de routages sont aussi divers que les mobiles qui constituent un tel réseau et il est difficile d'en désigner un qui soit meilleur quelles que soient les hypothèses : proactifs comme par exemple Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) [23] et Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) [24], réactifs à l'exemple de Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) [25] et Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) [26], géographiques comme Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR) [27], hybride ou hiérarchique. Les auteurs dans [28] comparent différentes approches sur une flotte de drones et concluent à une meilleure adaptation du protocole AODV à ces conditions d'évaluation. ...
... NMCAM [43] est une architecture distribuée pour la détection de comportements anormaux. Il étend le protocole de routage Dynamic Source Routing [25] en lui ajoutant un superviseur, un système de réputation et un gestionnaire de chemins. La supervision est utilisée pour bâtir un système de réputation qui permet ensuite de calculer des routes évitant tout noeud se comportant mal. ...
Thesis
Les drones sont de plus en plus présents, dans nos vies pour le loisir comme dans l'industrie. Les prévisions sur le marché des drones civils envisagent une croissance importante sur les prochaines années et pourrait atteindre 10 à 20 milliards d'euros au niveau mondial.Si les missions confiées aux drones ont tout d'abord considéré des drones isolés, certains types de missions nécessitent la collaboration de plusieurs d'entre eux au sein d'une flotte.Une flotte de drones nécessite la mise en œuvre et la disponibilité d’un réseau sans fil pour toute les tâches ayant trait d’une part à la mission et d’autre part à toute coordination ou synchronisation. Les réseaux sans fil sont par nature ouverts sur l’extérieur et il se pose donc la question de leur sécurisation. Plusieurs travaux de recherche ont abordé cette question avec différents angles d’attaque : la couche physique, les protocoles de routage, les systèmes multi agents. Mais aucun n’aborde la question de la sécurisation de l’accès à ce réseau et peu ont étudié la question des réponses à apporter en cas d’attaque.Dans cette thèse nous proposons une architecture orientée vers la sécurité permettant une meilleure maîtrise des communications dans le réseau, et s'affranchissant entièrement de toute infrastructure fixe au sol. Cette architecture allie les réseaux définis par logiciels (SDN), qui est une technologie qui a émergé récemment, avec AODV, un protocole de routage adapté aux réseaux ad hoc de type FANET. Nous démontrons que cette architecture permet de protéger le réseau contre la plupart des attaques depuis l'extérieur. Cette architecture nous permet également d'obtenir une bonne connaissance de l'activité dans le réseau, pré-requis pour améliorer la sécurité.De cette connaissance, nous proposons d'une part une technique de détection d'injection de trafic depuis l'extérieur et une méthode pour s'en défendre. D'autre part, nous proposons un ensemble de caractéristiques mesurables de l’activité du réseau propres à être utilisées avec un algorithme d’apprentissage automatique.Nous démontrons la pertinence de ces mesures en entraînant un modèle de classification par apprentissage supervisé de type Random Forest sur un ensemble de captures réseaux présentant des attaques sur le réseau: déni de service (DoS), balayage de ports, découverte de mot de passe (brute force) et déni de service distribué (DDoS). Les performances en terme de détection d’attaques basées sur ces caractéristiques sont prometteuses, non seulement en terme de précision mais également en terme de vitesse de détection, offrant ainsi la possibilité d'une réaction en temps réel. Cette réaction peut être mise en œuvre grâce à l'architecture proposée dans cette thèse. Des tests sur des scénarios représentatifs d'un trafic réseau pour une flotte de drones montrent que le modèle est capable de généraliser avec de bonnes performances sur notre cas d'étude.
... Every protocol has its own rules to find the route or maintenance the route. There are many routing protocol proposed by researchers [2] [3]. Here routing protocol is also facing problems and various challenges for e.g. ...
... Thus the network topology must be created real-time depending on all these facts. Topology management is a hard issue [3] [6]. ...
... Every protocol has its own rules to find the route or maintenance the route. There are many routing protocol proposed by researchers [2] [3]. Here routing protocol is also facing problems and various challenges for e.g. ...
... Thus the network topology must be created real-time depending on all these facts. Topology management is a hard issue [3] [6]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The collection of sensor nodes, which form a dynamic and arbitrary network by connecting on a wireless medium is called wireless sensor networks. This definition implicitly describes that links may appear or disappear at any time because of node mobility & other factors. The communication is completely dependent on the nodes (source and destination) of network. For a network to work efficiently various protocols for routing have been developed. These protocols provide the path among distant nodes via multi-hop links to improve network efficiency. The Protocols' performance affected by the various factors, such as mobility of nodes, varying network size, bandwidth and power consumption of node. This paper describes comparative analysis of protocols with reactive routing such as (AODV, DSR and DYMO) used in day-today scenario, under the Influence of different mobility models: like File, Group Mobility and Random-Way Point Model. The differentials of performance are investigated by altering the number of nodes and different mobility models, depending on the simulation results, how the efficiency of each protocol can be improved is also recommended. By using simulator we simulates throughput, average jitter packet delivery ratio and average end to end delay, in network layer hop count and RTS, CTS and ACK in MAC of protocols. For the above parameters simulation is performed with QualNet 5.0 simulator. The results show expressively noticeable Influence of mobility models on performance of routing protocols.
... DSR [15,16] is an on-demand routing protocol that is based on the concept of source routing. It is a simple and an efficient routing protocol, specifically designed for use in multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks. ...
Article
Full-text available
A MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Network) is a group of mobile network nodes dynamically forming a network without any pre-existing infrastructure. Multi-path routing protocols in MANETs try to discover and use multiple routes between source and destination nodes. Multipath routing is typically used to reduce average delay, increase transmission reliability, provide load balancing among multiple routes, and improve security and overall QoS (Quality of Service). In this paper, the Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP), which is a single path MANET protocol is enhanced to use multiple paths. The traffic will be distributed among multiple paths to reduce network traffic congestion and decrease delay. An analytical model is used for multipath and single path CBRP routing protocols in MANETs to estimate the end-to-end delay and queue length. The analytical results show that the average delay and average queue length in multipath CBRP are less than the average delay and queue length in single path CBRP.
... Há três processos básicos no funcionamento das MANETs com roteamento reativo: descoberta, manutenção e recuperação de rotas. O AODV [11] e DSR [12], dentre outros, são exemplos clássicos de protocolos reativos. ...
... Similarly to AODV, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol is proposed as on-demand routing protocol [10], [11]. It is based on the concept of the source routing protocol, in which the packet transmitted from a source S to a destination D contains all the intermediate nodes information of the route [13]. ...
Conference Paper
In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), the nodes may be randomly deployed over a harsh geographical zone. Usually, these nodes are battery powered with limited transmission and processing capabilities. Managing the residual energy is very crucial in such network, since replacing a battery may not be always feasible. Energy is essentially consumed during packet transmission phase. Therefore, routing protocols become of a high importance since they impact on energy consumption during data transmissions. In this paper, we present a new routing protocol based on the geographical location information in an uplink multi-hop WSN. The proposed protocol assumes that the geographical zone and the transmitted data are more precious than the sender node authentication. Our proposed protocol guarantees the delivery of data packet in a dense network without any knowledge of the topology nor the path nodes between the source and the destination. We analytically derive the average consumed energy, the probability of packet loss, and the mean delivery time. Numerical results corroborate the superiority of our protocol over the state-of-the-art Distance Routing Protocol (DIR) in terms of connectivity, lifespan, memory, and latency.
... For this reason we included BATMAN among our benchmarks for performance analysis. Reactive protocols, such as Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) [17] and the Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) [18], compute routes only when needed. In FANETs this approach results prone to the problem of obsolescence of the computed routes, due to high devices mobility. ...
... DSR protocol support the routing protocols to update and inform about link failures using MAC layer. Flood of route request will be transmitted to all the ordered list of nodes until it reaches the target node [3]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Security is a fundamental prerequisite in self-evolvability network and providing that in any situation is the most problematic task as the network is highly dynamic with no trusted centralized monitoring. On comparing with wired networks MANETs are highly susceptible to security attacks. This paper proposed an efficient trust establishment-based routing evidence scheme (ETERE) that carried out in the creation and manipulation of mental representations of information identified. Here, propose I-Trust, probabilistic node misbehavior detection, for secure MANET routing toward ETERE scheme. The fundamental concept of I-Trust is presenting a periodically Accessible Trusted Authority (ATA) to pass judgment on the behavior of a node dependent on the gathered routing evidences and with self and coordinate monitoring. The main advantage of ETERE scheme is that even if the hackers or the internal attackers have the knowledge of the security scheme, the system cannot be compromised. The performance of ETERE Scheme with different routing disturbance attacks is evaluated in this paper. The computational outcomes emphasize the effectiveness of ETERE scheme and ensure the routing efficiency. The NS2 simulator is used in this research work. The simulation results show that the proposed ETERE scheme performs better than present methodologies improving the PDR and throughput of the network to a maximum extent of 28% and 34% respectively. I. INTRODUCTION MANET, self-operating network is a class of cooperated nodes without any wired connection which supports mobility and allows communication by packet forwarding apart from direct transmission range. To make MANET secure, all its problems should be identified and efficient trusted solution must be proposed to make all operations in proper secure manner [48].
... Many routing protocols have been developed for MANETs [43], such as destination sequenced distance vector (DSDV) [44], optimized link-stated routing (OLSR) [45], AODV [35], and dynamic source routing (DSR) [46]. In LLN, however, these protocols cause significant control overhead and/or slow recovery [47]. ...
... On the contrary, reactive algorithms compute routes on demand, as it is needed, i.e., when a packet has to be transmitted. Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) [116] and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) [117] are examples of reactive protocols. Finally, hybrid protocols combine reactive and proactive aspects. ...
Thesis
Machine learning, Artificial Intelligence, Semantic Reasoning or other Knowledge creation mechanisms have recently been applied successfully to various connected automated automotive domains, such as hazard detection, automated driving or sensor fusion. Knowledge is highly promising but lacks cooperation to achieve its full potential. Instead of individually creating knowledge as done so far, what if knowledge could be shared, disseminated and used by other vehicles ? This doctoral work investigates means to characterize, create,and distribute knowledge in vehicular networks. Through selected use cases, this work aims at modeling and analyzing the benefits of knowledge in information gathering and dissemination, first to reduce the amount of information effectively required for knowledge, and second to enhance mechanisms involved in information-centric networks (ICN) or edge caching (EC) to fulfill the delay, reliability and availability required by next generation vehicular networks.
... The authors in [31] evaluate the performance of AODV and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) [32,33] routing protocols in VANET with dense and sparse car traffic density. The simulation was carried out in the OPNET Network Simulator [34] using IEEE 802.11b standard [35] to study the impact on VANET. ...
Article
Full-text available
Traffic management challenges in peak seasons for popular destinations such as Madinah city have accelerated the need for and introduction of autonomous vehicles and Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) to assist in communication and alleviation of traffic congestions. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate the performance of communication routing protocols in VANETs between autonomous and human-driven vehicles in Madinah city in varying traffic conditions. A simulation of assorted traffic distributions and densities were modeled in an extracted map of Madinah city and then tested in two application scenarios with three ad hoc routing protocols using a combination of traffic and network simulation tools working in tandem. The results measured for the average trip time show that opting for a fully autonomous vehicle scenario reduces the trip time of vehicles by approximately 7.1% in high traffic densities and that the reactive ad hoc routing protocols induce the least delay for network packets to reach neighboring VANET vehicles. From these observations, it can be asserted that autonomous vehicles provide a significant reduction in travel time and that either of the two reactive ad hoc routing protocols could be implemented for the VANET implementation in Madinah city. Furthermore, we perform an ANOVA test to examine the effects of the factors that are considered in our study on the variation of the results.
... On the other hand, traffic incurs a routesetup delay because the route is not built in advance. DSR is being standardized by the IETF [10], DSDV: Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Protocol was developed by Charles Perkins and Pravin Bhagwat in 1994 [11]. It is a pro-active routing protocol, which means that routes are built in advance. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Wireless Multi-Hop Networks (such as Mobile Ad hoc Networks, Wireless Sensor Networks, and Wireless Mesh Networks) promise improved flexibility, reliability, and performance compared to conventional Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) or sensor installations. They can be deployed quickly to provide network connectivity in areas without existing backbone/back-haul infrastructure, such as disaster areas, impassable terrain, or underserved communities. Due to their distributed nature, routing algorithms for these types of networks have to be self-organized. Ant routing is a bio-inspired self-organized method for routing, which is a promising approach for routing in such Wireless Multi-Hop Networks. This chapter provides an introduction to Wireless Multi-Hop Networks, their specific challenges, and an overview of the ant algorithms available for routing in such networks.
... HRP provides a higher packet delivery ratio and lower delay than SRP. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) (Maltz et al., 2007) is an example of SRP. RRP is more suitable for large-scale, frequent topology changes and highly mobile scenario networks. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wireless technology, especially Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET), is developing rapidly. VANET is an emergingtechnology that assists intelligent transportation systems by improving traffic services and helping in minimizing roadaccidents. Data sharing in VANETs is time-critical, necessitating the formation of fast and robust network connections.Due to the highly dynamic nature of VANET, providing reliable, consistent, and seamless communication is asignificant challenge. In the last decade, various routing approaches have been proposed to efficiently handle quickhandover of safety and infotainment-related VANET applications. This paper reviews and investigates the existingrouting protocols and classifies them into a taxonomy based on essential attributes such as forwarding strategies,routing strategies, network dimensions. Routing challenges and future research directions in the VANET area are discussed in this paper.
... All aspects of the protocol operate entirely on-demand, allowing the routing packet overhead of DSR to scale automatically to only that needed to react to changes in the routes currently in use. (Johnson et al., 2007) Link-life base routing protocol: is a stability based distributed adaptive routing protocol for ad hoc networks that uses the worst case lifetime of wireless links, which is obtained by linear regression of the variation of distance between nodes in the routing metric. It employs an efficient beaconing mechanism, load balancing, pro-active and reactive route reconfiguration mechanisms to ensure efficient routing. ...
Article
Full-text available
For some decades now, network routing have been one of the most researched area in computing networking. A lot of researches have been done on wired and wireless networks. Recent technological changes have created more research areas for network routing technology. Ad hoc networks like wireless sensor networks (WSN), vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) wireless mesh network (WMN) and Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) have seen research increase in recent times. Due to the mobile nature of a lot of gadgets we use this days, the researchers embarked on a review to comprehensively show the various routing protocol technology that one can adopts when implementing a network routing scheme for MANETs. Reviews on types, classifications, routing techniques, geographical coverage, route metric, route repository and route reconfiguration strategies. This paper presented a comparative study of the various routing protocols highlighted. Areas of strength of each protocols were shown. Network Simulators that have implemented these protocols by default were also presented in this paper.
... But that it may not transmit required bandwidth and will reduce the performance particularly, if the data portion in a message packet is less than the size. The Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol (ADVRP) states that the performance can be improved by holding the routing path information in each and every node [3]. The significant diversity between ADVRP and DSRP is that the DSRP utilizes source routing protocol but the ADVRP plays a role to forward table's information at every node [4]. ...
... It is fundamental to secure the routing information since this information can be modified by malicious nodes. One of these secure routing protocols is DSR-RLT which is an enhancement of the native DSR routing protocol [6] using the Route Life Time (RLT) policy proposed in [7]. This policy seeks the optimal choice of the next hop based on the node's speed and the inter-node distances for a given approximation of the optimal number of hops in a VANET. ...
Conference Paper
With the rapid development in smart vehicles, the security and privacy issues of the Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) have drawn noteworthy regard. Indeed, every secure routing protocol must suit its operation to meet VANETs requirements and to yield a better security level. Incorporating Route Life Time policy (RLT) to DSR routing protocol is one of these adaptations. This policy intends to improve the global route lifetime. Trust Cryptographic Secure Routing (TCSR) protocol is one more proposition for secure routing found on the selection of the most trustworthy node all along with the route establishment. In this paper, we propose a comparative study of DSR-RLT and TCSR routing protocols in a highway to evaluate their performances in terms of transmission range variation. The simulation results show that TCSR exceeds DSR-RLT in terms of the packet loss ratio, average network throughput, and average delay.
... The main idea of DSR is source routing where every data packet contains the details regarding all nodes from which the packet travels. It is advantageous for on-the-route and overhearing nodes, as they can cache these details for future use [60]. Figure 13 shows the route discovery mechanism of DSR. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are a group of wireless mobile nodes working together in a temporarily formed network. This category of the network can implement in different domains without requiring any administration. In MANETs, there is no pre-established infrastructure to facilitate the routing activity and hence communication between mobile nodes can be achieved through the mobile nodes using the multi-hop wireless technique. In order to facilitate communication in a dynamic multi-hop wireless environment, routing protocols are essential to discover routes between nodes that are arbitrarily located and can move dynamically. Routing protocols in MANETs play significant roles to find the optimal route between source and destination node. However, due to the dynamic nature of nodes and limitation of resources in MANETs routing is a difficult issue. In recent years, several routing protocols and techniques have been proposed to overcome these issues in MANETs. This paper presents a survey of the wide range of routing protocol algorithms for MANETs. Most of the existing surveys have not considered various classes, grouping criteria, and mobility models which are provided in this paper. A significant overview of the routing protocols is provided also in the survey paper along with which for logical demonstration these protocols are categorized and well organized. .In this paper, protocol classification helps researchers to access a large set of protocols systematically and highlights the research trends in the domain.
... Many routing protocols have been developed for MANETs [43], such as destination sequenced distance vector (DSDV) [44], optimized link-stated routing (OLSR) [45], AODV [35], and dynamic source routing (DSR) [46]. In LLN, however, these protocols cause significant control overhead and/or slow recovery [47]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Link dynamics due to environmental change is a critical challenge for wireless networking, and handling it is essential for wireless protocols, especially for low-power and lossy multihop wireless networks (LLNs). Prior work have only studied methods to detect and cope with short-term and long-term link dynamics in LLN. In this work, we tackle the midterm dynamics due to the opening and closing of doors and windows that can happen in a time scale of a few minutes to hours in an indoor LLN. Specifically, we study how midterm link fluctuations impact the performance of standard IPv6 routing protocol for LLN (RPL), and design ‘RPLIE,’ a novel and backward-compatible lightweight enhancement to RPL that detects and overcomes the negative impact of such dynamics. We define ‘opportunistic links’ and propose a novel routing metric, expected breakage cost (EBC), which represents the expected number of link transmissions required from a link breakage to a routing parent change. We implement RPLIE on real embedded devices, and evaluate its performance against the standard RPL via experiments on a 31-node testbed to show that RPLIE achieves significantly better packet delivery performance while using less overhead.
... Due to this very phenomena of random and high speed mobility, VANET has prompted researchers to compete with such a routing algorithm which is efficient at dealing these issue and improves the routing performance along with improving network throughput. There are many routing algorithms which support dynamic source routing for randomly moving mobile nodes in ad-hoc networks which lays a foundation for VANET routing [5]. When it comes to improve the quality of service(QoS), reducing the query latency time appears to be the primary concern, and the "Cache Invalidation techniques" are the one which are considered to be the best to do with the latency reduction in the network. ...
Article
Full-text available
Internet based Vehicular (iVANET) ad-hoc networks are meticulously especial case of normal VANET. It is basically made of a combined wired Internet as well as vehicular ad hoc network for developing a new baby-boom of omnipresent and ubiquitous computing. The Internet connectivity is usually extended to V2I (vehicle to infrastructure) communication whilst ad-hoc networks are used in vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communication. The latency is one of the main matters of concern in VANET. By minimizing distance between data source and the remote vehicle through rectified caching technique along with redefined cache lookup mechanism, the latency can be shortened by a significant factor in iVANET environment. In this paper various cache invalidation schemes are studied and analyzed. Exploring the possibilities of caching schemes which can be hybridized or mutated, paper introduces an algorithmic proposal along with redefined services mechanism for cache lookup and invalidation, which strives for achieving low latency with reduced negative acknowledgement (NACK) in the network. This paper introduces a rectified algorithm for guaranteed delivery of the queried data and efficiently invalidating cache contents at different levels of hierarchy. The proposed work is anticipated to fructify the network performance minimizing the cost and bandwidth utilization during cache invalidation and hence guarantees improved quality of service (QoS).
... This is referred to as overlay sharing, which obviously requires new protocols and algorithms for spectrum sharing [14]. It also involves important regulatory aspects: Cognitive radios must not interfere with the operation of licensed radio systems when identifying spectrum opportunities and during operation in licensed spectrum [15]. This is explained in more detail in the following paragraphs, where we discuss enabling technologies and trends, and required changes in spectrum regulation. ...
Article
Full-text available
1. INTRODUCTION Cognitive radio is an intelligent wireless communication system that is aware of its surrounding environment (i.e.,outside world), and uses the methodology of understanding by-building to learn from the environment and adapt its internal states to statistical variations in the incoming RF stimuli by making corresponding changes in certain operating parameters (e.g., transmit-power, carrier-frequency, and modulation strategy) in real-time, with two primary objectives in mind: highly reliable communication whenever and wherever needed; efficient utilization of the radio spectrum.[1] In other words, once cognitive radios can find the opportunities using the-spectrum holes‖ for communications, cognitive radio networking to transport packets on top of cognitive radio links is a must to successfully facilitate useful applications and services. A mobile terminal with cognitive radio capabilities can sense the communication environments (e.g. spectrum holes, geographic location, available wire/wireless communication system or networks, available services), analyze and learn information from the environments with user's preferences and demands, and reconfigure itself by adjusting system parameters conforming to certain policies and regulations. For example, when a cognitive radio mobile terminal sensed that there are Wi-Fi and GSM systems nearby while spectrum holes exist in the frequency band of digital TV, it may decide to download files from a certain Wi-Fi AP, make a phone call through GSM system and communicate with other cognitive radio users using those spectrum holes. A cognitive radio terminal could also negotiate with other spectrum and/or network users to enable more efficient spectrum and network utilization. The negotiation procedure may be facilitated from the support of network/infrastructure sides or just proceed in an ad hoc manner [13] [14].Fig. 1 shows the operations of cognitive radio sensor network.
... Each mobile node acts both as a terminal and a router. The control of the network activity is distributed to the nodes and the network topology is generally dynamic because the connectivity among the nodes may change with time due to nodal mobility [13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent development has a tremendous growth in the ad-hoc wireless networks. Ad-hoc wireless networks are dynamic topology networks organized by a collection of mobile nodes that utilize multi-hop radio relaying and are capable of operating without the support of any fixed infrastructure. Ad-hoc wireless networks are very useful in emergency operations, collaborative and distributed computing and military applications. Multicasting plays an important role in the ad-hoc wireless networks, where nodes form groups to carry out certain tasks that require point-to-multipoint and multipoint-to-multipoint voice and data communication. Multicast routing protocol outperforms the basic broadcast routing by sharing the resources along general links, while sending information to as set of pre-defined multiple destinations concurrently. In this paper performance has been analyzed for the multicast routing protocols Assisted Mesh Protocol (CAMP). The performance of these protocols has been examined under realistic scenarios using NS 2, the network simulator tool. Performance has been analyzed for the metrics packet delivery ratio and control overheads with the multicast routing protocol.
... DSDV [6] là một giao thức định tuyến chủ động, trong đó mỗi nút cập nhật bảng định tuyến của mình với mục đích luôn có một tuyến đường đối với mỗi điểm đến trong mạng ngay cả khi các đường đi hiện chưa được sử dụng. Mặc dù DSDV có những ưu điểm như đơn giản, không tạo vòng lặp và không có thời gian trễ do khám phá tuyến đường. ...
... Many works have been done since with some presenting new protocols such as the work of Toh [2] on the ABR (Associativity Based Routing) protocol, the work of Perkins and Bhagwat [3] on the protocol DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distanced Vector), the one of Perkins, Belding-Royer and Das [4] on the protocol AODV (Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector) and the work of Johnson, Maltz and Hu [5] On the protocol DSR (Dynamic Source Routing). ...
Chapter
With the ever-increasing demand for ubiquitous communications from vehicles, there is an increasing request for Internet of Vehicles (IoV). IoV has been envisioned as an enabling technology for the next-generation mobile networks by using vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P), and vehicle-to-sensor (V2S) interactions and connections. It is anticipated that IoV will pave the way for supporting real-time applications for road safety, smart and green transportation, location-specific services, and in-vehicle Internet access. However, establishing and maintaining end-to-end connections in an IoV network is challenging due to the high vehicle mobility, dynamic inter-vehicle spacing, and variable vehicle density. This chapter focuses on routing algorithms review for the IoV. First, the background and knowledge of routing algorithms are introduced. Then, a centralized routing scheme with mobility prediction (CRS-MP) for IoV assisted by a software-defined network (SDN) controller powered with artificial intelligence is introduced. Specifically, through advanced artificial neural network (ANN) technique, the SDN controller is able to perform mobility prediction to deal with frequent network topology changes, so the probabilities of successful transmissions and average delay of each vehicle’s request can be estimated by the roadside units (RSUs) or the base station (BS). Mobility prediction is performed based on a stochastic urban traffic model in which the vehicle arrivals follow a non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP). The SDN controller collects network information from RSUs and BS, and they are considered as the switches. Since the SDN controller can obtain the global network information, it decides optimal routing paths for switches (i.e., BS and RSU). However, if the source vehicle and destination vehicle are located in the coverage area of the same switch, to minimize the overall service delay, the routing decision will be made by the RSUs or the BS independently, which schedules the requests of vehicles by either V2V or V2I communication, from the source vehicle to the destination vehicle.
Conference Paper
Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) play a key role in communication. Routing protocols for MANETs have been highly studied and researched upon. This paper reviews the current best-known techniques for routing in such networks, which comprise reactive, proactive and hybrid routing techniques. We especially emphasize the hybrid routing protocol, namely the Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) and entail its detailed architecture. Furthermore, the contribution of various researchers related to different variants of ZRP is elaborated. A comprehensive comparison of various implementations of different routing protocols is presented. This would help researchers and practitioners to identify the most suitable algorithm for particular applications.
Article
Full-text available
Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) is a reactive routing protocol in which the network generates routes at the start of communication. AODV has been developed specially for MANET. It obtains the routes purely on-demand which makes it a very useful and desired algorithm for MANETs. AODV use two different operations to find and maintain routes: the route discovery process operation and the route maintenance operation. There are four messages used in AODV to control the process of route discovery and route maintenance. In this paper the control messages that used in AODV ; RREQ, RREP and RERR; are classified, and the process of how AODV routing protocol is working was investigated as well as explain the reasons for why the AODV is the most desirable protocol for MANET environment.
Article
Full-text available
In this research manuscript We propose in improved NCPR protocol with security mechanism against attack. less broadcast traffic than flood broadcast method minimizing congestion and collision with maximum data packet delivery the scheme stands in with high density network which is main performance parameter. Due to soaring mobility of nodes in MANET's there exist recurrent connection breakages which direct to recurrent path crash and route Findings. The overhead of a path discovery cannot be deserted. In a route discovery, broadcasting is a original and successful data distribution method, where a movable node blindly rebroadcasts the first established route appeal packets unless it has a route to the target, and thus it cause the broadcast tempest difficulty. In this Manuscript we propose a neighbor coverage-based probabilistic rebroadcast protocol (NCPR0 for reducing routing overhead in MANETs. In arrange to successfully exploit the neighbor coverage knowledge, we recommend a novel rebroadcast delay to resolve the rebroadcast categorize, and then we can gain the more exact supplementary coverage ratio by sensing neighbor coverage knowledge. We also classify a connectivity factor to provide the node density adaptation. By combining the additional coverage ratio and connectivity factor, we set a reasonable rebroadcast probability. Our approach combines the advantages of the neighbor coverage knowledge and the probabilistic mechanism, which can appreciably diminish the number of retransmissions so as to reduce the routing overhead, and can also progress the routing performance.
Article
Full-text available
“Doing Business in India: International Perspectives (With Particular Reference to Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) Industry)”, Refereed Proceedings, International Conference on “ Resurging India : Myths & Realities”, March 17 – 18, 2012, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, India, Copyright © 2012 , pp. 3 – 11, ISBN 978-93-82062-04-2, Excel India Publishers, New Delhi. (With James Ondracek, Andy Bertsch, and Matthew Cohen) ABSTRACT: The country of India is one of the fastest growing economies in the world. With beneficial business incentives and a wealth of highly qualified, highly motivated potential employees, India is becoming a hub for economic growth and technological advancement. With so much expansion in India many industries, specifically the contact center and Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) industry, have entered into the global market with vigorous development. Currently India is ranked number one in the world in both the call center and BPO industries, has been able to grow the BPO and IT export sector to more than $47 billion USD, and has captured half of the entire world’s offshore service business. This study provides an overview of business climate, glimpses of socio- cultural, economic, and technological environments, with particular reference to insights pertaining to business process outsourcing industry. This article is recommended reading for those interested in doing business in India including students of international business.
Article
Full-text available
The Wireless Ad-hoc network or Mobile Ad-Hoc network is multi-hop network and rely on dynamic infrastructure where nodes are generally mobile and require signal as a communication component. Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) is growing more popular due to its advantages of being adaptable, quick to set up, cost-effective, and durable. On the other hand, it has limitations like limited wireless range, frequently changing routes, packet drop, heterogeneous devices, and limited battery power. Hence, MANET is vulnerable to various types of security attacks unlike the infrastructure-based wired network. One of the most dangerous attack is wormhole attack which causes major impact on routing. In view of the necessity to provide secure routing, identification of malicious node is not enough, isolation of malicious node is necessary without considerable overheads in MANETs. This research work presents Node to Node (N2N) Trust based mechanism for secure routing in MANETs based on Node-to-Node packet delay. It uses aggregated N2N trust to detect source malicious node of wormhole and isolate the malicious node to ensure that the malicious node does not intercept the routing. Thus, the mechanism offers routing of data traffic securely with improved throughput. In this work, we have employed NS3 (Network Simulator-3) simulator for experimental analysis and (Dynamic Source Routing) DSR protocol as reference for implementation of N2N Trust based algorithm.
Article
Full-text available
Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) is a reactive routing protocol in which the network generates routes at the start of communication. AODV has been developed specially for MANET. It obtains the routes purely on-demand which makes it a very useful and desired algorithm for MANETs. AODV use two different operations to find and maintain routes: the route discovery process operation and the route maintenance operation. There are four messages used in AODV to control the process of route discovery and route maintenance. In this paper the control messages that used in AODV ; RREQ, RREP and RERR; are classified, and the process of how AODV routing protocol is working was investigated as well as explain the reasons for why the AODV is the most desirable protocol for MANET environment.
Chapter
Wireless ad hoc networks are becoming increasingly relevant due to their suitability for Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications. These networks are comprised of devices that communicate directly with each other through the wireless medium. In applications deployed over a large area, each device is unable to directly contact all others, and thus they must cooperate to achieve multi-hop communication. The essential service for this is Routing, which is crucial for most applications and services in multi-hop ad hoc networks. Although many wireless routing protocols have been proposed, no single protocol is deemed the most suitable for all scenarios. Therefore, it is crucial to identify the key differences and similarities between protocols to better compare, combine, or dynamically elect which one to use in different settings and conditions. However, identifying such key similarities and distinctions is challenging due to highly heterogeneous specifications and assumptions. In this paper, we propose a conceptual framework for specifying routing protocols for wireless ad hoc networks, which abstracts their common elements and that can be parameterized to capture the behavior of particular instances of existing protocols. Furthermore, since many wireless ad hoc routing protocols lack systematic experimental evaluation on real networks, we leverage an implementation of our framework to conduct an experimental evaluation of several representative protocols using commodity devices.
Article
Full-text available
This paper focuses on the two routing protocols proposed by IEEE 802.11s for Wireless Mesh Networks. Towards this goal, this paper contributes in several areas of Routing and Quality-of-Service provisioning in IEEE 802.11-based wireless mesh networks. It compares the variety of routing protocols that could be used for Wireless Mesh Networks and later we specially focus on the recommended routing protocols HWMP and RA-OLSR by IEEE 802.11. We simulated using ns3 simulator under various parameters and observed how the two protocols reacted with changes in these parameters. From these observations, we have been able to study and compare few QoS of the routing protocols of Wireless Mesh Networks.
Article
Underwater Mobile Sensor Network (UWMSN) has marked a new era in ocean observation systems involving large scale ocean phenomena monitoring applications. These spatial and temporally varying applications demand multiple mobile entities for the collection of large amounts of data. This paper gives a concise view of the current state of the art of such networks comprising multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) and their challenges. It provides a literature review of the channel model and networking protocols of the physical layer, data link layer and network layer. Important algorithms and techniques for localisation and time synchronisation have also been reviewed. These algorithms play a huge role in a cooperative mission involving multiple AUVs, to achieve a common notion of time and to share the location information among the vehicles. Moreover, this paper includes a survey of various software platforms that support UWMSN, testbeds/real-time deployments of UWMSN developed by various research institutes/organizations and briefly discusses the recent advancement in the field of UWMSN.
Chapter
Full-text available
Energy harvesting is the demand of present day wireless communication for improving the energy efficiency of a network and a way to green communication as well. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) suffer from energy depletion of nodes and energy harvesting is a promising solution to enhance the life-time of sensor nodes in the area having lesser human intervention. In this work, different energy harvesting techniques have been presented and electromagnetic-based energy harvester model is deployed with WSN to evaluate its performance. Low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy protocol has been used as a routing protocol for sensor nodes. The performance of the proposed model is evaluated with variation in hardware characteristics of energy harvester and analyzed for sensor characteristics such as the number of dead nodes, alive nodes as well. The energy harvester model and WSN have been implemented on the MATLAB platform.
Thesis
p>In this thesis we investigate a range of performance evaluation problems encountered in wireless networks. The first part of the thesis covers the performance analysis of ad hoc networks based on Gaussian approximations. More specifically, chapter 3 quantifies the benefits of perfect rate adaptation on the achievable throughput of random ad hoc networks. The advantages of Large Area Synchronous (LAS) spreading codes in ad hoc networks obeying an infinite rectilinear node topology are outline in Chapter 4. The second part of the research covers the performance analysis of wireless systems based on characteristic functions. Specifically, the exact average Bit Error Ratio (BER) calculation of an asynchronous DS-CDMA system using random spreading sequences and BPSK modulation for communicating over various faxing channels is discussed in Chapter 5. The exact average BER calculation of general Rectangular Adaptive Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (R-QAM) systems subjected to asynchronous Co-Channel Interference (CCI) and Nakagami- m fading is the topic of Chapter 6. The exact average BER calculation of a BPSK- or QPSK-modulated Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system subjected to Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO), Phase Estimation Error (PER) and Nakagami- m fading is the topic of Chapter 7.</p
Chapter
Full-text available
South-South Economic Cooperation (SSEC) is a term that refers to a developing country’s activities or plans to strengthen economic cooperation with one or more underdeveloped countries. The purpose of the present study is to acquire a good understanding regarding the functioning of SSEC in Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) and to examines its importance in four regional groups: ASEAN, BIMSTEC, BRICS, and SAARC. For this purpose, secondary data has been collected from UN database for these regional groups from 2015-2020. Findings of the study reveals that ASEAN members countries average imports grew from 2015 to 2019 but began to fall in 2020. BIMSTEC statistics shows India as the top importer, followed by Thailand and Bangladesh. The average import and export of the BRICS countries from 2015 to 2020 shows that China has the biggest proportion of import and export, followed by India and Russia. However, it was found that from 2015 to 2020, BRICS outperforms all four regional groups in terms of imports and exports.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.