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Understanding it usage: a test of competing models

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... Some previous literature and empirical test have confirmed that the TAM is a robust model especially in the field of IT (Davis, 1989;Davis et al., 1989). TAM has widely used to conduct the behavioural acceptance of the technologies in the context of the information technologies (IT) (Taylor and Todd, 1995;Gefen and Straub, 2000). TAM has widely used to get the acceptance of the consumers in the field of e-commerce (Gefen and Straub, 2000;Gefen et al., 2003).In TAM there are two main constructs i.e. perceived ease of use (PEU) and perceived usefulness (PU). ...
... PEU is defined as using particular technology is effort free (Davis, 1989). TAM is one of the most powerful important conceptual to examine the adoption of IS (Davis, 1989;Mathieson, 1991;Taylor and Todd, 1995;Yang, 2005). It is also proven that TAM is a very powerful explanation than Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and TRA (Mathieson, 1991). ...
... It is also proven that TAM is a very powerful explanation than Theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and TRA (Mathieson, 1991). TAM has also the capability to explain 53% of the variance in (BI) (Taylor and Todd, 1995). Leong (2003) also studies and found that TAM is one of the most used and cited models in the adoption of the IS. ...
... Technology adoption is a well-studied outcome in academic research, both in the information systems literature (Davis, 1986;Rogers, 1995;Taylor & Todd, 1995a;Taylor & Todd, 1995b;Venkatesh & Davis, 2000;Venkatesh et al., 2003) and in the marketing discipline (Bateson, 1985;Bitner et al., 1990;Meuter et al., 2003;Vakulenko et al., 2018). When examining any facet of smart speaker use, it would be remiss to overlook the various existing models and theories for technology adoption in the investigation of smart speaker engagement. ...
... TAM presents constructs of perceived ease of use of technology, and perceived usefulness of technology as positive, linear, and significant drivers of an individual's intention to use computer-based systems in organizational settings (Davis, 1986;Fishbein & Ajzen, 1977). Additional research on technology adoption has led to multiple iterations/extensions of TAM (Taylor & Todd, 1995a;Venkatesh & Bala, 2008;Venkatesh & Davis, 2000;Venkatesh et al., 2003). ...
... However, one of the primary gaps in the technology adoption literature thus far pertains to commonly studied outcome variables. While behavioral intentions are largely studied (Davis, 1989;Kim et al., 2007;Taylor & Todd, 1995a;Taylor & Todd, 1995b) and actual use is somewhat studied (Venkatesh & Bala, 2008;Venkatesh & Davis, 2000), the construct of customer engagement remains decidedly absent from technology adoption literature. This construct differs fundamentally from one's intention to use, actual use such as that measured by frequency (Lee & Allaway, 2002) and duration (Venkatesh et al., 2003), or re-use of technology. ...
Article
As the digital era continues to have a strong influence on how consumers effectively leverage technology, the prospect of introducing artificial intelligence, including smart speakers, into our homes and routines has become largely unavoidable (Bressgott, 2019; Davenport et al., 2020). Consumer use of smart speakers can provide both a competitive advantage for firms (though large amounts of valuable consumer data), as well convenience benefits for users. However, the availability of this data requires continued engagement with these devices in a deep, meaningful manner. This paper employs a mixed methods strategy to investigate the underlying reasons for how individual user, task, and technology characteristics influence deep customer engagement with smart speakers. While much research has been conducted concerning technology adoption and self-service technology adoption, in particular, this research seeks to add to current marketing and IS literature by examining the drivers of actual, continued, and deep engagement with smart speakers in the post-adoption phase. Currently, we see mixed findings between a willingness and resistance to engage with AI technology, many of which seem to be rooted in a) user characteristics such as personality, b) technology characteristics such as perceived anthropomorphism, and/or c) task characteristics such as willingness to delegate tasks to AI (Serenko, 2007; Swartz, 2003; Waytz et al., 2010a). Therefore, depth interviews in study one of this paper seek to examine how user, task, and technology characteristics that interact to influence or deter engagement with smart speakers. It also employs a metaphor analysis technique to identify moderating variables that may strengthen or weaken relationships between user, task, and technology characteristics and engagement. Findings from study one brought forth several user, task, and technology characteristics that were used in the development of a new empirical model. Study 2 tests this model through partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), subsequently contributing empirical evidence on drivers of engagement with smart speakers to the current body of literature (Wagner & Schramm-Klein, 2019).
... The research model proposed that this variable be positioned as a moderator in an effort to further investigate the attitude of the users who may have an intention to use IT Consumerization Services. For this study, the project considered the development of beliefs and attitudes that drive the intention to use as part of a cognitive decision-making process which precedes behavioral intention and exists prior to the corresponding behavior being performed or displayed (Ajzen, 1991; Mathieson, 1991; Taylor & Todd, 1995). The voluntary nature of an optional service which is available to employees is introduced in the IT Consumerization research stream as an attribute that deserves consideration as an influence upon intention in and of itself (Moore & Benbasat, 1991; Venkatesh, Thong, & Xu, 2012). ...
... Perceived behavioral control is not an observation based on one's own abilities (Taylor & Todd, 1995) nor is it a locus of control; therefore, behavioral intention research must consider outside influences that may or may not affect an individual's beliefs toward IT ...
... Within the current IT Consumerization research stream, theoretical framework considerations include TPB, TRA, and the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as foundational elements for empirically assessing the phenomenon (Ortbach et al., 2013; Niehaves et al., 2012; Lebek et al., 2013). TAM is differentiated from TPB and TRA in that social influences and perceived behavioral controls are not taken into consideration (Taylor & Todd, 1995). Perceived behavioral controls are neither implicit nor explicit within the TAM studies due to the conditions in which the information system resides, i.e. in the workplace where mandatory work-related tasks are performed. ...
Article
The paper examines the influences of users’ beliefs, attitudes, social norms, and perceived control on IT Consumerization use in the technology industry. It was expected to find significant influences leading to intention to use and actual use of the consumerization service. By identifying key drivers that lead to actual use, more was understood as to how to successfully position the service within an organization in such a way so as to connect the employee’s interest to using an IT Consumerization service. In addition, the academic field of research is expanded by leveraging a well-grounded theoretical framework and an exploration of actual use of IT Consumerization into the current research stream. Data was gathered via electronic survey, including both pre-testing and pilot testing before data collection. Relationships between variables were assessed via structural equation modeling. Overall, the anticipated results continued to provide support to the Theory of Planned Behavior and probed actual use as a measure of the Nature of Use construct. The results were projected to demonstrate relationship support for the referenced attributes and some hypotheses which confirmed an impact upon behavioral intention to use and actual use.
... Figure 2.8: Decomposed TPB Model (Taylor and Todd, 1995: 146) . ...
... The second model used by Taylor and Todd's (1995) study is known as the decomposed TPB Model. The decomposed TPB " provided for a moderate increase in the explanation power of behavioural intentions, " (Taylor and Todd, 1995: 144). Elements from the Theory of DOI can be seen in the model. ...
... Elements from the Theory of DOI can be seen in the model. The model separates attitudinal, normative and control beliefs into multi-dimensional constructs (Taylor and Todd, 1995: 151). The main advantage of the decomposition is to understand the relationship between underlying beliefs, thereby ultimately, providing a set of stable beliefs that can be applied across a variety of settings (Taylor and Todd, 1995: 151). ...
Thesis
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The main research problem of this study was to investigate underlying factors, which influence people in the use of outdoor gyms in South Africa. The main research problem gave rise to five research sub-problems. The sub-problems were addressed by the following actions. A literature study was conducted to investigate theories explaining human behaviour. Particular attention was given to the Theory of Planned Behaviour, which provided the basis for the research design. A pilot study was conducted with ten members in the sample group to identify accessible behavioural, normative and control beliefs in order to construct a list of modal accessible beliefs, reflective of the most commonly held beliefs for the population. A standard questionnaire was developed, incorporating Ajzen’s (2002) conceptual and methodological considerations. The self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 974 members of the public from diverse backgrounds. The response rate was 21%, with 203 questionnaires being returned. The final sample size was 156, due to 47 questionnaires being incorrectly completed. The results from the study were largely consistent with the existing literature. A remarkable finding was the strong degree of multi-collinearity displayed between attitude and subjective norms. For this reason, t-stats were used (instead of regression coefficients) to compare the strength of the relationships between the independent and dependent variables. The model explained 34% of the variation in intention to use an outdoor gym. Subjective norms had the strongest significant effect on intentions. Outdoor gym installations are growing globally, as well as in South Africa and local governments regard outdoor gyms as an inexpensive solution to improving public health (Madren, 2013). This study can assist in the design of future physical activity intervention programs. The findings of the study are important as there are a number of public benefits of exercising at outdoor gyms (Madren, 2013: 1). The results of the study revealed the importance of subjective norms in the context of outdoor gyms. The findings further suggested that a special relationship existed between attitudes and subjective norms, which should be considered for effective health interventions. The role of perceived behaviour control is also significant and intervention campaigns should consider a number of proposals suggested in the study.
... Normas Subjetivas (Ajzen, 1991; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975; Matheison, 1991; Taylor & Todd, 1995) La percepción de la propia persona de lo que piensan sobre si debería o no desarrollar la conducta en cuestión aquellos que considera importantes. intención de conducta (Davis et al., 1989; Hill et al., 1987) excepto las condiciones facilitadoras (Venkatesh et al., 2003). ...
... , 2003). Hartwick y Barki (1994) enfatizan la importancia creciente de comprobar estas teorías y modelos de investigación sobre la aceptación y uso de los sistemas de información, especialmente respecto a tecnologías, poblaciones usuarias o contextos organizacionales distintos (Hu et al., 1999). Ajzen, 1991; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975; Matheison, 1991; Taylor & Todd, 1995. Trabajo social y tecnología: Aceptación y uso entre profesionales en formación 79 Una manera de analizar los efectos que pueda tener la educación a distancia (& Elliott, 1999; Cummings & Bonk, 2002; Darkwa & Mazibuko, 2000; Faux & Black-Hughes, 2000; Hicks, 2002; Jennings et al., 1992; Mchenry & Bozik, 1995; Pawar, 2000; Petracchi & Patc ...
... Este constructo forma parte del modelo MPCU (Thompson, Higgins & Howell, 1991Ajzen, 1991; Fishbein & Azjen, 1975; Matheison, 1991; Taylor & Todd, 1995 ...
Thesis
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Esta tesis investiga cómo el uso de la tecnología afecta a la práctica del trabajo social desde un marco de innovación social. Para ello se ha dividido el trabajo en dos partes: una parte teorética y un trabajo de campo a partir del análisis estadístico de una encuesta, específicamente diseñada para este propósito. En la primera parte se establece el contexto teórico donde se inscribe esta tesis. Se sostiene que para entender qué es la innovación en Trabajo Social hay que delimitar brevemente una historia del concepto de innovación, establecer los diversos significados que ésta tiene para poder concluir en la innovación social. Por otro lado se incide especialmente en dos grandes temas que se desarrollan en relación al Trabajo Social. Se asume que la innovación, en este contexto, es básicamente el impacto tecnológico que se produce en la práctica profesional y se abordan cuestiones éticas y deontológicas. Se propone la síntesis de diversos modelos que se han empleado en diversas áreas de conocimiento para la investigación sobre la aceptación y uso individual de las tecnologías. Se hace así un análisis de los principales modelos de investigación como los de Fishbein y Aizen, Rogers, Davis y otros. Se ha apostado por el modelo de aceptación y uso de las tecnologías UTAUT de Venkatesh. La parte teórica se concluye con el peso y papel de la tecnología en la educación y formación de los trabajadores sociales. La muestra ha estado compuesta por 342 participantes, alumnos que cursan el Curso de Adaptación ofertado por la Facultad de Trabajo Social de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid. La intención fue encontrar sujetos que se encontraran en situación de trabajadores activos y que al tiempo se enfrentaran a cuestiones como la formación. La parte empírica pretende realizar una radiografía del conocimiento y uso de la tecnología, las posibilidades de uso profesional de la misma para el ejercicio del trabajo social, la aplicación de un modelo concreto de aceptación y uso a una tecnología asentada como el correo electrónico, así como incidir en las cuestiones éticas derivadas del uso de la tecnología por parte de los trabajadores sociales.
... ISSN 2162-4860 2020 Intentions are expected to capture motivational components that impact behavior; they are signs of how difficult individuals are willing to take and how much of an exertion are they arranging to apply in performing the said conduct. As a common rule, the more grounded and deliberate a person to lock in a behavior, the more likely it would be executed (Taylor & Todd, 1995). Hence, this becomes a role of LOC as mediator. ...
... Attitude can be implied as a level of degree in which an individual has a positive or ominous assessment or evaluation of a particular behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Associated with attitudinal belief, the attitude of an individual would influence behavior which will lead to a specific result, weighted by an assessment of allure from that result (Taylor & Todd, 1995). In the current study, organization culture, employee integrity and organizational commitment are grouped under attitude. ...
... Subjective norm refers to perceived social pressure to perform or not to perform one's behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Subjective norm is formed as an individual's normative belief concerning a particular referent, weighted by the motivation to comply with that referent (Taylor & Todd, 1995). In the current study, employee intrinsic motivation is placed under subjective norms. ...
Article
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Fraud is a global issue overwhelming all aspects of human economic and business activities as it poses potential threat of financial losses. Many detection and prevention mechanisms, such as internal control systems, operational audits, codes of conduct and forensic accounting have been applied in organizations aiming to effectively mitigate internal fraud activities. However, fraud is still occurring. This study is therefore aimed to develop a multidimensional theoretical model which explains factors (categorized under attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral controls) that influence Levers of Controls (LOC); how level of LOC could influence fraud prevention framework as well as whether LOC could mediate the relationship between planned behavioral variables and effective fraud prevention framework. Concerning more on the adoption and post-adoption stages regarding drivers of LOC, this study constructs a model in attempt to close the knowledge gaps found in prior studies. From literature review, theories relating with fraud prevention and behavioral controls were examined to identify knowledge gaps within previous measurements of effective fraud prevention framework. A multidimensional Fraud Prevention (FP) model is then developed by innovating the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB).
... Although TAM has been the mass acceptance theory, it still lacks some important aspects that are essential to predict consumer behavior specific to the domain of information technology services. As a result, Taylor and Todd (1995) combined TAM with TPB ...
... Thus, the LBS providers should focus on both development and marketing of the service in Bangladesh in order to boost the features of usefulness and ease of use for LBS. Previously, Taylor and Todd (1995) found that facilitating conditions influence the perceived behavior of individuals towards the adoption of information technology based services; whereas, Bhattacharjee (2000) identified facilitating conditions as a major factor to predict individual's behavioral intention. Conversely, the reason behind the negligible finding of facilitating conditions in this study can be ...
Chapter
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Location-based services (LBSs) are technology related services that can provide individual users with the capability of being constantly reachable and accessing network services while on the move. The growing in uence of LBS has attracted signi cant attention in developing countries like Bangladesh, where LBS is a new tool for the marketers. However, it is yet to become popular among the mass people. It is therefore important to understand the users’ intention to adopt and use LBS extensively in their daily life. In this regard, original technology acceptance model (TAM) has been used along with several other factors to develop a conceptual model for this study. Results claim that constructs like self-e cacy, perceived social value, perceived convenience value, personalization, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use plays vital role in the adoption of LBS in Bangladesh. Accordingly, implications for practice and research, limitations and future research directions of this study are discussed.
... Las preguntas o ítems de las encuestas se han clasificado en seis grupos (ver Tabla 1). Schillewaert, Ahearne, Frambach & Moenaert, 2005); [95]  Complejidad tecnológica (CT): el grado a través del cual una innovación es percibida como relativamente difícil de comprender y usar (Rogers, 2003) de aspectos como el grado de dificultad de las habilidades necesarias para utilizar las tecnologías entre los empleados (Premkumar & Roberts, 1999);  Actitud hacia el Sistema (AHS): refleja sentimientos favorables o desfavorables respecto al empleo de una determinada tecnología (Taylor & Todd, 1995);  Intención de Uso (IU): es el grado de comportamiento previo que se tiene a la hora de usar dicha tecnología (Taylor & Todd, 1995). ...
... Las preguntas o ítems de las encuestas se han clasificado en seis grupos (ver Tabla 1). Schillewaert, Ahearne, Frambach & Moenaert, 2005); [95]  Complejidad tecnológica (CT): el grado a través del cual una innovación es percibida como relativamente difícil de comprender y usar (Rogers, 2003) de aspectos como el grado de dificultad de las habilidades necesarias para utilizar las tecnologías entre los empleados (Premkumar & Roberts, 1999);  Actitud hacia el Sistema (AHS): refleja sentimientos favorables o desfavorables respecto al empleo de una determinada tecnología (Taylor & Todd, 1995);  Intención de Uso (IU): es el grado de comportamiento previo que se tiene a la hora de usar dicha tecnología (Taylor & Todd, 1995). ...
Article
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El objetivo de este trabajo de investigación es contribuir al entendimiento de la adopción de la tecnología cloud y su aportación en la mejora de competitividad de una organización desde la perspectiva de los recursos humanos. Esta investigación estudia la adopción de esta tecnología en función del tamaño de la organización y de la categoría laboral del encuestado. Los resultados ponen de manifiesto la influencia de la complejidad tecnológica, el apoyo de la alta dirección, la comunicación, la formación y la actitud hacia el sistema en la intención de uso final del cloud, especialmente en función del tamaño de la organización que adopta la nube y de la categoría laboral del encuestado que pertenece a la organización.
... Subjectivе Norm – SN) као перцепцију притисака, односно реакције и мишљења других о извршавању датог понашања или о обављању задатка. Субјективна норма је емпиријски тестирана и имала је значајан директан (Mathieson, 1991; Taylor & Todd, 1995) или индиректан утицај кроз доживљај корисности (Venkatesh & Davis, 2000 ) на намеру понашања. У појединим истраживањима установљено је да субјективна норма значајно утиче на ставове према употреби рачунара (Jan & Contreras, 2011; Schepers & Wetzels, 2007). ...
... Напишите колико оно износи за следеће активности: Прављење (израду) нових модела у програму GeoGebra Размену информација у неком Wiki ок- ружењу Развој групних пројеката (нпр. рачунање трошкова екскурзије) у неком Taylor & Todd, 1995; Venkatesh et al., 2003; Teo, 2009aAN EXPLORATION OF ACCEPTANCE OF INNOVATIVE COMPUTER USE IN TEACHING MATHEMATICS AMONG PRE-SERVICE CLASS TEACHERS AND MATHEMATICS TEACHERS Verica Milutinović Faculty of Education of University of Kragujevac, Jagodina, Serbia ...
Article
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Abstract. Innovative computer use enables the strengthening and transformation of teaching practice. Notwithstanding, numerous studies have indicated that teachers do not use computers in teaching mathematics to a sufficient extent. This study was aimed at exploring the reasons for insufficient computer use by teachers, i.e. at examining the variables which may affect the acceptance of innovative computer use in teaching mathematics. Hence, the intention to use computers in teaching mathematics in primary school was explored on the sample of 455 pre-service class teachers and mathematics teachers from Serbia. The technology acceptance model was extended by external variables and the following were observed as the predictors of intention to use computers in teaching mathematics: students’ attitudes towards computers, their perception of usefulness of computers in teaching mathematics, perceived ease of use, technological pedagogical content knowledge in mathematics, experience with use, subjective norms, technological complexity and content knowledge in mathematics. Structural equation modelling has shown that the proposed model had a good fit and that the selected variables were significant predictors of the intention to use computers. The proposed model explained 23.7% of variance in the intention to use computers. It has been shown that the intention to use computers is directly predicted by dominant technological pedagogical content knowledge in mathematics, students’ attitudes towards computers and their experience, while it is indirectly predicted by perceived usefulness, subjective norm, technological complexity and content knowledge in mathematics. In accordance with the presented findings, the final part provides recommendations that may be beneficial for advancing the education of pre-service class teachers and mathematics teachers.
... First is the opinions that the consumer has of people considered as a reference, and the second is the motivation of the person to behave in accordance with the wishes of the people or reference groups (Herrero Crespo, García de Los Salmones, & Rodríguez Del Bosque, 2005; Davis, Bagozzi, & Warshaw, NFC technology acceptance for mobile payments: A Brazilian Perspective 1989). From this point of view, many authors identified a direct and positive link between subjective norms and ease of use (Lu et al., 2005; Bhatti, 2007), usefulness (Zhang, Yue, & Kong, 2011; Venkatesh & Davis, 2000; Taylor & Todd, 1995;) and intention of use (Shih & Fang, 2004; Shin, 2009; Glass & Li, 2010; Chung, Stoel, Xu & Ren, 2012;). Accordingly, we propose the following hypotheses: ...
... First is the opinions that the consumer has of people considered as a reference, and the second is the motivation of the person to behave in accordance with the wishes of the people or reference groups (Herrero Crespo, García de Los Salmones, & Rodríguez Del Bosque, 2005; Davis, Bagozzi, & Warshaw, Iviane Ramos de Luna / Francisco Montoro-Ríos / Francisco Liébana-Cabanillas / João Gil de Luna 1989). From this point of view, many authors identified a direct and positive link between subjective norms and ease of use (Lu et al., 2005; Bhatti, 2007), usefulness (Zhang, Yue, & Kong, 2011; Venkatesh & Davis, 2000; Taylor & Todd, 1995;) and intention of use (Shih & Fang, 2004; Shin, 2009; Glass & Li, 2010; Chung, Stoel, Xu & Ren, 2012;). Accordingly, we propose the following hypotheses: ...
Article
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Purpose – This study investigates the acceptance of NFC technology for payment through mobile in a Brazilian context, which allow knowing the factors that influence directly or indirectly in that acceptance. Design/methodology/approach – Through an online and selfadministered questionnaire and using the snowball sampling procedure on social networks, the final sample consisted of 423 mobile phone users in Brazil and the technique used to prove the hypotheses was the Structural Equation Model. Findings – The results show that attitude, personal innovation in IT and perceived usefulness are determinants of future intention to use the NFC technology for payments in Brazil. Originality/value – The proposed model has a predictive power of intention to use NFC payment of 71%, demonstrating that it includes background with a large predictive power of acceptance of NFC technology which led us to highlight the main implications for the management and development of new studies in this field.
... UTAUT includes PU into a performance expectancy construct, PEOU into effort expectancy and SN as social influence (the terms are defined and explained later in Table 1). Modern to UTAUT, but not to the information technology acceptance study generally is the modelling of easing circumstances as one determining factor of behavioural intention [22]. UTAUT is a modern but capable theory; Prior experiments of UTAUT described a magnificent 70 percent of the variance in behavioural intention and at most 50 percent in actual use [22]. ...
... Modern to UTAUT, but not to the information technology acceptance study generally is the modelling of easing circumstances as one determining factor of behavioural intention [22]. UTAUT is a modern but capable theory; Prior experiments of UTAUT described a magnificent 70 percent of the variance in behavioural intention and at most 50 percent in actual use [22]. It has been embraced by current studies in healthcare, this include: [24,25]. ...
... The model affirms that the adoption of a technology is determined by the user's intention to use, which in turn is influenced by his or her attitudes towards, the technology. It is very likely that the variability in these attitudinal Throughout the years TAM has received extensive empirical support through validations and applications, for its power to predict the use of information systems (Davis, 1993; Taylor & Todd, 1995b; Venkatesh & Morris, 2000). However, researchers have also recognized that the generality of TAM fails to supply more meaningful information on users' opinions about a specific system. ...
Article
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The prime objective of this study is to validate the extended technology acceptance model (ETAM) by incorporating two intrinsic motivation attributes, namely, computer self-efficacy and satisfaction into the original TAM to compare its viability testing on their satisfaction of the wireless internet service at a university. Besides, it evaluates gender invariant of the causal structure of this extended TAM. A total of 285 students from five major faculties (Education, Human Sciences, Engineering, ICT and Economics) were taken as respondents. The questionnaire’s reliability and validity were established through a RASCH analysis. The results as analyzed by Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) indicate that students’ perceived ease of use had a statistically significant effect on their satisfaction. The study revealed that gender did not exert any influence as a moderating variable towards students’ satisfaction in using Wireless Internet. The findings contributed to a better understanding of the TAM and technology satisfaction among students.
... These items formed the revised Computer Attitude Scale (rCAS), were rated on a five-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree), and were presented in Greek. Questions taken from Selwyn's (1997) Computer Attitude Scale (CAS) formed the basis of the rCAS, but items from other published sources were used as well (e.g., Davis et al. 1989; Taylor and Todd 1995). Most of these items have been used in previous studies on pre-service teachers and were found to be reliable and valid (e.g., Teo & Noyes, 2011). ...
Article
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The study examines the factors affecting Greek pre-service teachers' intention to use computers when they become practicing teachers. Four variables (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, self-efficacy, and attitude toward use) as well as behavioral intention to use computers were used so as to build a research model that extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and structural equation modeling was used for parameter estimation and model testing. Self-reported data were gathered from 487 pre-service teachers studying at the Departments of Primary School Education in Greece. Results revealed a good model fit and of the nine hypotheses formulated, seven were supported. Overall, the TAM, with the addition of computer self-efficacy beliefs, adequately represented the relationships among the factors. It also possesses the explanatory power to predict pre-service teachers' intention to use computers when they become practicing teachers since a high percentage (68%) of the variance in behavioral intention to use computers was explained, while the most influential factors were perceived usefulness and attitude toward computers. Implications for practice are also discussed.
... In MB context, perceived usefulness assesses to what extent MB can improve conducting banking services, while perceived ease of use assesses to what extent MB can be perceived as user friendly (Davis, 1989). TAM is based on the theory of reasoned action (TRA) (Davis et al. 1989) and is often used by IS researchers to determine behavioral intention and actual use based on PU and PEU (Taylor & Todd, 1995). These two factors found to play a major role in determining satisfaction in contexts similar to MB. Bhattacherjee (2001) suggested that there is a positive relationship between perceived usefulness and satisfaction in online banking whereas Hong et al. (2006) suggested that there is a positive relationship between perceived ease of use and satisfaction in mobile internet. ...
Conference Paper
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Over the last decade, bank industry has made a significant investment on mobile banking (MB) as an innovative tool with an expectation that MB services are being frequently used and increasing customer satisfaction. While the focus has been on increasing MB adoption, banking research shows more value is generated with frequent and continued usage of MB services, an area that has been given little attention. We develop a research model that integrates privacy and personalization with satisfaction and technology acceptance model (TAM) factors to address this gap. Using a sample of 486 MB customers from a US local bank, our regression results reveal that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are significant predictors of satisfaction, which lead to continued usage of MB. However, the interaction effects used in our model show statistical significance for privacy while not for personalization. Limitations and practical implications are discussed. Keywords Mobile banking (MB), perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, privacy, personalization, adoption, continued usage intention of MB, TAM, and ECM.
... Dalam usaha untuk menilai penerimaan inividu terhadap penggunaan teknologi, terdapat pelbagai model-teori penerimaan yang berkaitan persepsi, kepercayaaan, sikap individu dan pengaruh luaran iaitu maklum balas individu terhadap perkara yang mendorong tingkah laku individu untuk menerima dan menggunakan teknologi. Antara model-teori penerimaan yang berkaitan penerimaan individu terhadap teknologi adalah Theory of Reasoned Action-TRA (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975), Technology Acceptance Model-TAM (Davis, Bagozzi, & Warshaw, 1989), Theory of Planned Behavior-TPB (Ajzen, 1991), C-TAM-TPB (Taylor & Todd, 1995Ramai guru juga menyatakan bahawa penggunaan Frog VLE membolehkan mereka mengajar dengan lebih berkesan apabila mereka boleh melayari laman web pada masa yang sama untuk memberi contoh-contoh yang kukuh berkaitan pengajaran dan pembelajaran. Proses pembelajaran kini boleh menjadi lebih kos efektif, lebih teratur dan menjimatkan masa. ...
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The advancement of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has influenced the lives of teenagers, whether it be play, social life or in their communication. Such uses by them has vast impact on the Malaysian educational system. Based on this trend, the Ministry of Education, Malaysia (MOE) has taken proactive plans to introduce technology in schools. This new initiative involves the use of Frog Virtual Learning Environment (Frog VLE) in a blended learning platform. Thus far, 10,000 schools in Malaysia have already been equipped with ICT facilities under the ‘1BestariNet’ project. This paper discusses the use and implementation of the Frog VLE (virtual learning) by teachers in teaching in their classroom and its impact on the learning processes of students. Perkembangan Teknologi Maklumat dan Komunikasi (ICT) telah banyak mempengaruhi budaya kehidupan masa kini. Teknologi ini mempengaruhi cara anak-anak muda bermain, bersosial dan berkomunikasi serta telah memberi impak yang besar di dalam sistem pendidikan. Menyedari keadaan ini, Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia (KPM) telah mengambil langkah proaktif dalam merangka perubahan baru dalam sistem pendidikan selari dengan perkembangan teknologi semasa. Inisiatif baharu bagi memastikan kejayaan konsep pembestarian sekolah ini, KPM telah memperkenalkan satu platform Pembelajaran Teradun yang di kenali sebagai Persekitaran Pembelajaran Maya-Frog (Frog VLE). Sehubungan itu, hampir kesemua sekolah di Malaysia iaitu hampir 10,000 buah sekolah telah dibekalkan dengan kemudahan ICT (Projek 1BestariNet) bagi merealisasikan konsep pembestarian ini. Penulisan ini akan menerangkan pandangan dan pelaksanaan Frog VLE dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran di bilik darjah dalam kalangan guru.
... The influence of interpersonal behaviors, friends, and colleagues of word-of-mouth, mass media reports, and experienced people determined the subjective norms (Bhattacherjee, 2000). Normative beliefs should be multidimensional in the IT usage area (Ajzen, 1991;Davis, 1989;Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975;Mathieson, 1991;Taylor & Todd, 1995). Considering SN's considerable influence on Facebook/Meta usage in higher education, the following hypothesis is proposed: ...
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The paper’s main aim is to investigate and predict major factors in students’ behav- ioral intentions toward academic use of Facebook/Meta as a virtual classroom, tak- ing into account its adoption level, purpose, and education usage. In contrast to ear- lier social network research, this one utilized a novel technique that comprised a two-phase analysis and an upcoming the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) analy- sis approach known as deep learning was engaged to sort out relatively significant predictors acquired from Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). This study has con- firmed that perceived task-technology fit is the most affirmative and meaningful effect on Facebook/Meta usage in higher education. Moreover, facilitating condi- tions, collaboration, subjective norms, and perceived ease of use has strong influ- ence on Facebook usage in higher education. The study’s findings can be utilized to improve the usage of social media tools for teaching and learning, such as Facebook/ Meta. There is a discussion of both theoretical and practical implications.
... , 1997). IS success is a multifaceted construct that has been the focus of many IS researchers since the earlier DeLone and McLean (1992) study (Goodhue & Thompson, 1995; Karahanna, Straub, & Chervany, 1999; Seddon, 1997; Seddon, Staples, Patnayakuni, & Bowtell, 1999; Taylor & Todd, 1995; Wang & Strong, 1996). Other researchers attempted to go beyond the Delone and McLean IS SM to take into consideration task-technology fit (TTF) and issues related to the impact of IT on performance (Goodhue & Thompson, 1995). ...
Article
Information system (IS) success has been extensively researched to frame key attributes of an information system or technology to understand its benefit to business. One definition of IS success is the adoption and extensive use of an information system (Robey & Zeller, 1978). In the present era of cloud computing, as in former IS eras, successful implementation is critical for achieving business success in all enterprise types. IS success is also described as a lagging multifaceted measure of technology effectiveness for a business. Early adopters of a new technology are a rich resource to determine benefits for later adopters, and this is true for those businesses looking to implement cloud computing. This is critically important for small businesses. Cloud computing is characterized as a 21st century model of acquiring computational resources and services through convenient on-demand provisioning mechanisms via a shared network (Mell & Grance, 2010, p. 50). With the resource challenges of small businesses, the selection of a particular cloud computing model can result in business success or calamity. Many small businesses realize they need to make key investments in the latest technologies to advance their business, but many have one opportunity to make the best choice and to do it right. Small businesses typically operate with limited capital resources to invest in new IS technologies, as well as fund their ongoing upgrades, enhancements, and support. The intent of this research study is to define an IS framework that small businesses can use to determine the benefits of a particular cloud computing solution before adoption, based on the efforts of select small businesses that are early adopters of cloud computing. This research will determine the essential features and attributes that enable cloud computing success for small businesses in their targeted marketplaces. The primary success constructs of this study will focus on the overall cloud quality, experience, and benefit. The results of this research will lead to an enhanced IS success model that will enable small businesses to target specific cloud-based computing services that align with their business requirements to enable them to achieve business success.
... TAM proposes that external variables influence system use through two major beliefs: perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. TAM is a valid, powerful, robust, practical, appropriate, and parsimonious model to explain user acceptance of information systems (Taylor & Todd, 1995; Venkatesh, 2000). It has been used to investigate acceptance of several information technologies in many contexts. ...
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Türkiye’de konusma eğitimi alanında uzman yetistiren akademik birimlerin sayısının oldukça sınırlı olduğu, uluslararası literatür incelendiğinde konusma eğitimi alanındaki çalısmaların uzmanlasmıs kadrolarla yürütüldüğü, yaygın bir sekilde bilgisayar destekli eğitim uygulamalarından yararlanıldığı, ulusal literatür incelendiğinde ise Türkçe için gelistirilmis bilgisayar destekli bir artikülasyon materyalinin bulunmadığı, teknolojiyle birlikte yasanan değisimlerin eğitim anlayısındaki değisimleri de beraberinde getirdiği ve geleneksel eğitim anlayısının yerini teknoloji desteğiyle yapılan eğitim anlayısına bıraktığı bilinmektedir. Konusma eğitiminde bilgisayar destekli sistemlerin kullanımının; dil ve konusma problemlerinin iyilestirilmesidüzeltilmesine yönelik geleneksel terapi uygulamalarının destekleyicisi olarak kabul gördüğü, uygulayıcının üzerine düsen görevi azalttığı ve terapi uygulamalarının elde edilebilirliğini arttırdığı, görsel-isitsel veriler sunma, kullanıcıdan aldığı verileri kullanarak değerlendirmeler yapma ve net geribildirimler olusturma imkanı sunduğu vurgulanmıstır. Türkiye’de konusma eğitiminde bilgisayar destekli öğretim (bdö) prosedürlerinin kullanılması alanında söz konusu sistemleri temel alan, özellikle artikülasyonun nasıl düzenlenmesi gerektiği ile ilgili net görsel-isitsel bilgiler sunan herhangi bir çalısma bulunmadığı, bilgisayar destekli sistemlerin geleneksel eğitim uygulamalarında var olmayan birçok üstünlüğü bünyesinde barındırdığı bilimin tespitleri arasında yer almaktadır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Artikülâsyon Eğitimine Yönelik Bilgisayar Destekli Öğretim/BDÖ Materyali, Ağız Arastırmalarında Standart Yazım/Transkripsiyon, Türk Halk Müziği Fonetik Notasyon Sistemi/THMFNS.
... All, except Technology Acceptance Questionnaire, were developed, pilot tested and revised by the researchers. Technology Acceptance Questionnaire was adapted from Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Adiguzel, Capraro & Willson, 2011; Davis, Bagozzi & Warshaw, 1989; Hu, Chau, Liu Sheng & Tam, 1999; Ma, Andersson & Streith, 2005; Taylor & Todd, 1995). In addition to the test and the questionnaires, the peer feedback in text and video formats provided for each student was retrieved from the OAEFS. ...
Article
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This study focused on formative use of peer feedback in an online system that was used in basic computer literacy for word processing assignment-related purposes. Specifically, the effect of quantity, modality and satisfaction of peer feedback provided through the online system on students' performance, self-efficacy, and technology acceptance was investigated. Participants were 32 freshmen elementary and Turkish education pre-service teachers who were enrolled in two sections of the mandatory Computer I course in a public university in Turkey in the fall semester of 2013. Groups of students who submitted their assignments and received feedback in varying quantity and two different forms (text or text and video together) did not differ respectively in terms of students' performance test scores as well as self-efficacy and technology acceptance ratings. Students' feedback satisfaction ratings were significantly correlated only with their technology acceptance scores. All results were interpreted with the support of peer feedback content in both text and video formats to clarify the details and contribute more to the literature.
... Especially for student WEB&APP developers, teaching interventions have led to greater interaction or increased empathy with technology users with disabilities (Ludi et al., 2018;Papadopoulos et al., 2012). Further, we find that education influences users' acceptance of a technology as well (Davis and Davis, 1990;Gallivan et al., 2005;LePore et al., 1989;Nelson and Cheney, 1987;Taylor and Todd, 1995;Thompson et al., 1991;Thong et al., 1994), however, the effect of education on actual technology use may be moderated by other factors, such as users' prior beliefs about their technology abilities (Compeau and Higgins, 1995;Marakas et al., 1998). Some studies have identified that the role education plays in effective technology use is through individual cognitions (acquiring application knowledge and creating business context knowledge) (Kang and Santhanam, 2003-04;Sharma and Yetton, 2007;Yi and Davis, 2003) and interindividual cognitions (developing transactive memory in group settings and sharing collaborative task knowledge) (Argote, 2005;Brandon and Hollingshead, 2004;Kang and Santhanam, 2003-04;Sharma and Yetton, 2007). ...
Article
This research aims to evaluate the level of accessibility knowledge by student website and app (WEB&APP) developers as well as the role of education in their perceptions and usage of accessibility guidelines. It proposes an integrative theoretical framework to understand the relationship among education, WEB&APP developer knowledge, and guideline usage. The present work with results of a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and an interview data analysis indicates that WEB&APP students have a low level of guideline familiarity and education plays an important role in their perceptions and usage of those guidelines. It emphasises the importance of accessibility guideline education, personal connection with people who have disabilities in the education process, need for empathy in accessible WEB&APP design and development, as well as business values of accessible WEB&APP.
... As this study is about measuring Jordanian consumer attitudes toward online shopping, then attitudes toward behaviors is the one that is relevant to the context of this study. Attitude toward a behavior refers to the degree to which a person has a favorable or unfavorable evaluation or appraisal of the behavior to be acted upon (Taylor and Todd, 1995). In other words, attitude toward a behavior can be referred to as an individual's positive or negative evaluation of a relevant behavior and is composed of an individual's salient beliefs regarding the perceived consequences of performing a behavior ...
Article
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine consumer attitudes toward online shopping in Jordan. The paper introduces an integrated model which includes trust, perceived benefits, perceived web quality, and electronic word of mouth (eWOM) along with their relationships in order to examine their effects on consumer attitudes toward online shopping. Design/methodology/approach – A structured and self-administered online survey was employed targeting online shoppers of a reputable online retailer in Jordan; i.e. MarkaVIP. A sample of 273 online shoppers was involved in the online survey. A series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to assess the research constructs, unidimensionality, validity, and composite reliability. Structural path model analysis was also used to test the hypothesized relationships of the research model. Findings – The empirical findings of this study indicate that consumer attitudes toward online shopping is determined by trust and perceived benefits. Trust is a product of perceived web quality and eWOM and that the latter is a function of perceived web quality. Hence, trust and perceived benefits are key predictors of consumer attitudes toward online shopping, according to the results. Further, the authors also found that higher levels of perceived web quality lead to higher levels of trust in an online shopping web site. Perceived web quality was found to be a direct predictor of trust, and the former positively and significantly influences perceived benefits. Also, the authors found that 28 percent of the variation in online shopping attitudes was caused by perceived benefits and trust. Research limitations/implications – The research sample included only early adopters who are usually described as personal innovators and risk takers. Future research is encouraged to focus on other groups such as non-adopters to understand their online shopping attitudes. Another limitation is derived from the geographical context of the current study; that is Jordan. The findings are not necessarily applicable to other Arab countries and the rest of the world. Therefore, replications of the current study in different countries would most likely strengthen and validate its findings. Also, the study is cross-sectional which does not show how attitudes of consumers may change over time. The authors encourage future studies to employ a longitudinal design to understand the changes in consumers’ attitudes toward using online shopping over time. Finally, this study examined only one case in point and thus findings cannot be generalized to other online shopping web sites. Future research is highly encouraged to examine consumers’ attitudes toward other online shopping web sites inside and outside Jordan. Practical implications – The paper supports the importance of trust and perceived benefits as key drivers of attitudes toward online shopping in emerging markets like Jordan. It further underlines the importance of perceived web quality contribution to perceived benefits and trust as well as the key role of the later in forming online shoppers’ attitudes. Online retailers’ executives and managers can benefit from such findings for future e-marketing strategies and acquire new customers to achieve long-term performance objectives. Originality/value – This paper is one of the very few attempts that examined attitudes toward online shopping in the Arab world. Importantly, it revealed the drivers of online shoppers’ attitudes in Jordan. National and international online retailers planning to expand their operations to Jordan or to the Middle East Region have now valuable empirical evidence concerning the determinants of online shopping attitudes and online shoppers’ behavior in Jordan upon which e-marketing strategies can be formulated and implemented.
... Later, during the evolution of the TAM, the model was extended in TAM 2, which removed attitude but added a variable covering social in uence, with the factor known as subjective norms (SN) that directly in uences PU and BI [25,26,27,28] Venkatesh et al. [28] later investigated the uni cation of acceptance studies and developed the Uni ed Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). The most critical step was adding the facilitating conditions coming from the general research into IT acceptance as one determinant of BI [26,29]. The TAM has reached the gold standard, as reviews of this widely-used model have shown that the TAM is a reliable model for analyzing acceptance by individuals [25,26,30], not least because of its simplicity and clarity [31,32,33]. ...
Preprint
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Background: Telemedicine allows healthcare professionals to manage patient treatments remotely and to benefit from the interaction of telemedicine centers. Even though telemedicine responds to the current burdens in healthcare systems, these complex infrastructures depend on technology, financing, organization, policy, legislation, and, not least, on their corresponding acceptance by the user. Little is known in this context about the drivers for this acceptance by healthcare professionals giving treatment. Germany, with the highest healthcare spending in the world, is particularly lagging here. As there is less focus on guidance for building acceptance constructs, and, in particular, little research on the acceptance of interactive telemedicine by healthcare professionals in Germany, the objective was the collection of the relevant factors influencing German healthcare professionals in the implementation of telemedicine service programs (TSSs). Acceptance constructs were built and operationalized in a questionnaire, taking into consideration the gold standard technology acceptance model of Davis. Methods: A literature review was conducted to identify the acceptance factors that had already been detected and frequently confirmed. These factors were evaluated according to the coverage of the interactive infrastructures with telemedicine centers and how accurately they fitted Germany. The identified factors were adapted, and missing factors were designed, via an idea collection for items. The reliability of the developed constructs was tested using a field test to check the constructs using item revision analysis. Results: Frequently supported external variables, taken from 17 filtered studies covering the technical, organizational, social, legal, and individual context, were identified. However, the review showed that there was less focus on the German setting and the interactive aspect, so the market-related variables were adapted and new constructs of “trust in the telemedicine center” and “relationship to patient” were added. Ten variables were proven to have a reliability, measured with Cronbach’s Alpha, of more than 0.7. Conclusion: This paper enhances the already existing technology acceptance studies in healthcare by covering German specifications and the interactive character of TSSs. A corresponding questionnaire has been developed ready for future research.
... (Davis & Venkatesh, 1996). According to Gefen (2000), TAM has been applied both inside and outside the organization to a number of different samples and user groups like groupware (Taylor & Todd, 1995). Forecasters like self-efficacy, experience, gender and culture were also used to extend TAM in various studies. ...
Article
This study aims to investigate the technology acceptance and purchase intention for Third Generation (3G) technology in Pakistan’s telecom sector. In such respect, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) has been used to find the effects of the independent variables (Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Value, Perceived Enjoyment, Personal Innovativeness and Price) on dependent variable (purchase intention). The study population consisted of smartphone users among Millennials in district Haripur-a region in transition towards urbanization. 200 respondents provided the useable data. The results of the study show that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived value, perceived enjoyment, personal innovativeness, and price have a significant and positive relationship with purchase intention which validates the growing acceptance of advanced technologies in such regions.
... More specifically, as outlined by Mansfield [100], the technology can have different forms, and the capability of technology to solve a problem depends on the relationships between the users' perceptions and the technology's form. By reflecting on this result, it is possible to underline that the technology also has subjective dimensions related to the perceptions of users [101]. In such a line, from both theoretical and practical points of view, this result underlines the need for the definition of technological architecture to be included in the management of the city or, more generally, for the management of service systems to include the specific features of users [49]. ...
Article
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The increasing relevance of technology and its impact on our everyday life requires multi- and trans-disciplinary studies in order to investigate the ways in which the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools are affected by users’ features and by the external environment. In order to enrich existing contributions on this topic, the paper focuses its attention on the city as example of service systems, in order to investigate dimensions and dynamics that influence the city employees’ evaluation and satisfaction in the use of ICT platforms. By adopting the interpretative lens offered by Service Science and Systems Thinking, the domain of city as a service system is analysed and some hypotheses are formulated with reference to the relationships between environment, users, and ICT platform. The hypotheses are investigated through a questionnaire survey on a sample of 1032 municipalities in the Czech Republic and the results are tested using Structural Equation Modelling. The research shows that users’ features and external environment affect the evaluation and the satisfaction of city stakeholders about the use of ICT platforms by underlining the need for enlarging the study on informatics tools, in order to also include subjective variables. The findings are discussed from both theoretical and practical points of view.
... Relatedly, technology such as that relating to renewable energy that is perceived easier to use can be adopted very quickly by consumers (Featherman and Pavlou, 2003). Some technology consumers believe that technology ease of use helps to integrate the technology into their lives (Taylor and Todd, 1995). The physical and emotional effort to use technology can be part of the reasons why a consumer may socially accept renewable energy. ...
Article
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Purpose This paper aims to show preliminary evidence of the link between the perceived low vulnerability of vital energy systems (LVRE) and social acceptance of renewable energy (SARE) while treating environmental opportunities and threats (EOPT), renewable energy technological innovations (TECH) and business model innovations as possible antecedents. Design/methodology/approach The objectives are delivered through a survey of 199 households (potential and actual customers/suppliers of electric power and renewable energy gadgets in Kampala and Wakiso districts of Uganda), and the data obtained were analysed using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. Findings Both LVRE and EOPT, on their own, significantly predict SARE. TECH significantly mediate in the relation between EOPT and SARE. The highest form of SARE is market acceptance. Also, the current state of vulnerability of vital energy systems in the two Ugandan districts seems to espouse energy security as the real value of renewable energy. The study further finds that to deliver high SARE, there is a need to encompass potential user performance expectations of renewable energy technologies. Research implications/limitation Because the current results are from only two cities (districts) of Uganda and also based on a non-probability sample, generalizing them can be considered remote. In other words, it appears that more complex models need developing and testing in the future concerning LVRE and SARE. The present preliminary results are offered as a stimulus to such efforts. Well, it is expected, and, consistent with the diffusion of innovations theory (Rogers, 1995), that the population in Kampala and Wakiso districts are potential change agents (i.e. capable of influencing others in rural areas of Uganda). Originality/value The study estimates the direct and indirect effects to show how strongly TECH operate. Basing on OLS regression coefficients, the indirect effects are larger. Using the medgraph, we find probably for the first time, the adoption of technological innovation explains a significant part of the link between EOPT and SARE in the current study setting.
... Later, during the evolution of the TAM, the model was extended in TAM 2, which removed attitude but added a variable covering social in uence, with the factor known as subjective norms (SN) that directly in uences PU and BI [25,26,27,28] Venkatesh et al. [28] later investigated the uni cation of acceptance studies and developed the Uni ed Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). The most critical step was adding the facilitating conditions coming from the general research into IT acceptance as one determinant of BI [26,29]. The TAM has reached the gold standard, as reviews of this widely-used model have shown that the TAM is a reliable model for analyzing acceptance by individuals [25,26,30], not least because of its simplicity and clarity [31,32,33]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Telemedicine allows healthcare professionals to manage patient treatments remotely and to benefit from the interaction of telemedicine centers. Even though telemedicine responds to the current burdens in healthcare systems, these complex infrastructures depend on technology, financing, organization, policy, legislation, and, not least, on their corresponding acceptance by the user. Little is known in this context about the drivers for this acceptance by healthcare professionals giving treatment. Germany, with the highest healthcare spending in the world, is particularly lagging here. As there is less focus on guidance for building acceptance constructs, and, in particular, little research on the acceptance of interactive telemedicine by healthcare professionals in Germany, the objective was the collection of the relevant factors influencing German healthcare professionals in the implementation of telemedicine service programs (TSSs). Acceptance constructs were built and operationalized in a questionnaire, taking into consideration the gold standard technology acceptance model of Davis. Methods: A literature review was conducted to identify the acceptance factors that had already been detected and frequently confirmed. These factors were evaluated according to the coverage of the interactive infrastructures with telemedicine centers and how accurately they fitted Germany. The identified factors were adapted, and missing factors were designed, via an idea collection for items. The reliability of the developed constructs was tested using a field test to check the constructs using item revision analysis. Results: Frequently supported external variables, taken from 17 filtered studies covering the technical, organizational, social, legal, and individual context, were identified. However, the review showed that there was less focus on the German setting and the interactive aspect, so the market-related variables were adapted and new constructs of “trust in the telemedicine center” and “relationship to patient” were added. Ten variables were proven to have a reliability, measured with Cronbach’s Alpha, of more than 0.7. Conclusion: This paper enhances the already existing technology acceptance studies in healthcare by covering German specifications and the interactive character of TSSs. A corresponding questionnaire has been developed ready for future research.
... Behavioural intentions to use then determine actual use. Research has shown that BI is the strongest predictor of actual use (Davis et al., 1989, Taylor and Todd, 1995). This study includes all the major aspects to understand the mentality and the readiness of the students towards the e-learning platform. ...
... Bu çalışmalara örnek olarak, Thornton, Houser (2004) tarafından Japonya'da gerçekleştirilen ve öğrencilerin mobil uygulamaların eğitimde kullanılmasını faydalı bir yöntem olarak algıladıklarını yansıtan çalışma gösterilebilir. Öğretmenlere yönelik olarak da eğitim Mobil Uygulama Kabul Modeli: Bir Ölçek Geliştirme Çalışması UĞUR, , 1986; Taylor, Todd, 1995b; Venkatesh vd., 2003). Teknoloji veya bilişim sistemleri alanında uzmanlaşmış bir araştırmacının bireyleri bu cihazları veya sistemleri kullanmaya veya reddetmeye yöneltenin ne olduğunu araştırırken sosyolog ve psikologların çalışmalarını incelemesi ve interdisipliner bir çalışma neticesinde model önerisinde bulunması, TKM ve Teknoloji Kabul ve Kullanım Birleştirilmiş Modeli (TKKBM) gibi modellerin başarısından da anlaşılacağı üzere, bu çalışmada önerilen modelin açıklayıcılığı üzerinde olumlu etkiye sahiptir. ...
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1970’li yıllardan itibaren teknolojinin beraberinde getirdiği gelişim ve değişim toplumsal yapıları etkilemiş, bununla birlikte bilgi ve iletişim teknolojileri, toplumun ve bireyin vazgeçilmezi haline gelmiştir. Toplumun bu araçları benimsemesinin arkasında yatan sosyo-psikolojik faktörler ortaya çıkartıldığında, yaşam biçimlerine yön verecek teknolojik icatların toplum tarafından daha hızlı kabul görecek bir formda geliştirilmesi de mümkün olacaktır. Bu süreçte bilgi ve iletişim teknolojilerinin topluma hızlı nüfuzunun arkasında yatan sebepler bilim insanları ve uygulamacılar için önemi gün geçtikçe artan bir araştırma konusu olmuştur. Bu çalışma, yayılım paradigmasını (diffusion paradigm) günümüz toplumlarının yaşam ve iletişim alışkanlıklarının değişiminde büyük paya sahip olan mobil uygulamalar çerçevesinde, 1654 üniversite öğrencisi katılımcıdan elde edilen veriler ile değerlendirmektedir. Bu araştırmada geliştirilen Mobil Uygulama Kabul Modelinde, Kullanımlar ve Doyumlar Yaklaşımı, Planlı Davranış Teorisi ve Teknoloji Kabul Modelinde kullanılan değişkenler entegre edilmiştir. Çalışmanın neticesinde Mobil Uygulama Kabul Modelini temel alan geçerliği ve güvenirliği yüksek bir mobil uygulama kabul ölçeği geliştirilmiştir.
... Various theoretical models have been established to study the behavioral intentions to adopt technologies. Such models are the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975), the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991), the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, 1989), the Combined -TAM-TPB model (C-TAM-TPB) (Taylor and Todd, 1995), the Motivational Model (MM) (Davis et al., 1992), the Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT) (Rogers, 1995), Model of PC Utilization (MPCU) (Thompson et al., 1991), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) (Bandura,1988). Venkatesh et al. (2003) combined these 8 models to form Unified Theory of Adoption and Use of Technology (UTAUT) to study the behavioral intention to use technology. ...
Article
The wide use of ICT applications has opened enormous opportunities for large, medium and even small organizations. This study aims to investigate the extent of adoption of e-commerce applications by the women owned SMEs in India, with special focus on behavioral factors which influence them to do so. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model was utilized to determine the strength of the constructs in influencing e-commerce adoption amongst women entrepreneurs. Using a structured questionnaire, responses were solicited via a field survey amongst 144 women entrepreneurs in two districts of Kolkata and 24 Parganas (South) in the State of West Bengal, India. The results show that three constructs, namely, performance expectancy, effort expectancy and social influence significantly affect the behavioral intention of these women entrepreneurs to use e-commerce. Experience and voluntariness to use are the moderators significantly correlated with effort expectancy, facilitating conditions and social influence. Moreover, it has been revealed that facilitating conditions and the behavioral intention positively influence their usage behavior.
... Especially for student WEB&APP developers, teaching interventions have led to greater interaction or increased empathy with technology users with disabilities (Ludi et al., 2018;Papadopoulos et al., 2012). Further, we find that education influences users' acceptance of a technology as well (Davis and Davis, 1990;Gallivan et al., 2005;LePore et al., 1989;Nelson and Cheney, 1987;Taylor and Todd, 1995;Thompson et al., 1991;Thong et al., 1994), however, the effect of education on actual technology use may be moderated by other factors, such as users' prior beliefs about their technology abilities (Compeau and Higgins, 1995;Marakas et al., 1998). Some studies have identified that the role education plays in effective technology use is through individual cognitions (acquiring application knowledge and creating business context knowledge) (Kang and Santhanam, 2003-04;Sharma and Yetton, 2007;Yi and Davis, 2003) and interindividual cognitions (developing transactive memory in group settings and sharing collaborative task knowledge) (Argote, 2005;Brandon and Hollingshead, 2004;Kang and Santhanam, 2003-04;Sharma and Yetton, 2007). ...
Conference Paper
Websites and applications (apps) have become so ingrained in society, it is important that everyone, regardless of their disability, has equal access to websites and apps. However, Web accessibility continues to be an issue. One of the reasons often cited for inaccessible websites and apps is lack of training. Many developers are not educated, or even exposed, to accessibility guidelines in their college preparations. Thus, understanding the extent to which current student website and app developers are exposed to accessibility is a critical first step in determining how to increase their use of accessibility guidelines. This mixed method study is a first step to understand the awareness of Web accessibility guidelines of student website and app developers. The survey questions have been developed to understand student website and app developers’ education, experience, and perceptions of accessibility guidelines. The interview data collected has been used to explain the quantitative results and explore to narrow the gaps in the perceptions and implementation of accessibility guidelines.
... O trabalho de Riyadh et al. (2009) O controlo comportamental percebido reflete a perceção do indivíduo sobre a facilidade ou dificuldade de manifestar o comportamento pretendido (Song & Zahedi, 2005;Yaghoubi & Bahmani, 2010). Este constructo reflete a experiência anterior de um consumidor, os obstáculos esperados e os recursos existentes, como sejam a disponibilidade de tempo, de dinheiro e as competências necessárias para executar o comportamento desejado (Ajzen 1991;Taylor & Todd, 1995). Existem diferentes fatores que podem afetar o controlo do comportamento em relação ao Internet banking, nomeadamente a posse de um computador, a existência de ligação à Internet, a velocidade da ligação à Internet, ou mesmo as habilitações literárias do individuo. ...
... According to the information stated by Teo &Noyes (2011), early work included the development of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) and its successor, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1991) and its extension and the Decomposed TPB (Taylor & Todd, 1995). Other relevant theories and models include Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1986), the Model of Personal Computer Utilisation (Thompson, Higgins, & Howell, 1991) and the Motivational Model (Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier & Ryan, 1991 Davis & Davis (2003) integrated elements from eight Information Technology Acceptance Models to create their model. ...
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Technology has undergone a lot of radical changes in the last years which have caused the implemention of new paradigms in different sectors. It is almost impossible for education not to be affected from this change in technology. It has shifted from the traditional applications to the technology use in the classrooms. In this case, teachers' role in the application of technology into education has become an essential part of the research in the field. Also, in higher education, teachers become the key factors to the effective use of technology in the teaching and learning processes. Thus, teachers' technology acceptance level remains an important issue. The term, technology acceptance refers to the adoption and use of technologies in the way they were designed for. The purpose of this study is to examine the technology acceptance level of teachers at Anadolu University School of Foreign Languages to test the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) that determines the variables influencing individuals' technology acceptance. Firstly, a Likert scale type of scale was administered to measure UTAUT and the attitudes of teachers towards technology. The participants are the 44 lecturers who have started using technology recently at Anadolu University School of Foreign Languages. The findings reveal that the overall technology acceptance level of participants is average.
... Appendix 6. User acceptance factors related to ICT group by health applicationsAppendix 7. User acceptance factors related to individual or human characteristics group by health applicationsThe person's perception that most people who are important to him/her think he/she should or should not perform the behavior in question(3,10,13,19,20,22,33,35,41,44,46,51,52,57,66,68,70,84–94) 5 5. Facilitating condition Objective factors in the environment that observers agree make an act easy to perform, including the ...
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This study reviews the literature on the most important acceptance factors associated with Hospital Information Systems (HIS) and related technologies based on user groups' perspectives (medical staff, hospital management, administrative personnel, patient, medical student, and IT staff), which can assist researchers and hospital management to develop suitable acceptance models to improve the quality of HIS. We conducted searches in online databases with large repositories of academic studies, written in English and fully accessible by the authors. The articles being reviewed are related to health information technology (HIT), clinical information systems (CIS), HIS, electronic medical records (EMR), telemedicine or telehealth, picture archiving and communication systems (PACS), radio frequency identification (RFID), and computerized physician order entry (CPOE), where the use of most of those applications and technologies is highly integrated. A predefined string was used to extract 1,005 articles, and the results were reviewed and checked. The results of this study found 15 user acceptance factors related to HIS and related technologies that were frequently identified by a minimum of five previous studies. These factors were related to individual, technological, and organizational factors. In addition, HIS and related technologies' user acceptance factors in each user group describe different results.
... 1). The general research model hypothesizes that a user's attitude towards using a given system is a major determinant of whether or not he or she actually uses it [15,20,50]. Attitude is a function of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. ...
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We examined the influence of information technology (IT) acceptance on organizational agility. The study was based on a well-established theoretical model, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). We attempted to identify the relationships between IT acceptance and organizational agility in order to see how the acceptance of technology contributes to a firm’s ability to be an agile competitor. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to analyze the data. Results from a survey involving 329 managers and executives in manufacturing firms in Malaysia showed that actual system or technology usage had the strongest direct effect on organizational agility. Meanwhile, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of IT influenced organizational agility indirectly through actual systems or technology use and attitudes towards using the technology. The results have several implications for IS management.
... ÇeĢitli konuların, sistemlerin veya teknolojilerin bireyler tarafından benimsenmesinde etkili olabilecek faktörlerin açıklanması veya araĢtırılması için yapılmıĢ çok çeĢitli araĢtırmalar bulunmaktadır. Örneğin Rogers'in innovasyon difüzyon teorisi [4], Fishbein ve Ajzen'nin planlı eylem teorisi [5], Davis, Bagozzi ve Warshaw'ın teknoloji benimseme modeli [6], Thompson, Higgins ve Howell'in kiĢisel bilgisayar kullanma modeli [7], Davis, Bagozzi ve Warshaw'ın motivasyon modeli [8], Ajzen'nin planlı davranıĢ teorisi [9], Taylor ve Todd'un teknoloji benimseme modeli ve planlı davranıĢ teorisini birleĢtirmesi çalıĢması [10], Campeau ve Higgins'in sosyal biliĢsel teorisi [11], Venkatesh ve Davis'in teknoloji benimseme modelinin ikinci versiyonu [12], Venkatesh, Morris, Davis, F. ve Davis, G.'nin teknolojinin benimsenmesi ve kullanılması için birleĢtirilmiĢ modeli [13] ...
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... Perceived behavior control denotes the belief that a person can or cannot achieve the said behavior and how easy or how difficult it would be for him to perform the cited behavior (Sendecka, 2006). According to another definition, perceived behavior control denotes all of the internal and external barriers to perform a behavior (Taylor & Todd, 1995). The main difference between this theory and TRA is the perceived behavioral control variable. ...
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Internet technology has prompted significant changes in many aspects of human life and society as well as in shopping culture. An important phenomenon, surrounding the human life as a continuum, is shopping through the Internet or e-commerce. Shopping through the Internet has interconnections with many disciplines such as law, economics, psychology, and marketing. Many academicians, researching in various disciplines, studied this issue, which is a dynamic field of study. However, the case is this, we can say that the studies about the reasons for shopping through Internet by the consumers are very new and few in number. Shopping through the Internet involves social, technological, economical, behavioral, and educational dimensions. There are many prior factors behind shopping through the Internet by the consumers. This study presents a theoretical explanation for online consumer behavior.
... Customers Attitude (CA) refers to users' positive or negative feeling towards the adoption of e-banking (Davis et al., 1989; Taylor and Todd, 1995). That is, a person's desirability to use the system or his/her perception about electronic banking credibility and reliability. ...
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A class of Asymmetric GARCH models is presented. It shares the same unconditional variance and volatility forecast formula as the standard GARCH(P,Q) model under the assumption of a symmetric conditional distribution for innovations. use three models of this class to assess their ability to forecast S&P 500 market volatility and to make better decisions for the purpose of risk management and investment. Subsequently, a comparison is made with respect to competing models (GARCH, EGARCH, GJR). It was found that for the in-sample evaluation, the best model is obtained from the Stochastic Unit GARCH (SUGARCH) model where leverage effects are introduced through the GARCH (i.e) parameter. For the out-of-sample evaluation (QLIKE loss function), it is better to use the SUGARCH class where the asymmetry appears on the ARCH (i.e ) parameter.
... Although there has been much research on reactions and attitudes towards robots within human-robot interaction, there is a significant lack of research regarding the temporal dimension of the acceptance process. This is reflected in traditional technology acceptance literature, which lacks a profound body of long-term research, despite its history within information systems literature (Taylor & Todd, 1995). While previous technology acceptance research has focused mainly on explaining why people initially adopt technologies, only a minority have concentrated on the postadoption stage, during which users decide whether to continue or discontinue technology use. ...
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This study aims to contribute to emerging human-robot interaction research by adding longitudinal findings to a limited number of long-term social robotics home studies. We placed 70 robots in users’ homes for a period of up to six months, and used questionnaires and interviews to collect data at six points during this period. Results indicate that users’ evaluations of the robot dropped initially, but later rose after the robot had been used for a longer period of time. This is congruent with the so-called mere-exposure effect, which shows an increasing positive evaluation of a novel stimulus once people become familiar with it. Before adoption, users focus on control beliefs showing that previous experiences with robots or other technologies allows to create a mental image of what having and using a robot in the home would entail. After adoption, users focus on utilitarian and hedonic attitudes showing that especially usefulness, social presence, enjoyment and attractiveness are important factors for long-term acceptance.
... The Perceived Behavioral Control; is the confidence of a person on " how easy or how difficult " to make that behavior on the subject of the said behavior could be made or could not be made, that is expected from that person (Ajzen,1991; Sendecka,2006). As for another definition, the perceived behavioral control is the whole of the internal and external obstacles that are placed in front of the execution of a behavior (Taylor and Todd, 1995). When the " Perceived Behavioral Control " is examined more closely, it is observed to have of two components. ...
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In the marketing literature, effects of mobile advertising on consumer attitude and behavior are investigated. Some of these researches focus on factors about consumer accept mobile advertising. Although these researches found similar points, some different were determined because of these research focused different countries. The purpose of this research clarify consumers attitude and behavior related mobile advertising. In order to this purpose the scale which applies university students in Finland by Merisavo et al. were referenced. This scale also applied in USA and Chinese students by Yang et al. According to the results obtained in this study, there is a strong and positive relation between the features such as utility, context and trust while there is a negative relation between the control and sacrifice of the mobile advertising and the acceptance of them.
... The most critical step was adding the facilitating conditions coming from the general research into IT acceptance as one determinant of BI [26,29]. The TAM has reached the gold standard, as reviews of this widely-used model have shown that the TAM is a reliable model for analyzing acceptance by individuals [25,26,30], not least because of its simplicity and clarity [31,32,33]. However, several revisions to the TAM have been proposed, and the model has been questioned; in addition, many other determinants in uencing the core constructs have been tested in the past [26]. ...
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Background: Telemedicine allows healthcare professionals to manage patient treatments remotely and to benefit from the interaction of telemedicine centers. Even though telemedicine responds to the current burdens in healthcare systems, these complex infrastructures depend on technology, financing, organization, policy, legislation, and, not least, on their corresponding acceptance by the user. Little is known in this context about the drivers for this acceptance by healthcare professionals giving treatment. Germany, with the highest healthcare spending in the world, is particularly lagging here. Methods: A literature review was conducted to identify the acceptance factors that had already been detected and frequently confirmed. These factors were evaluated according to the coverage of the interactive infrastructures with telemedicine centers and how accurately they fitted Germany. The identified factors were adapted, and missing factors were designed, via an idea collection for items. The reliability of the developed constructs was tested using a field test to check the constructs using item revision analysis. Results: Frequently supported external variables, taken from 17 filtered studies covering the technical, organizational, social, legal, and individual context, were identified. However, the review showed that there was less focus on the German setting and the interactive aspect, so the market-related variables were adapted and new constructs of “trust in the telemedicine center” and “relationship to patient” were added. Ten variables were proven to have a reliability, measured with Cronbach’s Alpha, of more than 0.7. Conclusion: This paper enhances the already existing technology acceptance studies in healthcare by covering German specifications and the interactive character of TSSs. A corresponding questionnaire has been developed ready for future research.
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In this study, it is aimed to reveal the factors affecting the university students’ attitudes and behaviours towards online food orders by Technology Acceptance Model(TAM) which is adapted to online food ordering. For this purpose, a questionaire was applied to 300 students who study at Osmangazi and Anadolu Universities in Eskişehir in May 2014. In data analysis, in order to evaluate the adoptation of the model and to reveal the relationship between factors that are affecting the university students’ attitudes and behaviours towards online food orders Structural Equation Model (SEM) was used. Besides, in order to investigate the structure of relationship between students’ demographic qualities and sub-dimensions of online food ordering, CHAID analysis which is one of the algorithms of decision tree was applied. According to the results of Structural Equations Model, it is concluded that perceived benefit and perceived ease of use has positive impact on the attitude toward behaviour. Also, it is concluded that attitude toward behaviour and personal norms have additive effect on the number of students’ online food ordering. According to CHAID analysis result, the factors such as, the average number of food orders per month, the time started to use the internet, the state of being aware of the online food websites, enrolled university and fathers’ education level have influence on online food ordering.
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Despite the importance of the information culture, little is known about the influence of information culture on the adoption of information systems (IS) among employees in public health sector of developing countries. This research explores the influence of information culture factors on employees' behavioural intention to adopt IS. Information culture factors have been suggested as important predictors of IS adoption. Quantitative structured questionnaire was administered to 312 employees in public health sectors of Yemen. SPSS and structural equation modelling (SEM) were used for data analysis and evaluation of the research model. The findings revealed that self-efficacy, social influence, performance expectancy and perceived access significantly influence employees' intention to adopt IS. However, perceived need, perceived information sharing, and effort expectancy influence attitude significantly which, in turn, influences their behavioural intention. In addition, perceived awareness negatively influences behavioural intention. Moreover, facilitating conditions and effort expectancy did not have any significant influence on employees' behavioural intention.
Chapter
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The main factor for growth in a globalised and highly competitive world is to have an innovative and continuous improvement for the new technologies; however, it is difficult to guarantee the success of such factor without considering the human nature of the people. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2) is a model that has been used for years to help us understand the drivers of acceptance of new information technologies by its users. This paper presents the Actor-Network Theory (ANT) as a framework to analyse external variables influencing technology acceptance. We have identified a new construct and moderating factor enabling the extension of the UTAUT2. The scenario used to conduct our investigation is the Autonomous Vehicle (AV) which is a disruptive technology and may prove to be the next big evolution in personal transportation. The study was conducted using an anonymous survey, over 410 responses so far, and numerous interviews with experts in the field of sociology, psychology and computer science in order to refine the proposed model. Our research findings reveal not only the usefulness of ANT in developing an understanding the human and non-human actants playing a role in consumer’s behavioural intention of using AV, but ANT also helps us to argue that culture is a direct determinant of behavioural intention and social class is a very important moderating aspect.
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Background and Aim: The ethical issue of the usage of Information Technology (IT) seems to be growing as rapidly as the technology development. The aim of this study is presenting a casual model for ethical behavioral intention of information technology among medical Students. Methods: This study is a Cross -Sectional study. The study sample consisted of the students studying at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The sample (234 persons) was selected through accidental stratified method, using Table krejcie and Morgan. The data was collected through a questionnaire that made based on standard questionnaires. Content validity was approved by experts and reliability was obtained by Cronbach's alpha. For data analysis, path analysis and LISREL statistical software were used. Ethical Considerations: By providing the research objectives and process, emphasizing on confidentiality, participants' oral consent to participate and colaborate in research was obtained. Findings: Three variables of computer ethical self-efficacy, perceived risk and subjective norm had a direct effect on ethical behavioral intention; computer ethical self-efficacy had the greatest direct effect (r=0.38) and also computer ethical self-efficacy and subjective norm on ethical behavioral intention through the attitude to ethical use and ethical behavior control had an indirect effect. Conclusion: to fulfiment advantages of the information technology without negative effects of experienced unethical behaveiors in academic environments, we must focus on improving the ethical self-efficacy and strengthing of the ethical motivation among students to use of information technology, and preventive social and technical actions. Please cite this article as: Seif MH. Presenting a casual model for ethical behavioral intention of information technology among students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Med Ethics J 2016; 10(35): 177-198.
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Educational video games are gaining momentum as a means to increase students' attention on the learning materials but also as a way to engage students in their learning process. Despite the opportunities that educational video games offer to education, previous research found that teachers might experience challenges, fears, and barriers when using technological innovations (e.g. computers) in the classroom. Because educational video games are a technological innovation, teachers might face barriers that dissuade them from using educational video games in their courses. Analysing teachers' drivers and barriers related to the use of educational video games is a key factor related to the failure or success when trying to implement educational video games in the classroom. This study analyses teachersíntention to use educational video games in their courses using a Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) approach. TAM was developed to predict an individual's likelihood to accept a technological innovation and it has been applied in a wide range of technological developments such as mobile phones and social media. In the last years, TAM has also been applied to different educational contexts such as online education and mobile learning. One of the main goals of TAM was to identify the major motivational variables that mediate between system characteristics and the actual use of the system. Using a sample of 312 higher education institutions' teachers, we analyse perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of educational video games through structural equation modelling to predict teachers´behaviouralteachers´behavioural intentions. Results suggest that perceived usefulness influences in a direct and positive way teachersíntention to use educational video games. Results also suggest that perceived ease of use indirectly influence intentions through perceived usefulness. Regarding managerial implications, our findings highlight the importance of specific teacher training programs about this technological innovation so that teachers realise the usefulness of educational video games rather than focusing on the level of easiness. Limitations of the study and future research lines are also addressed.
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