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Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil

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The antioxidant properties of virgin coconut oil produced through chilling and fermentation were investigated and compared with refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil showed better antioxidant capacity than refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. The virgin coconut oil produced through the fermentation method had the strongest scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the highest antioxidant activity based on the beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching method. However, virgin coconut oil obtained through the chilling method had the highest reducing power. The major phenolic acids detected were ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. Very high correlations were found between the total phenolic content and scavenging activity (r=0.91), and between the total phenolic content and reducing power (r=0.96). There was also a high correlation between total phenolic acids and beta-carotene bleaching activity. The study indicated that the contribution of antioxidant capacity in virgin coconut oil could be due to phenolic compounds.
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... The total phenolic content (TPC) in coconut oil is highly affected by different processing techniques used in the industry [107]. When comparing the TPC of hot extracted coconut oil, the value is exceeding the TPC of coconut oil extracted from the cold extraction method. ...
... According to the values presented, the fermentation method of coconut oil extraction exerts the highest amount of phenolic compounds. During the fermentation method, the oil layer is settled separately from the aqueous phase and prolonged contact with the phenolic solution, and this separated oil layer might explain the higher concentration of phenolic substances in the extracted oil [107]. ...
... In general, the increase in phenolic content may lead to accelerating antioxidant activity [107]. However, the table demonstrated that the chilling & centrifugation method of coconut oil extraction has a very low TPC value, while its antioxidant activity of 23.51% is exceeding the fermented coconut oil which has the highest phenolic concentration. ...
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... Malaria infection cause the increase production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) caused by activated neutrophils and degradation of hemoglobin by the parasite. The increased of ROS increases the vascular permeability due to endothelial damage [19]. A decrease in antioxidant levels at the time of infection causing oxidative stress, therefore antioxidants from outside the body are needed (exogenous antioxidants). ...
... Exogenous antioxidants can be obtained from natural ingredients [11]. VCO can be a source of exogenous antioxidants due to the antioxidant activity of VCO, which was contributed majority by phenolic acids content [19]. ...
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... VCO is obtained by wet extraction of coconut milk, thus resulting in oil with no deactivation of bioactive compounds and making it as valued as olive oil [2][3][4]. There are several important bioactive compounds contained in VCO, including tocopherol, toco-trienol, rotinol, stigmasterol, and phystostanol with high antioxidant activity [4][5][6]. In addition, it also possesses mediumchain fatty acids (MCFA) such as lauric acid, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) such as capric, caproic, and caprylic acid [7]. ...
... A previous study has shown that the content of phenols in pure VCO was 20-25 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per 100 g of oil [3]. Other studies have reported varying results regarding the amount of phenols content in VCO, which were 32 mg/100 g [63], 84 mg/100 g [64], 401-650 mg/g [65], and 8-29 mg GAE/100 g of the oil [6]. ...
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Virgin coconut oil (VCO) has become a multifunctional material for biomedical applications due to its remarkable health benefits. The use of VCO for biomedical applications has seen tremendous growth over recent years, triggering researchers to develop various approaches for VCO utilization. Nanofibers‐based structure offers promising properties to encapsulate VCO, enhancing its performance and broadening its application in the medical field. Studies of VCO‐loaded polymeric nanofibers for biomedical applications are currently gradually rising. Recently, in nanofibers technology, centrifugal jet spinning (CJS) offers cost‐efficient and higher production rates to yield nanofibers compared to the other methods. This review summarizes recent advances of VCO for biomedical applications. Comprehensive suggestions for encapsulating VCO into nanofibers using the CJS technique are also provided. Highlights of future challenges in utilizing the CJS technique to produce VCO‐loaded nanofibers for biomedical applications are also elaborated. This review discusses recent advances of virgin coconut oil (VCO) for biomedical applications and comprehensive suggestions for encapsulating VCO into nanofibers using the centrifugal jet spinning (CJS) technique. The future challenges in utilizing the CJS technique to produce VCO‐loaded nanofibers for biomedical applications are also provided.
... The composition of both oils is the same; the only difference is in moisture content, color, and volatile compounds [40]. Due to the high percentage of medium-chain fatty acids, virgin coconut oil, especially lauric and phenol, has good medicinal and nutritional properties [41]. It has antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, dermatologic, and hepatoprotective properties (Onyechi et al. ...
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... VCO is a powerful antioxidant product which can be used to fight against free radicals in the human body, and it helps to slow down the aging process [47,48]. This bioactivity is possibly associated with the VCO polyphenolic compound, as suggested by some earlier studies [49]. ...
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Vegetable oils with varying saturated fat levels were inoculated with Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), subjected to different heat treatments in the absence and presence of inulin and stored for 12 months at room temperature. After storage, the heat-treated probiotics actively grew to high concentrations after removal of the oils and reculturing. The bacterial samples, regardless of aerobic or anaerobic conditions and treatment methods, showed no changes in their growth behavior. The random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction, antimicrobial, morphology, and motility tests also showed no major differences. Samples of LGG treated with a higher antioxidant content (Gal400) showed reduced inflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties. These findings have been confirmed by metabolite and genome sequencing studies, indicating that Gal400 showed lower concentrations and secretion percentages and the highest number of single nucleotide polymorphisms. We have shown proof of concept that LGG can be stored in oil with minimum impact on probiotic in vitro viability.
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Background Melatonin (MEL) is a powerful antioxidant molecule with anti-androgenic property. A microemulsion (ME) system loaded with MEL was designed for treatment of androgenic alopecia. Pseudo-ternary phase diagram was constructed, and ME formulae were developed using coconut oil, Tween 80 and PEG 400. In the present study, MEL ME was characterized and evaluated for droplet size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, morphology using TEM imaging. MEL ex vivo permeation study through rat skin followed by tape stripping for stratum corneum (SC) was performed for different ME formulae, to determine skin permeation parameters and detect SC-MEL deposition. Results Spherical and uniform particles of MEL-loaded microemulsion were formulated with high stability. In ex vivo permeation study, MEL ME exhibited low steady-state skin flux along with pronounced SC deposition which prevailed a controlled release manner. Conclusion The results suggested that MEL ME could be a promising candidate for further permeation and in vivo studies for androgenic alopecia treatment.
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Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid), an effective component of Chinese medicine herbs such as Angelica sinensis, Cimicifuga heracleifolia and Lignsticum chuangxiong, is a ubiquitous phenolic acid in the plant kingdom. It is mainly conjugated with mono- and oligosaccharides, polyamines, lipids and polysaccharides and seldom occurs in a free state in plants. Ferulic acid is a phenolic acid of low toxicity; it can be absorbed and easily metabolized in the human body. Ferulic acid has been reported to have many physiological functions, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombosis, and anti-cancer activities. It also protects against coronary disease, lowers cholesterol and increases sperm viability. Because of these properties and its low toxicity, ferulic acid is now widely used in the food and cosmetic industries. It is used as the raw material for the production of vanillin and preservatives, as a cross-linking agent for the preparation of food gels and edible films, and as an ingredient in sports foods and skin protection agents. Ferulic acid can be prepared by chemical synthesis and through biological transformation. As polysaccharide ferulate is a natural and abundant source of ferulic acid, preparation of ferulic acid from plant cell wall materials will be a prospective pathway. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry
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Over the years, much information has been revealed regarding the consumption of fats and oils. The increasing knowledge and understanding accumulated on the effects of chain length, position, and metabolism of fatty acids on health have directed the use of dietary lipids towards prevention as well as treatment of diseases in order to improve health status.
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Virgin coconut oil (VCO) was produced using three methods termed desiccated coconut meat-40 C incubation method, coconut milk-40 C incubation method and coconut milk-freeze-and-thaw method during which the highest temperature attained was 47 C for the first method. Two varieties and one hybrid of coconut were used to obtain VCO using the first two methods while coconuts of unknown variety were used for the third method. Six commercial VCO products and one refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil (RBDCO) sample were included for comparison. All VCO samples had water clear transparent physical appearance and coconut-like aroma and taste. The melting point of laboratory-produced VCO samples ranged from 24.5 to 25.5 C, which is similar to the melting point of RBDCO. Their specific gravity ranged from 0.9176 to 0.9192. The saponification number of the laboratory-produced VCOs ranged from 264 to 274 mg KOH g -1 while the iodine values were from 4.35 to 6.85 g I2 100 g-1. The free fatty acid (FFA) ranged from 0.09% to 0.18% lauric acid while the peroxide value (POV) ranged from 0.24 to 0.50 meq peroxide kg-1. The moisture content ranged from 0.06% to 0.12%. For commercial sample VCOs, the range of values of the said properties were 24.0 to 25.7 C, 0.9169 to 0.9193, 266 to 272 mg KOH g-1, 4.86 to 7.61 g I2 100 g-1, 0.06 to 0.32% lauric acid, 0.48 to 2.07 meq peroxide kg-1 and 0.10% to 0.42%, respectively. The fatty acid composition showed slight variation among oil samples and the lauric acid content ranged from 47.63% to 52.55%. α-Tocopherol was not detected in the VCO samples by HPLC analysis. The total phenolic content of the laboratory-produced VCOs ranged from 22.88 to 91.90 mg catechin equivalent kg-1 oil while that of the commercial VCOs was 35.26 to 49.07 mg catechin kg-1 oil. The antioxidant activity of the VCO samples ranged from 47.4% to 78% relative peroxidation compared with 46% obtained using 200 mg á-tocopherol. The crude protein for laboratory-produced VCOs was 0.06% to 0.11% compared to 0.07% to 0.12% for the commercial VCOs. The study showed that the VCOs produced by the three methods or using different varieties exhibited differences in chemical and quality properties but these may not be large enough to affect the overall quality of the VCOs. Further, the levels of such properties were still within the CODEX and proposed Philippine standards for coconut oil and for VCO, respectively, probably due to the relatively mild process (with temperature not exceeding 47 C) used in the study.
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Virgin coconut oil (VCO) directly extracted from fresh coconut meat at 50°C temperature was tested for its effect on the activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation levels in male Sprague–Dawley rats, compared to copra oil (CO) and groundnut oil (GO) as control. Oils were fed to rats for 45 days along with a semi-synthetic diet and after the experimental period various biochemical parameters were done. Individual fatty acid analyses of VCO and CO were done using gas chromatography. Effect of polyphenol fraction isolated from the oils was also tested for the ability to prevent in vitro microsomal lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO4. The results showed that GO, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, reduced the levels of antioxidant enzymes and increased lipid peroxidation, indicated by the very high MDA and conjugate diene content in the tissues. PF fraction from VCO was found to have more inhibitory effect on microsomal lipid peroxidation compared to that from the other two oils. VCO with more unsaponifiable components viz. vitamin E and polyphenols than CO exhibited increased levels of antioxidant enzymes and prevented the peroxidation of lipids in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. These results showed that VCO is superior in antioxidant action than CO and GO. This study has proved that VCO is beneficial as an antioxidant.