Conference PaperPDF Available

The Role of Museums in Cultural and Heritage Tourism for Sustainable Economy in Developing Countries



Cultural and heritage tourism is defined as travel directed toward experiencing the arts, heritage and activities that truly represent the stories and people of the past and present. This has taken much attention during the past decade. Developing countries need support from international community in safeguarding their precious heritage. Cultural heritage tourism is one of the best parts of the tourism industry, and is a more powerful economic development tool. It has been revealed that museums are now playing a major role not only in the wider sphere of arts, but also within tourism and leisure. Museums cannot no longer sit back and expect that people will start queuing up. Their roles have changed to attract more audiences.
!"#$"%&#' &()' *+%,$&-+' $."%,/0' ,/' )+1,(+)' &/' $%&2+#' ),%+3$+)' $.4&%)' +56+%,+(3,(-' $*+' &%$/7'
*&/' $&;+(' 0"3*' &$$+($,.(' )"%,(-' $*+' 6&/$' )+3&)+9' <+2+#.6,(-' 3."($%,+/' (++)' /"66.%$' 1%.0'
,($+%(&$,.(&#' 3.00"(,$8' ,(' /&1+-"&%),(-' $*+,%' 6%+3,."/' *+%,$&-+9' !"#$"%&#' *+%,$&-+' $."%,/0' ,/'
.(+'.1'$*+'=+/$'6&%$/' .1' $*+' $."%,/0' ,()"/$%87' &()',/'&'0.%+'6.4+%1"#'+3.(.0,3')+2+#.60+($'
$..#9' >$' *&/' =++(' %+2+&#+)' $*&$' 0"/+"0/' &%+' (.4' 6#&8,(-' &' 0&?.%' %.#+' (.$' .(#8' ,(' $*+' 4,)+%'
/6*+%+' .1' &%$/7' ="$' &#/.' 4,$*,(' $."%,/0' &()' #+,/"%+9' @"/+"0/' 3&((.$' (.' #.(-+%' /,$' =&3;' &()'
Keywords' B' *+%,$&-+' $."%,/07' 3"#$"%&#' *+%,$&-+7' (+4' 0+),&7' %.#+' .1' 0"/+"07' /"/$&,(&=#+'
>($+%(&$,.(&#' !."(3,#' .1' @"/+"0/' C>!D@E' CFGHGE' *&/' )+1,(+)' $*&$' 0"/+"0' ,/' &' (.(I6%.1,$'
6"=#,37'4*,3*' &3A",%+/7' 3.(/+%2+/7' %+/+&%3*+/7' 3.00"(,3&$+/' &()'+5*,=,$/7' 1.%' $*+' 6"%6./+' .1'
/$")87' +)"3&$,.(7' &()' +(?.80+($7' 0&$+%,&#' +2,)+(3+' .1' 6+.6#+' &()' $*+,%' +(2,%.(0+($9' JK%,'
L&(;&' ,/' %+3.-(,M+)' &/' .(+' .1' $*+' $+(' 0./$' /."-*$' &1$+%' )+/$,(&$,.(/' 1.%' +3.' &()' *+%,$&-+'
&#.(+' (+$/' QKR' HG' B' QKR' HS9GGG6+%' )&8' )"%,(-' $*+' *,-*' /+&/.(9' K,0,#&%#8' $*+' HT' 3+($"%8' O<'
4.%#)' *+%,$&-+' /,$+' .1' U&##+' <"$3*' V.%$' ,/' (.$' .(#8' &' 2,=%&($' 0"#$,I3"#$"%&#' *"=' =#+(),(-'
,($+%' (&$"%&#' &%$' &()' #,$+%&%8' &3$,2,$,+/P' C+53+%6$' 1%.0' W%.1+//.%' K")*&%/*&(' K+(+2,%&$(+' B'
+11+3$' .1' 3"#$"%&#' *+%,$&-+' $."%,/0' 1.%' /"/$&,(&=#+' +3.(.08' ,(' )+2+#.6,(-' 3."($%,+/9' O$' $*,/'
3."($%89' X+%,$&-+' &()' $."%,/0' &%+' ,($+%3.((+3$+)' &()' %+1#+3$' $*+' ,0&-+' .1' $*+' 6&%$,3"#&%'
X+%,$&-+' ,/' )+1,(+)' &/' $*+' +#+0+($/' .1' ."%' ,(*+%,$+)' 6&/$' $*&$' 4+' 2&#"+9' X+%,$&-+' $."%,/0' ,/'
)+1,(+)'&/'$."%,/0'0&%;+$/'&()'$*+' ,()"/$%87' 4*,3*' *&2+' +2.#2+)' &%."()' *+%,$&-+9' :*+%+' ,/' &'
%,3*' ,(' 3"#$"%&#' *+%,$&-+9' X+%,$&-+' $."%,/0' ,/' $*&$' 1.%0' .1' $."%,/0' 4*./+' .=?+3$,2+' ,/7' &0.(-'
.$*+%' &,0/7' $*+' ),/3.2+%8' .1' 0.("0+($/' &()' /,$+/9' >$' *&/' =+3.0+' &' 0.%+' 6.6"#&%' $."%,/$'
&3$,2,$8' $.' 0&;+' 2,/,$/' $.' *,/$.%,3&#' 3"#$"%&#' *+%,$&-+' /,$+/7' ,(' $*,/' +#+3$%.(,3' +%&9' ' !"#$"%+7'
*+%,$&-+7' +(2,%.(0+($' &()' $."%,/0' &%+' ,($+%3.((+3$+)' &()' $&;,(-' /,-(,1,3&($' &$$+($,.(' ,(' $*+'
-#.=+9' :*+%+' ,/' &#/.' &(.$*+%' -%."6' .1' $."%,/09' K3*.#&%/' ,($%.)"3+)' $*+' 3.(3+6$' .1' 3%+&$,2+'
Q]!:O<' CFGGN^' FGG_E' *&2+' 1.%0"#&$+)' &()' =%.&)#8' 3#&//,1,+)' 3%+&$,2+' ,()"/$%,+/' ,($.' 1."%'
H9 X+%,$&-+'B'$%&),$,.(&#'3"#$"%&#'+56%+//,.(/'&()'3"#$"%&#'/,$+/'
F9 O%$/'B'2,/"&#'&%$/'&()'6+%1.%0,(-'&%$/'
Z9 @+),&'C(.$',(3#"),(-'(+4'0+),&E'B'6"=#,/*,(-'&()'6%,($+)'0+),&'&()'&"),.2,/"&#/7'&()'
N9 V"(3$,.(&#'3%+&$,.(/'B')+/,-('(+4'0+),&'&()'3%+&$,2+'/+%2,3+/'
X+%,$&-+'$."%,/07',('#,(+'4,$*'$*+'-#.=&#'$%+()',('3"#$"%&#'$."%,/07'*&/'+0+%-+)'&/'.(+' .1' $*+'
%+/."%3+/' ,/' .(+' 0&?.%' 0+&(/' $.' &3*,+2+' /"/$&,(&=#+' $."%,/0' )+2+#.60+($' CO6./$.#&;,/' &()'
`&11%87' FGGSE9' :*+%+1.%+7' &' =+$$+%' "()+%/$&(),(-' .1' *+%,$&-+' $."%,/$' =+*&2,.%' ,(' $+%0/' .1'
*+%,$&-+' /+%2,3+' &$$%,="$+/7' /6+3,1,3&##8' $."%,/$' 6%+1+%+(3+/7' 3&(' 6%.2,)+' ,(/,-*$1"#' ,(1.%0&$,.('
#+&),(-' $.' $*+' &=,#,$8' .1' *+%,$&-+' 0&(&-+%/' $.' 3%+&$+' +11+3$,2+' /"/$&,(&=#+' )+2+#.60+($'
/$%&$+-,+/' C!*+(' &()' !*+(7' FGHFE9' !*+(' &()' !*+(' *&2+' 3#+&%#8' )+/3%,=+)' $*+' ,06.%$&(3+' .1'
H9 L&()1.%0/'
F9 \"%&#'K3+(+%8'
Z9 V#.%&'O()'V&"(&'
H9 V+/$,2&#/'
F9 O%$/a3%&1$/'
Z9 :%&),$,.(&#'6%&3$,3+/a6%.)"3$/'
H9 X,/$.%,3&#'=",#),(-'
F9 @.("0+($/'
Z9 >()"/$%,&#'/,$+/'C`"(^'],3*.##/^'b.-$7'FGGNE'
O/' `"(' et! al! )+/3%,=+)7' $."%,/$/' &%+!&$$%&3$+)' $.' (&$"%&#' *+%,$&-+7' 3"#$"%&#' *+%,$&-+' &/' 4+##' &/'
H9 L,$+%&%8'$."%,/0'B'$%&2+#'$.'#,$+%&%8'6#&3+/'/"3*'&/'4%,$+%[/'=,%$*'6#&3+'
F9 L+-&38'$."%,/0'B'/+&%3*'1.%'&(3+/$.%/'
Z9 X,/$.%&"($/'I'%+/$&"%&($/'
N9 <&%;'$."%,/0'B')+&$*7'),/&/$+%'
S9 >()"/$%,&#'*+%,$&-+'$."%,/0'B'"("/+)',()"/$%,&#'/,$+/'
H9 ].(I6*8/,3&#'C,($&(-,=#+E'
F9 W*8/,3&#'C$&(-,=#+E'
- K,-(/'&()'/80=.#/'6&//+)'.('=8'.%&#'$%&(/0,//,.('
- O%$,/$,3'&()'#,$+%&%8'1.%0/'.1'+56%+//,.('
- L&(-"&-+/'
- e&8/'.1'#,1+'
- @8$*/7'=+#,+1/'&()'%,$"&#/'
- b&#"+'/8/$+0'
- :%&),$,.(&#';(.4#+)-+'
- f(.4I*.4'
- @.("0+($/''
- O%3*&+.#.-,3&#'/,$+/'$
- @.2&=#+'*+%,$&-+'3.##+3$,.(/'$
- X,/$.%,3'"%=&('&%+&/'$
- b+%(&3"#&%'*+%,$&-+'$
- !"#$"%&#'#&()/3&6+/'$
:*+' *,/$.%,3' $.4(/' ,(')+2+#.6,(-' 3."($%,+/' 0&;+'+2+%8' +11.%$' $.' =+' )8(&0,3' *+%,$&-+' /,$+/'.1'
W%+/+%2&$,.(' .1' 3"#$"%&#' *+%,$&-+' /,$+/' ,/' 3./$#8' &()' (++)/' /"66.%$' 1%.0' $*+' -.2+%(0+($' &()'
g&%%8' L.%)' )+1,(+/' 3"#$"%&#' $."%,/0' &/' 2,/,$/' =8' 6+%/.(/' 1%.0' ."$/,)+' $*+' *./$' 3.00"(,$8'
0.$,2&$+)' 4*.##8' .%' ,(' 6&%$' =8' ,($+%+/$' ,(' $*+' *,/$.%,3&#7' &%$,/$,37' &()' /3,+($,1,3' .%'
,(1.%0&$,.(' .(' +5*,=,$,.(/7' 0"/+"0' 6%.)"3$/7' +2+($/7' .6+(,(-' *."%/7' $,3;+$' &2&,#&=,#,$8' &()'
6%,3+/' +$39' K.0+' 0"/+"0/' "/+' /.3,&#' 0+),&' $..#/' /"3*' &/' =#.-/7' 6.%$&#/7' :4,$$+%7' V&3+=..;7'
6%.2,)+' +11,3,+($' /+%2,3+' $.' $*+,%' 3"/$.0+%/' &()' &$' $*+' /&0+' $,0+' &$$%&3$' 0.%+' 2,/,$.%/9' :*+'
0"/+"0/'$*&$'&%+' 0&,($&,(,(-' 4+=/,$+/',($+%&3$'0.%+'$,0+'4,$*' $*+,%' &"),+(3+/'&()'4,$*'$*+'
$*%."-*' ,($+%(&$,.(&#' 3.($&3$/7' /6+3,&#' ,($+%+/$/7' ),11+%+($' 3"#$"%&#' 3.00"(,$,+/7' &()' /.3,&#'
3.0+' $.' ;(.4' 4.%#)' *+%,$&-+' /,$+/' &()' $*+8' 3&(' 6#&(' $*+,%' 6*8/,3&#' 2,/,$/9' @.%+' $."%,/$/' &%+'
)%&4(' ,($.' $*+' *+%,$&-+' /,$+/' &/' (+2+%' =+1.%+' )"+' $.' $*+' %&6,)' 3*&(-+' ,(' 0"/+"0/' ,(' $*,/'
/,-(,1,3&($' -%.4$*' .1' +3.(.08' ,(' $*,/' /+3$.%9' \+/+&%3*' *&/' %+2+&#+)' $*&$' *+%,$&-+' $%&2+#+%/'
/6+()' #.(-+%' $,0+' ,(' *+%,$&-+' /,$+/' 3.06&%+)' $.' .$*+%' $."%,/$/9' >(' $*,/' 3.($+5$7' 0"/+"0/'
1&3,#,$&$+' &' )8(&0,3' (+$4.%;' .1' $%&2+#' &$$%&3$,.(/' &()' 2,/,$.%' /+%2,3+/' $.' $*+' *+%,$&-+' $."%,/0'
,()"/$%89'X+%,$&-+'$."%,/0'&#/.'1&3,#,$&$+/'.$*+%' $86+/'.1'2,/,$&$,.('/"3*'&/'$%&2+#'$.' +56+%,+(3+'
&%+' +(*&(3+)' &()' (.$' ,(&)2+%$+($#8' &#$+%+)' .%' )+/$%.8+)' C]+=%&/;&' X+%,$&-+' :."%,/0' W#&(7'
H9 !.##&=.%&$+'
F9 V,()'$*+'1,$'=+$4++('$*+'3.00"(,$8'&()'$."%,/0'
Z9 @&;+'/,$+/'&()'6%.-%&0/'3.0+'&#,2+'
N9 V.3"/'.('A"&#,$8'&()'&"$*+($,3,$8'
S9 W%+/+%2+'&()'6%.$+3$',%%+6#&3+&=#+'%+/."%3+/'
1.%' /.0+' 0"/+"0/' +2+(' &' #&%-+' 6&%$' .1' $*+' $.$&#' ("0=+%' .1' 2,/,$.%/' Cf.$#+%' &()' f.$#+%E9' :*+'
),2+%/,$8' .1' 3"#$"%+' $*&$' $."%,/$/' 3&(' 3.(/"0+' &$' &(8' )+/$,(&$,.(' +//+($,&##8' 0&;+/' i!"#$"%&#'
3"#$"%+7' %&(-,(-' 1%.0' 2,/,$/' $.' /6+3,1,3' 3"#$"%&#' /,$+/' /"3*' &/' 0"/+"0/7' &%$' -&##+%,+/7' .%'
3&$*+)%&#/7' $.' +56+%,+(3,(-' $*+' i&$0./6*+%+[' .1' $*+' 3,$8' (,-*$#,1+' CK$+8(7' FGGTE9' W%+2,."/#87'
3"#$"%&#' $."%,/0' #&%-+#8' %+6%+/+($+)' &' i*,-*' 3"#$"%+[7' 4*+%+&/' $.)&8' 0&(8' (+4' 0+&(,(-/' .1'
3"#$"%&#'&()' *+%,$&-+' $."%,/0' +5,/$' &()'3.2+%' $&(-,=#+' &/' 4+##' &/',($&(-,=#+' &/6+3$/' .1' 3"#$"%+'
$.'=+' /*&%+)' 4,$*' $*+' 6"=#,3' CW+;&%,;7' FGGZE9'W+;&%,;' *&/' )+/3%,=+)' $*&$'$*+' 0&,(' %.#+' .1'$*+'
X+%,$&-+' .%' 3"#$"%&#' $."%,/0' ,/' 3.(/,)+%+)' $.' =+' &' 1.%0' .1' $."%,/0' 4*+%+' 6&%$,3,6&($/' J0&8'
=+' /"33+//1"#' ,(' $."%,/0' 3.($+5$7' *+%,$&-+' &()' *,/$.%8' %+A",%+' 0.%+' $*&(' 6%+/+%2&$,.(k' ,$/'
/,-(,1,3&(3+' C/*."#)' =+E' 3.(2+8+)' $.' $*+' 2,/,$.%7' #+&),(-' $.' +(%,3*+)' "()+%/$&(),(-' ,(' $*+'
3.($+5$'.1'$*+' 6%+/+($''C]"%8&($,7'HlljE9'O/' ]"%8&($,'6.,($/'."$'$*+'6%,3+#+//' 2&#"+'.1'3"#$"%&#'
H9 O6./$.#&;,/7' O9' &()' K9' `&11%8' CFGGSE9' K$&$+)' W%+1+%+(3+/' 1.%' :4.' !%+&$,2+' X+%,$&-+'
F9 !*+(7' !*,(-IV"' &()' W+,I3*"(' !*+(' CFGHFE9' \+/+&%3*' ].$+k' Y56#.%,(-' :."%,/$/[' K$&$+)'
W%+1+%+(3+/' 1.%' X+%,$&-+' :."%,/0' K+%2,3+/' B' $*+' !&/+' .1' :&,(&(' !,$87' :&,4&(7' Tourism!
Z9 !*+(7' !9V9' &()' V9K9' !*+(' CFGHGE9' Y56+%,+(3+' m"&#,$87' W+%3+,2+)' b&#"+7' K&$,/1&3$,.(' &()'
N9 `"(7' K..' X8"(^' ],3*.##/7' K&%&*^' b.-$7' !*%,/$,(+' CFGGNE9' JX++),(-' $*+' 3&##' 1.%' *+%,$&-+'
$."%,/0k' 0.%+' 2,/,$.%/' 4&($' &(' n+56+%,+(3+n' ,(' $*+,%' 2&3&$,.(/II/.0+$*,(-' &' *,/$.%,3&#'
S9 L.%)7' g&%%8' CFGGFE9' !"#$"%&#' :."%,/0' &()' @"/+"0/9'
j9 X+%,$&-+':."%,/0k'O':&/$+'.1'>%+#&()/'W&/$7':*+':%&2+#'&()':."%,/0'W%.-%&00+9'
T9 X"0&(,/,(-'O%3*&+.#.-8' ,(' @"#$,I3"#$"%&#' K.3,+$89'W%.1+//.%' K")*&%/*&('K+(+2,%&$(+' B'
&4&%)' &33+6$&(3+' /6++3*7' !.(/+%2&$,.(' &()' X+%,$&-+' @&(&-+0+($' O4&%)' 1.%'
Y53+##+(3+' FGHZ7' O%3*&+.#.-,3&#' >(/$,$"$+' .1' O0+%,3&7' :*+' K"()&8' :,0+/7' K%,' L&(;&7'
_9 >($+%(&$,.(&#'!."(3,#'.1'@"/+"0/'C>!D@E7'CFGHGE9'>!D@'@,//,.(/9'*$$6kaa,3.090"/+"0a'
l9 f.$#+%7' ]+,#' &()' W*,#,6' f.$#+%' CFGG_E9' @"/+"0' K$%&$+-8' &()' @&%;+$,(-9' <+/,-(,(-'
HG9 L,7' h,6,(-' CFGGZE9' X+%,$&-+' :."%,/0k' :*+' !.($%&),3$,.(/' =+$4++(' !.(/+%2&$,.(' &()'
HH9 ]"%8&($,7' e,+()"' CHlljE9' X+%,$&-+' &()' W./$' @.)+%(' :."%,/09' Annals! of! Tourism!
HF9 \,3*&%)/7'U9'&()'!9'\&80.()'CFGGGE9'!%+&$,2+':."%,/0'O:LOK']+4/7'FZ7'HjIFG9'
HZ9 \,3*&%)/7'U9'CFGGHE9'!"#$"%&#':."%,/0k'U#.=&#'&()'L.3&#'W+%/6+3$,2+/9']+4'h.%;k'X&4.%$*'
HN9 K$+8(7':&(,&'CFGGTE9':*+'/$%&$+-,3'\.#+' .1'!"#$"%&#'&()'X+%,$&-+':."%,/0',(' $*+'!.($+5$'
.1' &' @+-&I+2+($k' :*+' 3&/+' .1' FGHG' K.33+%' e.%#)' 3"69' @!.0' :."%,/0' @&(&-+0+($'
HS9 Q(,$+)' ]&$,.(/' !.(1+%+(3+' .(' :%&)+' &()' <+2+#.60+($' CQ]!:O<E' CFGGNE9' !%+&$,2+'
Hj9 Q(,$+)' ]&$,.(/' !.(1+%+(3+' .(' :%&)+' &()' <+2+#.60+($' CQ]!:O<E' CFGG_E9' !%+&$,2+'
Y3.(.08' \+6.%$' FGG_9' :*+' 3*&##+(-+' .1' &//+//,(-' $*+' !%+&$,2+' Y3.(.089' :.4&%)/'
HT9 h"+(7'g+#,()&'CFGGjE9' \+3#&,0,(-' !"#$"%&#' X+%,$&-+' ,(' K,(-&6.%+7'Q%=&('O11&,%/'\+2,+47'
... like those inscribed on UNESCO's World Heritage List). Best practice should involve its protection at all cost, unlike what Lebanon is doing now, allowing real-estate developers like SOLID ERE threatening it on a daily basis (Perera, 2013). Both archeology and natural resources if properly valorized will definitely offer grad economic potential; a nation like Lebanon greatly needs this since our GDP staggers facing to its largely increasing debt (Al-Sawi, 2018;Bellos, 2019;Mitrut and Constantin, 2008) As such, it is our duty as citizens to demand the authorities to protect this heritage at all costs, since financial investors will never squander their bonds or stocks, so we have no right to harm our heritage. ...
... Both archeology and natural resources if properly valorized will definitely offer grad economic potential; a nation like Lebanon greatly needs this since our GDP staggers facing to its largely increasing debt (Al-Sawi, 2018;Bellos, 2019;Mitrut and Constantin, 2008) As such, it is our duty as citizens to demand the authorities to protect this heritage at all costs, since financial investors will never squander their bonds or stocks, so we have no right to harm our heritage. (Al-Sawi, 2018;Knio & Bellos, 2018;Perera, 2013) Since this issue brought about that archeology sites and natural resources alike in a typical dentation that tourists like to visit (assuming the existing infrastructure attracts them, the leisure and entertainment industry plays a critical role in increasing consumer commitment to sustainable development principles in a healthy way (Mitrut and Constantin, 2008). ...
... Many governments are realizing that tourism can only be beneficial when the ecological, cultural and economic goals are held in balance. Lebanon is no exception (Perera, 2013). ...
The main topic of this project is to assess the current situation of tourism in Lebanon and to identify and interpret the actual case of how tourism industry can benefit from economic development projects in Lebanon. The main problem that Lebanon is incapable to properly use natural and cultural assets inspite of very rich potentials. In order to analyze the situation, we conducted a study through conducting a survey as data collection methods. We basically want to develop on a theory that was previously discussed and that will need further examination. Aim and objectives This paper aims to review how Lebanon plans to review its resource management for improving tourism. our objectives are to study Beirut’s rich ancient history in a wat to demonstrate that. The study conducted in Tyre, also showing similar goals, was used a reference study. The main objective of this study is to find out how tourism is viewed in Beirut and if the citizens actually are in favor of valorizing u resources or not. Therefore, the research also want to assess if it succeeded or failed overall. Today, any coastal Lebanese City, including Tyre or Beirut faces a problem in properly managing it natural or cultural resources. Therefore, cities like Tyre Saida, Jbeil and Beirut, have not utilized their resources optimally (irrespective if natural or cultural), have had records of possessing incorrect and deeply rooted values and setbacks in human capital. Past Studies The literature has been formal. Aside from 2 MBA projects on economic development and tourism movement correlations were demonstrated with these two variables. One project, focusing on Tyre, whereas the second concentrating on Beirut we were able to come up with tangible examples on how resource management in Lebanon was practiced (or its absence). Methodology The selected data collection and research design points out to a mixed qualitative and quantitative research methodology, utilizing surveying as the main means of gathering information. This explains the 15 unstructured interviews and the 32 questionnaires we collected during our fat finding phase. In order to examine the current situation, in the way that the central authorities in Beirut view the valuation of our heritage as a way to improve tourism (and ultimately to improve our GDP), our study demonstrates through our findings collected both unstructured from interviews and structured surveys that a much larger population wants us to preserve our heritage as a means of improving economic development. As such, the study utilized mixed qualitative and quantitative research methods through distributing structured questionnaires and unstructured interviews. Provided our selected data collection methods, our results provided a better understanding of how tourism can be sustainable in Beirut, and how it can be beneficial to our GDP in the long run. Conclusions Results showed that sustainable tourism development in Lebanon is highly dependent on the presence of all necessary resources. This can be related to the tourist profile types the city wishes to attract. However, Lebanon lacks proper administrative management and organization of its scarce resources. All results emphasized on the importance of human capital in the development of any tourist destination. These findings certainly will hold true in any other city in the region. And, to date, Lebanon has a deficient central administration unable to properly use our scarce resources (energy, fuel, water, etc.). Consequently, we as Lebanese must benefit from our rich human capital on the long-term, complete sustainable economic growth through and improving the tourism industry (in Beirut or elsewhere). Because Beirut city lacked the vision once it accepted the destruction of BEY 194, we lost a unique chance to valorize a unique heritage, giving us a chance to attract tourists, following the real estate developers’ and SOLIDERE’s barbaric acts.
... According to Perera (2013), cultural tourism is one of the key segments / components of the tourism industry and a powerful tool for economic development. Obviously, modern museums play a key role not only in the broader field of art, but also in tourism and entertainment. ...
In addition to acquainting the public with the culture of a particular region, cultural tourism creates economic opportunities. Taking into account various tourist sites, museums are definitely among the most important ones. In Iran, the National Museum is one of the most important museums because of its rich collection of historical monuments related to the ancient Persia and Islamic periods. The authors of this article analyse the role of the National Museum of Iran in the development of the country’s cultural tourism. The analysis is based on information obtained from the database of the Iranian Cultural Heritage Organization and the National Museum of Iran. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling were employed for data analysis. The results confirm the importance of the National Museum of Iran in the development of cultural tourism.
... In addition to educational values and providing learning experiences for students, as documented in Falk and Dierking (1997); Kisiel (2003); Koran and Baker (1979); and Tal and Morag (2007) sites such as museums are locations for cultural understanding. In such places, Perera (2013) has argued that cultural identity can be the basis upon which future generations learn to protect and preserve elements of their history, culture or heritage. Meanwhile, Griffin (2004) demonstrated that students contextualise their trip (i.e. ...
Educational school trips may contribute to student visitors' cultural identity by facilitating exposure to new cultural values. This study sought to analyse how native Papuan student visitors from a secondary school in Indonesia make meaning of their own cultural identity, and further, explore their responses to the cultural issues faced by young Papuan generations. The study employed a grounded qualitative methodology, which allowed respondents to voice their own opinions on cultural identity. The results include 3 themes: Becoming more Papuan; Clarifying and understanding the cultural context and; Self-reflection. This study reveals how students in the trips conceptualize cultural understanding as a bridge to their cultural identity. Furthermore, they brought the larger ideas of Papuan identity and community values and demonstrated intention to maintain it through conservation and preservation. Several recommendations are provided for future research in the tourism and education fields to foster cultural experiences for student visitors from different cultural backgrounds.
... Museums contribute to social cohesion, civic engagement as well as local development through inspiring creativity, boosting cultural diversity, attracting visitors and bringing in revenues (OECD & ICOM, 2018). The cultural sector (including museums) has been unexploited or underdeveloped in most African countries yet heritage tourism is increasingly cited as a major player for building sustainable economies in developing countries (Perera, 2015). If museum managers understand heritage-tourist behaviour, they will know which services to offer in order to create effective sustainable strategies (Chen & Chen, 2012). ...
Full-text available
In the currently escalating debates about restitution of Africa’s heritage, the question remains whether Africa’s museums have the capacity to host and maintain collections while continuing to use them for their intended purpose. This paper is based on a 5-months survey in 2018 of 17 museums/collection institutions in East Africa; Uganda, Kenya and Rwanda. Staff, citizens and other key stakeholders were interviewed on capacity of institutions as repositories, education centres as well as research infrastructures. Institutions were compared against a range of indicators. Results indicate that all institutions assessed rate on average very low to moderate regarding collections, exhibitions, research, infrastructure and management. The institutions perform better with respect to representing national/regional identity, their usability in education and being repositories of biodiversity and cultural heritage. The low ratings are mainly attributed to insufficient personnel and expertise to manage, research, curate and develop collections and exhibitions, to poor buildings and other infrastructure, and to a lack of money and political will to support museum activities in these countries. The paper further discusses the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for the museum sector in the region and provides recommendations for capacity building therein. For almost all the institutions assessed here, restitution does not seem a realistic option unless capacities for curation are vastly improved.
... 0%) respondents was neutral, 72 agree with the percentage of (48.0%).34 (22.7%) strongly agree. ...
Museums played vital role in the preservation and conservation of the artefacts, monuments and all the equipment of the histories. It is started from the earlier in 1907 which is National Museum was built in that era and it is administrated by Malaysia Federal D epartment. This museum has decided the pathway of the promotions to the culture and history of this country. This research outcome is to conduct and to gain knowledge about all the elements needed in the museum in order to improve a satisfactions of the Visitors no matter from neither local nor international. This research shows how the organizations of museums conserve all the artefacts as the main factor of the conservation of heritage and how they analyses all the information from all the heritages to do it in a creative way to deliver all the information to the Visitors. The National Museum and Music Museum are the main organization play as a rule to make all the heritages and histories, according to the standard of the syllabus from the history textbook. Change occurs for the exhibitions inside the museums gives a huge impact in the local and international Visitors especially for the teenagers. This exhibition, becoming the main factor developments of the heritages because histories and heritages are not becoming the main passions for Generation Z nowadays. There are 150 questionnaires distributed to all the Visitors before analysing all the data. The SPSS20.0 was used to analyse the data. The outcome is there is a positive relationship between the selected Museums and Visitors' satisfaction. It shows by the significant of the two correlations and the result is positive.
Full-text available
The article describes the historical periods of development two closely related fields of activity in Daghestan (Russia) – local history and museology. Within each period, the authors highlight the stages of the local history and museum initiative of the local intellectuals and educators. The spatio-temporal dynamics of the network of local history museums in the context of the republic’s municipalities is analysed. The features of the evolution of local lore and museum affairs are revealed in the light of the prospects for the popularisation of the rich natural and cultural heritage of the “Country of the Mountains”. The issues surrounding the formation of effective museum and tourist clusters on this territory are discussed.
Conference Paper
The authenticity and promotion of cultural immersion developed in cultural places has been seen to provide meaningful experiences and, at the same time, present unique aspects of cultural identity to student visitors. Conducting research in the Cultural Museum of Cenderawasih University and Abar village in Papua, Indonesia, this paper highlights how native Papuan students make meaning within a cultural context and identify their own identities based on an educational school trip. Moreover, the paper underlines students’ responses on cultural issues and threats resulted from their reflective experience.
Aside from educating the public, museums nowadays are adapting to the changing world as they have becoming one of the popular sites for cultural heritage tourism. Thus, from tourists and educational activities, they generate an increase in the number of visitors every year. With the emergence of interactive technology, it enables museums to produce better visiting experience especially when technology able to facilitate the visitor-exhibition interactivity in diverse ways. This paper investigates visitors’ satisfaction and findings demonstrate a detailed insight on how the interactive technology in museum approach shapes the visiting experience. Basically, this study will show the process of creating repeat visitation from the effects of technology use in the museums.Interactive exhibitions with technology use are required in enhancing visitor satisfaction.A conceptual framework is developed to provide guideline and knowledge in understanding the role of interactive technology to secure visitor satisfaction and repeat visitation particularly in the context of Brunei Darussalam.
Inheriting and developing the Functioning Tourism System (FTS) model of Gunn (Gunn, 1988; Clare, Gunn, & Turgut Var, 2002), this study assessed the potential of cultural heritage tourism (CHT) in Vietnam. The research results show that the current CHT activities in Vietnam are below the potential. In addition, the study shows that the heritage tourism potential is based on the elements that constitute the tourism system according to the FTS model as destination/attractions, transportation, information, promotion, system of services, travel needs of the community and especially safety and security not only in the area of the tourist destination but also in the whole country. These elements are closely linked with each other and without one of these elements, the tourism system cannot exist and develop. The study also clarifies that the more complete the heritage tourism system, the greater the potential for CHT.
Full-text available
Heritage tourism, a niche segment that first rose to prominence among researchers and the tourism industry in the 1990s, remains one of the most significant, and fastest growing forms of leisure travel within the American market. Recent various market analyses and academic investigations have been conducted, that when combined, begin to demonstrate the many potential benefits, as well as some of the more contentious issues, associated with the use of heritage as a tourism attraction. What is "Heritage Tourism"? Heritage tourism involves travel to sites that in some way represent or celebrate an area, community, or people's history; identity or inheritance. Heritage attractions are typically divided into three categories: natural, cultural and built. Figure 1 on page 41 provides examples of each. In academic writings as illustrated in Figure 2 on page 42, various other, more specific types of heritage tourism have been identified.
Singapore and Hong Kong are two geographically small economic powerhouses in Asia. In recent years both cities have been attempting to develop their tourism economies by communicating their unique cultural heritages to global tourists. While heritage culture-based tourism practice may help conserve a destination's cultural heritage, its development accelerates the change of the local society; and in the process the authenticity of the cultural heritage of the destination may be lost. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the efforts adopted by Singapore and Hong Kong to communicate their cultural heritages through the tourism developments. It focuses on three questions: (1) Do the inherent contradictions between conservation and change associated with tourism development constitute threats or resources for heritage tourism development? (2) What are the major issues in the process of portraying the past in the present for heritage tourism development? (3) What implications may be drawn, by studying these issues, for the tourism industries in their planning, conservation and promotion efforts to develop heritage tourism?
The issue of cultural heritage in urban settings is of increasing importance as cities seek a better future in a globalizing world. This article aims to explore how such heritage themes and assets are treated in rapidly urbanizing cities to redress the creation of tabula rasa. Using the case study of Singapore's latest attempt to build a distinctive global city, the article will analyze the changing images of heritage and discuss how heritage conservation may yet give urban redevelopment unique places. The challenge for Singapore, as in other cities, is to identify those parts of the urban environment most worthy of preservation while fostering a new and distinctive skyline.
This paper examines the visitor experience of heritage tourism and investigates the relationships between the quality of those experiences, perceived value, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. A total of 447 respondents completed a survey conducted at four main heritage sites in Tainan, Taiwan. Using structural equation modeling (SEM) technique, the results reveal the direct effects of the quality of experience on perceived value and satisfaction. However, it is the indirect and not direct effects of the quality of experience that impact on behavioral intentions when mediated by perceived value and satisfaction. Overall, the relationship “experience quality→perceived value→satisfaction→behavioral intentions” appears to be evident.
The paper utilizes discrete choice modeling methodology to evaluate preferences of tourists for hypothetical managerial initiatives for two heritage attractions in Crete, Greece. The results show that they are willing to contribute a significant amount of money for improvements in the quality of information for both sites. Receiving information will substantially improve their satisfaction and thus their chances of visiting. Tourists also make reference to demand management issues, arguing that deterioration in congestion levels in both attractions will negatively affect satisfaction levels. The paper draws attention to future policies designed to improve the quality of the heritage experience, such as the introduction of audiovisual material to complement the presentation of exhibits.RésuméPréférences déclarées pour deux attractions patrimoniales crétoises. L’article utilise une méthodologie de modelage de choix discret pour examiner les préférences des touristes pour des initiatives de gestion hypothétiques pour deux attractions patrimoniales en Crète (Grèce). Les résultats montrent qu’ils sont prêts à contribuer une somme d’argent significative pour des améliorations dans la qualité des informations pour les deux sites. La réception d’informations améliorera considérablement leur satisfaction et ainsi les chances de visiter. Les touristes font aussi mention des questions de gestion de la demande, soutenant que la détérioration des niveaux d’encombrement dans les deux sites aura un effet négatif sur les niveaux de satisfaction. L’article attire l’attention sur les politiques futures conçues pour améliorer la qualité de l’expérience patrimoniale, comme l’introduction de matériel audiovisuel pour compléter la présentation des expositions.
The complex relationships between tourism and heritage are revealed in the tensions between tradition and modernity. The role of heritage in postmodern tourism is examined, particularly built heritage, which is at the heart of cultural tourism. Four challenging issues in linking heritage and tourism are discussed: interpretation, marketing built heritage, planning for heritage, and the interdependencies between heritage tourism and the local community. Differences in approaches to the four issues indicate that heritage tourism raises more than planning and management issues for developing countries; they are fundamentally the problems of development.RésuméPatrimoine et tourisme postmoderne. Les liens complexes entre le tourisme et le patrimoine se révèlent dans les tensions entre la tradition et la modernisme. On examine le rôle du patrimoine dans le tourisme postmoderne, surtout le patrimoine construit, qui est au coeur du tourisme culturel. On discute quatre questions difficiles vis-à-vis des liens entre le patrimoine et le tourisme: l'interprétation, la commercialisation du patrimoine construit, la préparation du patrimoine futur et l'interdépendance entre le tourisme patrimonial et la communauté locale. Les différentes façons d'aborder les quatre questions montrent que le tourisme patrimonial soulève des problèmes qui vont au-delà de la planification et la gestion pour les pays en voie de développement: ce sont les problèmes du développement même.
Museum Strategy and Marketing
  • Neil Kotler
  • Philip Kotler
Kotler, Neil and Philip Kotler (2008). Museum Strategy and Marketing. Designing Missions. Building Audiences. Generating Revenue and Resources.
Cultural Tourism: Global and Local Perspectives
  • G Richards
Richards, G. (2001). Cultural Tourism: Global and Local Perspectives. New York: Haworth Hospitality Press. 14. Steyn, Tania (2007).
Creative Tourism ATLAS News
  • G Richards
  • C Raymond
Richards, G. and C. Raymond (2000). Creative Tourism ATLAS News, 23, 16-­‐20.