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Studies in Chaetosphaeria sensu lato II. Coniobrevicolla gen. & sp. nov.

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Abstract

The new monotypic genus Coniobrevicolla is described with the single species Coniobrevicolla larsenii, a saprobic fungus occurring on decaying wood of a deciduous tree in the north temperate zone. Based on the characters of peridium anatomy, ascal and hamathecium anatomy the new genus is pieced In the Trichosphaeriaceae. C larsenii is described and illustrated and the relationships with Crassochaeta of the Trichosphaeriaceae and Ascocodinaea of the Chaetosphaeriaceae are discussed. Chaetosphaeria subcaespitosa is considered and the relationship with Coniobrevicolla is discussed.
Article
In order to more fully elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of the lignicolous, pyrenomycetous genus Chaetosphaeria and its anamorphs and reveal the most reliable molecular data set we sequenced a portion of the large nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rDNA) and the complete ITS region (ITS1, the 5.8S rRNA gene and ITS2) of 25 members of the Chaetosphaeriaceae including Porosphaerella cordanophora, Striatosphaeria codinaeophora, species of Chaetosphaeria and Melanopsammella, and representatives of eight of the eleven of their anamorph genera. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on four different data sets. The phylogeny inferred from the LSU rDNA sequence data showed two main groups, each with two subgroups, within the monophyletic Chaetosphaeriaceae. These subgroups are easily identified by morphological features of anamorphs and teleomorphs and serve as a background to subdivide the Chaetosphaeria species in to two, respectively, two and four natural groups of taxa. Two sexual species currently referred to Chaetosphaeria and two related asexual species grouped with Hypocreales and Microascales, respectively. Knoxdaviesia is relegated to synonymy with Custingophora. The morphology-based classification of Chaetosphaeria is compared with results from analyses of molecular data. The taxonomic value of morphological characters observed in teleomorphs and dematiaceous hyphomycetous anamorphs is discussed in the light of the results of these analyses.
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A new species in the new monotypic genus Lecythothecium, having a Sporidesmium anamorph, and the new species Ascolacicola austriaca are described, illustrated with line drawings and photographs, and classified using a combination of morphology and sequence data. A new chloridium-like synanamorph of Umbrinosphaeria caesariata is reported. To classify the two new species, other phenotypically similar perithecial ascomycete genera, viz. Ascotaiwania, Coniobrevicolla, Crassochaeta, Herbampulla, Savoryella and Umbrinosphaeria, were compared morphologically and for the large nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rDNA). Despite the basic similarity in regard to perithecia, asci, apical annulus and ascospores, the classification of the two new species was problematic in that each possessed some phenotypic characters of several genera but could not be easily placed in any. Parsimony and distance analyses of LSU rDNA sequences of the fungi mentioned and representative taxa of seven ascomycetous orders were performed. The phylogeny showed Lecythothedum duriligni with a Sporidesmium anamorph to have affinity with the Chaetosphaeriaceae (98–100%). Umbrinosphaeria caesariata having Sporidesmium and chloridium-like synanamorphs also nested with high bootstrap value (98–100%) in the Chaetosphaeriaceae. The affinity of Ascolacicola austriaca lies with the Annulatascaceae/Trichosphaeriaceae in our phylogeny. The taxonomic and phylogenetic value of the massive, wedge-shaped apical annulus that characterizes the Annulatascaceae but that is also present in other genera, including Ascotaiwania, Lecythothecium, Crassochaeta, Herbampulla and Umbrinosphaeria, was tested in our phylogeny. The apical ring did not unite otherwise phenotypically diverse fungi in a clade, as is often the case with taxa established on the basis of a single character. The Annulatascaceae was revealed to be polyphyletic.
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Sordariomycetes is one of the largest classes of Ascomycota that comprises a highly diverse range of fungi characterized mainly by perithecial ascomata and inoperculate unitunicate asci. The class includes many important plant pathogens, as well as endophytes, saprobes, epiphytes, coprophilous and fungicolous, lichenized or lichenicolous taxa. They occur in terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats worldwide. This paper reviews the 107 families of the class Sordariomycetes and provides a modified backbone tree based on phylogenetic analysis of four combined loci, with a maximum five representative taxa from each family, where available. This paper brings together for the first time, since Barrs’ 1990 Prodromus, descriptions, notes on the history, and plates or illustrations of type or representative taxa of each family, a list of accepted genera, including asexual genera and a key to these taxa of Sordariomycetes. Delineation of taxa is supported where possible by molecular data. The outline is based on literature to the end of 2015 and the Sordariomycetes now comprises six subclasses, 32 orders, 105 families and 1331 genera. The family Obryzaceae and Pleurotremataceae are excluded from the class.
Article
Full-text available
A new species in the new monotypic genus Lecythothecium, having a Sporidesmium anamorph, and the new species Ascolacicola austriaca are described, illustrated with line drawings and photographs, and classified using a combination of morphology and sequence data. A new chloridium-like synanamorph of Umbrinosphaeria caesariata is reported. To classify the two new species, other phenotypically similar perithecial ascomycete genera, viz. Ascotaiwania, Coniobrevicolla, Crassochaeta, Herbampulla, Savoryella and Umbrinosphaeria, were compared morphologically and for the large nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rDNA). Despite the basic similarity in regard to perithecia, asci, apical annulus and ascospores, the classification of the two new species was problematic in that each possessed some phenotypic characters of several genera but could not be easily placed in any. Parsimony and distance analyses of LSU rDNA sequences of the fungi mentioned and representative taxa of seven ascomycetous orders were performed. The phylogeny showed Lecythothecium duriligni with a Sporidesmium anamorph to have affinity with the Chaetosphaeriaceae (98-100%). Umbrinosphaeria caesariata having Sporidesmium and chloridium-like synanamorphs also nested with high bootstrap value (98-100%) in the Chaetosphaeriaceae. The affinity of Ascolacicola austriaca lies with the Annulatascaceae/Trichosphaeriaceae in our phylogeny. The taxonomic and phylogenetic value of the massive, wedge-shaped apical annulus that characterizes the Annulatascaceae but that is also present in other genera, including Ascotaiwania, Lecythothecium, Crassochaeta, Herbampulla and Umbrinosphaeria, was tested in our phylogeny. The apical ring did not unite otherwise phenotypically diverse fungi in a clade, as is often the case with taxa established on the basis of a single character. The Annulatascaceae was revealed to be polyphyletic.
Article
Full-text available
In order to more fully elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of the lignicolous, pyrenomycetous genus Chaetosphaeria and its anamorphs and reveal the most reliable molecular data set we sequenced a portion of the large nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rDNA) and the complete ITS region (ITS1, the 5.8S rRNA gene and ITS2) of 25 members of the Chaetosphaeriaceae including Porosphaerella cordanophora, Striatosphaeria codinaeophora, species of Chaetosphaeria and Melanopsammella, and representatives of eight of the eleven of their anamorph genera. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on four different data sets. The phylogeny inferred from the LSU rDNA sequence data showed two main groups, each with two subgroups, within the monophyletic Chaetosphaeriaceae. These subgroups are easily identified by morphological features of anamorphs and teleomorphs and serve as a background to subdivide the Chaetosphaeria species in to two, respectively, two and four natural groups of taxa. Two sexual species currently referred to Chaetosphaeria and two related asexual species grouped with Hypocreales and Microascales, respectively. Knoxdaviesia is relegated to synonymy with Custingophora. The morphology-based classification of Chaetosphaeria is compared with results from analyses of molecular data. The taxonomic value of morphological characters observed in teleomorphs and dematiaceous hyphomycetous anamorphs is discussed in the light of the results of these analyses.
Article
Full-text available
The teleomorph genus Chaetosphaeria is redefined and divided into four natural groups of taxa based on morphological, cultural and molecular studies. Each group includes anamorphs of several morphologically distinct, though closely related genera, and represents a certain pattern of variability. The patterns of variation, the diagnostic value of characters of the anamorph genera corresponding to each group, and the relationships among the groups are discussed in detail. Proposals are made for future systematic studies of Chaetosphaeria and its anamorphs. Keys to species of Chaetosphaeria and genera of associated anamorphs are provided.
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The new genus in the Trichosphaeriaceae Cressochaeta is introduced and two new combinations, Cressochaeta nigrita and Crassochaeta fusispora, are proposed. Crassochaeta is distinguished by the superficial, large, ovoidal to subglobose, setose perithecia; asci with a distinct refractive, J- apical annulus; persistent paraphyses and versicoloured, 3-septate ascospores. Ascospores of Crassochaeta nigrita germinate by producing phialides directly. Species of Crassochaeta are saprobes occurring on decaying wood in tropical and temperate regions. They are described and illustrated and their relationships with genera of the Chaetosphaeriaceae, Helminthosphaeriaceae and Trichosphaeriaceae are discussed. An index to the fungi treated in this series of publications, "Studies in Chaetosphaeria sensu late I-IV." is provided. Keys to genera and families treated in this series are provided.
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Two lignicolous genera Miyoshiella and Umbrinosphaeria with Sporidesmium anamorphs are referred to the Trichosphaeriaceae. They are separated on the basis of the anatomy of the ascospores. The genus Miyoshiella is resurrected and three species are included, vb. M. fusispora is accepted, a new combination: M. triseptata is proposed and a new species M. larvata is described. A key to species of Miyoshiella is provided. The new genus Umbrinosphaeria is described with the single species U. caesariata, a new combination for Lasiosphaeria caesariata. Chaetosphaeria ampulliformis is considered, its affinity to Umbrinosphaeria and Miyoshiella and other genera of the Trichosphaeriaceae and Chaetosphaeriaceae are discussed.
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The Nitschkiaceae has been placed in the Coronophorales or the Sordariales in recent years. Most recently it was accepted in the Coronophorales and placed in the Hypocreomycetidae based on sequence data from large subunit nrDNA. To confirm and corroborate the taxonomic placement and monophyly of the Coronophorales, additional taxa representing the diversity of the group were targeted for phylogenetic analysis using partial sequences of the large subunit nrDNA (LSU). Based on molecular data, the Coronophorales is found to be monophyletic and its placement in the Hypocreomycetidae is maintained. The order is a coherent group with morphologies that include superficial, often turbinate, often collabent ascomata that may or may not contain a quellkorper and asci that are often stipitate and at times polysporous. Three species with accepted Nitschkia names, together with Fracchiaea broomeiana and Acanthonitschkea argentinensis, comprise the paraphyletic nitschkiaceous complex. Two new families, Chaetosphaerellaceae and Scortechiniaceae fams nov., are described for the clades containing Chaetosphaerella and Crassochaeta and the taxa having a quellkorper (Euacanthe, Neofracchiaea and Scortechinia) respectively. The Bertiaceae is accepted for the clade containing Bertia species. Three new species are described: Bertia tropicalis, Lasiobertia portoricensis, and Nitschkia meniscoidea spp. nov.
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The name Litschaueria corticiorum was found to have been misapplied to a common pyrenomycete that occurs on old basidiomata of Stereum species. The new genus and species Ascocodinaea stereicola is proposed for it; its proven anamorph is a Codinaea species. A second new species, A. polyporicola, which occurs on old basidiomata of Polyporus species, is also proposed; its presumed anamorph is also a Codinaea species.
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Sixty-nine species of Dictyochaeta and Codinaea have hitherto been described. In the present paper, a key to the 59 species described in or transferred to Dictyochaeta and the 10 species that still remain in Codinaea is provided.
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Notes on 12 dematiaceous hy phomycetes collected in Devon are presented. Chaetendophragmia britannica sp.nov., Endophragmiella fagicola sp.nov., E. ovoidea sp.nov., E. resinae sp.nov., Sporidesmium pseudobambusae sp.nov. and Trichocladium macrosporum sp.nov. are described and illustrated, Arachnophora fagicola and Cladosporium inaequiseptatum are reported from the British Isles for the first time and additional information is recorded for Brachysporium dingleyae, Polyscytalum hareae (Sutton) comb.nov., Polyscytalum truncatum, and Taeniolina scripta (P. Karst.) comb.nov.