Elevated 5-HT2A receptors in postmortem prefrontal cortex in major depression is associated with reduced activity of protein kinase A
Department of Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37212, USA. Neuroscience
(Impact Factor: 3.36).
02/2009; 158(4):1406-15. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2008.11.036
Previous human postmortem brain tissue research has implicated abnormalities of 5-HT receptor availability in depression and suicide. Although altered abundance of 5-HT 1A, 5-HT 2A, and 5-HT 2C receptors (5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), and 5-HT(2C)) has been reported, the causes remain obscure. This study evaluated the availability of these three receptor subtypes in postmortem brain tissue specimens from persons with a history of major depression (MDD) and normal controls and tested the relationships to protein kinases A and C (PKA, PKC). Samples were obtained from postmortem brain tissue (Brodmann area 10) from 20 persons with a history of MDD and 20 matched controls as determined by a retrospective diagnostic evaluation obtained from family members. Levels of 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), and 5-HT(2C) receptor were quantitated via Western blot analyses. Basal and stimulated PKA and PKC activity were also determined. The depressed samples showed significantly increased 5-HT(2A) receptor abundance relative to controls, but no differences in 5-HT(1A) or 5-HT(2C) receptors. Basal and cyclic AMP-stimulated PKA activity was also reduced in the depressed sample; PKC activity was not different between groups. 5-HT(2A) receptor availability was significantly inversely correlated with PKC activity in controls, but with PKA activity in the depressed sample. Increased 5-HT(2A) receptor abundance and decreased PKA activity in the depressed sample are consistent with prior reports. The correlation of 5-HT(2A) receptor levels with PKA activity in the depressed group suggests that abnormalities of 5-HT(2A) receptor abundance may depend on receptor uncoupling and heterologous regulation by PKA.
Available from: Karolina Pytka
- "In the case of 5-HT 2A receptors, numerous postmortem studies have reported that a high density of these receptors can be found in suicide victims with depression (Shelton et al., 2009). Thus, 5-HT 2A receptors contribute to the pathogenesis of MDD. "
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ABSTRACT: Since serotonin (5-HT) is strongly involved in the etiology and pathophysiology of depression, the development of new antidepressants is still based on the serotonergic system. The complexity of serotonergic system provides an opportunity for the development of compounds with multiple and complementary mechanism of action. This study describes serotonin receptor profile, functional characterization, and pharmacological in vivo evaluation of new aroxyalkyl derivatives of 2-methoxyphenylpiperazine. The obtained results allowed for the identification of compound 3, (1-[3-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)propyl]-4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine hydrochloride), a partial 5-HT1A receptor agonist, and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, with high affinity toward 5-HT7 receptors, showing antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like properties. Moreover, 5-HT1A receptor activation is crucial for the antidepressant-like activity of compound 3. The rest of the compounds (except compounds 1 and 9) showed antidepressant but not anxiolytic-like properties, which did not result from 5-HT1A receptors activation. Furthermore, the compounds are 5-HT1A and weak 5-HT3 receptors antagonists, and some of them 5-HT2A antagonists. Moreover, none of the studied compounds impaired motor coordination at antidepressant-like doses. Since the studied compounds exhibited activity in behavioral assays and interacted with various receptors, the results of our experiments are very promising and require further studies.
- "Interestingly, both serotonin and 5-HT2a receptors were increased in the prefrontal cortex of Ts65Dn mice, and application of an 5-HT2a receptor antagonist rescued the nest building deficit (Heller et al., 2014). Some reports suggest that 5-HT2a receptor expression in the brain may be related to depression, and postmortem studies have shown increased levels of 5-HT2a receptor in the frontal cortices of subjects with major depression and suicide victims (Hrdina et al., 1993; Hrdina and Du, 2001; Pandey et al., 2002; Shelton et al., 2009). Buwalda et al. reported that social defeat stress alters serotonin receptor sensitivity in rodents (Buwalda et al., 2005); however, 2 days of subsequent social defeat stress did not change cortical or hippocampal 5-HT2a receptor levels in rats (Visser et al., 2014). "
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ABSTRACT: Behavioral and physiological evaluations of animal models of depression are essential to thoroughly understand the mechanisms of depression in humans. Various models have been developed and characterized, and the socially defeated mouse has been widely used for studying depression. Here, we developed and characterized a mouse model of social aversion using a subchronic and mild social defeat stress (sCSDS) paradigm. Compared to control mice, sCSDS mice showed significantly increased body weight gain, water intake, and social aversion to dominant mice on the social interaction test. We observed nest building behavior in sCSDS mice using the pressed cotton as a nest material. Although sCSDS mice eventually successfully built nests, the onset of nest building was severely delayed compared to control mice. The underlying mechanism of this significant delay in nest building by sCSDS mice is unclear. However, our results demonstrate that nest building evaluation is a simple and useful assay for understanding behavior in socially defeated mice and screening drugs such as antidepressants.
Available from: Willem Kamphuis
- "One problem that affects the interpretation of post-mortem studies on this topic is the occurrence of suicide in many of the depression cohorts reported in literature. For instance, postmortem studies that claimed to have determined molecular alterations in relation to depression had in fact selected, in the diagnosis group, depressed patients who (nearly) all committed suicide, and compared them with control subjects without any psychiatric disorder and who did not commit suicide (Bernard et al., 2011; Cotter et al., 2001; Dwivedi et al., 2006b; Martins-de-Souza et al., 2012; Rajkowska et al., 1999; Shelton et al., 2009). Vice versa, the studies focused on suicide appeared to compare suicide cases to matched controls without any psychiatric disorder (Dwivedi et al., 2006a, 2006b; Poulter et al., 2008; Thalmeier et al., 2008). "
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ABSTRACT: Suicide occurs in some, but not all depressed patients. So far, it remains unknown whether the studied stress-related candidate genes change in depression, suicide or both. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in, among other things, impulse control and inhibitory behavior and plays an important role in both suicide and depression.
We have employed qPCR to study 124 anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) brain samples, obtained from two brain banks, from: i) young depressed patients (average age 43 years) who committed suicide (MDD-S) and depressed patients who died from causes other than suicide (MDD-NS) and from ii) elderly depressed patients (average age 75 years) who did not commit suicide (DEP). Both cohorts were individually matched with non-psychiatric non-suicide control subjects. We determined the transcript levels of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis-regulating molecules (corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH receptors, CRH binding protein, mineralocorticoid receptor/glucocorticoid receptor), transcription factors that regulate CRH expression, CRH-stimulating cytokines, chaperone proteins, retinoid signaling, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tropomyosin-related kinase B, cytochrome proteins, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and monoamines.
In the MDD-S group, expression levels of CRH and neuronal NOS-interacting DHHC domain-containing protein with dendritic mRNA (NIDD) were increased. Other changes were only present in the DEP group, i.e. decreased NIDD, and increased and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (5-HT1A) expression levels. Changes were found to be more pronounced in the anterior cingulate cortex than in the dorsolateral PFC.
Depressed patients who committed suicide have different gene expression patterns than depressed patients who died of causes other than suicide.
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