Article

Garlic and cardioprotection: Insights into the molecular mechanisms

Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), Hyderabad, India.
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 1.77). 06/2013; 91(6):448-58. DOI: 10.1139/cjpp-2012-0315
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Garlic is widely recognized for its immense therapeutic potential. Garlic has been shown to exert its beneficial effects against a wide spectrum of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and microbial infections, as well as immunological and cardiovascular disorders. Most of the research on garlic has indicated that garlic and its active compounds are effective in reducing cardiovascular and metabolic risk by normalizing abnormal plasma lipids, oxidized low density lipoproteins, abnormal platelet aggregation, high blood pressure, and cardiac injury. Some of the beneficial effects of dietary garlic against cardiovascular disorders are mediated via the generation of hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide in cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. Garlic has the potential to protect the heart against myocardial infarction, doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, arrhythmia, hypertrophy, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. The induction of cardiac endogenous antioxidants and the reduction of lipid peroxidation by garlic has been reported by several different groups. Other mechanisms, such as regulating ion channels, modulating Akt signaling pathways, histone deacetylase inhibition, and cytochrome P450 inhibition, could be responsible for the cardioprotective effect of garlic. Although several mechanisms have been identified for the cardioprotective effect of garlic, there is a need for further research to identify the specific molecular mechanism of cardioprotection in different cardiac diseases.

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    • "This is a clear example of a food being used in health contexts (see e.g. Gardner et al., 2007; Reinhart et al., 2009; Tsai et al., 2012; Khatua et al., 2013; Ried et al., 2013). In the ancient world, garlic was primarily an item of diet, much derided by comic authors because of its well-known impact on the breath (Wilkins, 2000). "
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    ABSTRACT: Ethnopharmacological relevance: The debate on the food-drug continuum could benefit from a historical dimension. This study aims at showing this through one case: the food-drug continuum in Greece in the fifth- and fourth-century BCE. I suggest that at the time the boundary between food and drug - and that between dietetics and pharmacology - was rather blurred. Materials and methods: I study definitions of 'food' and 'medicine' in texts from the fifth- and fourth-century BCE: the Hippocratic texts, the botanical treatises of Theophrastus and the pseudo-Aristotelian Problems. To illustrate these abstract definitions, I focus on two substances: garlic and silphium. Results and discussion: The Hippocratics were writing in a context of increased professionalization and masculinization of medicine, a context in which dietetics became the most prestigious branch of medicine, praised above pharmacology and surgery. While medicine was becoming more specialised, professionalised and masculine, it avoided becoming too conspicuously so. The Hippocratic authors sometimes noted that medical discoveries are serendipitous and can be made by anyone, whether medically trained or not. By doing so, they allowed themselves to integrate common knowledge and practice into their writings. Conclusion: In the context of the professionalization of ancient medicine, the Hippocratic authors started to address the difference between food and medicine. They saw, however, some advantage in acknowledging the continuum between food and medicine. Scholars should avoid drawing too strict a boundary between ancient dietetics and pharmacology and should instead adopt a multi-disciplinary approach to the therapeutics of the Hippocratic texts.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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    • "Some beneficial effects of garlic on humans include lowering blood pressure, reducing cholesterol and serum triglycerides, and preventing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (17). The ajoene in garlic decreases blood viscosity and improves some types of anemia (18). Sulfur and selenium in garlic prevent cancer and if the cancer has already developed, reduce its size (19). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is one of the most common gynecological infections during reproductive age. Although metronidazole is one of the most effective medications recommended as the first-line treatment, it has various side effects. Because of the side effects and contraindications of some chemical medicines, using herbs has been investigated in treating BV.Objectives:The aim of this study was to compare the effect of garlic tablet (Garsin) and oral metronidazole in clinical treatment of the BV in women referred to Resalat Health Center, affiliated with Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, in 2013.Patients and Methods:This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 married women aged 18 to 44 years who were diagnosed with BV by Amsel’s clinical criteria and Gram staining. Enrolled women were randomly allocated to two groups of 60 patients and were treated with either garlic tablet or oral metronidazole for seven days. Amsel’s criteria and Gram stain were assessed seven to ten days after beginning the treatment period and side effects were registered.Results:Amsel’s criteria were significantly decreased after treatment with garlic or metronidazole (70% and 48.3%, respectively; P < 0.001). Therapeutic effects of garlic on BV were similar to that of metronidazole (63.3% and 48.3%, respectively; P = 0.141). There were significant differences between the two treatment groups in terms of side effects; metronidazole was associated with more complications (P = 0.032).Conclusions:This study reveals that garlic could be a suitable alternative for metronidazole in treatment of BV in those interested in herbal medicines or those affected by side effects of metronidazole.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014
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    • "This is a clear example of a food being used in health contexts (see e.g. Gardner et al., 2007; Reinhart et al., 2009; Tsai et al., 2012; Khatua et al., 2013; Ried et al., 2013). In the ancient world, garlic was primarily an item of diet, much derided by comic authors because of its well-known impact on the breath (Wilkins, 2000). "
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    ABSTRACT: Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload high-quality image (111 K)Download as PowerPoint slide
    Preview · Article · Jan 2014
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