Does a monovalent inactivated rotavirus vaccine induce heterotypic immunity?: Evidence from animal studies.

Division of Viral Diseases
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics (Impact Factor: 2.37). 06/2013; 9(8). DOI: 10.4161/hv.24958
Source: PubMed


There is substantial evidence for broad cross-reactive immunity and heterotypic protection among human rotavirus strains in children with natural infection or with monovalent Rotarix vaccination. In this commentary, we addressed this same question by testing sera of guinea pigs and gnotobiotic piglets that were intramuscularly immunized with an inactivated human rotavirus vaccine and also demonstrated a broad cross-protective immunity among human rotavirus strains. Our findings from a single human strain in animal studies bode well for a low cost and efficacious inactivated vaccine to protect children against rotavirus disease throughout the world.

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Available from: Roger I Glass, Dec 01, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: We previously developed virus like particles of rotavirus with VP2, VP6, and VP7 proteins (VLP2/6/7) using stable High-five cell line. To evaluate the immunogenicity of our construct, we assessed the humoral and cytokine responses induced by VLP2/6/7 in BALB/c mice immunized intra-peritoneally and intra-rectally. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Relative quantitative (RQ) Real-time PCR were used to evaluate the antibody (IgG and IgA) levels in serum and mRNA levels of IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-γ in spleen cells, respectively. Our results showed that VLP2/6/7 is capable of intra-peritoneal (I.P.) and intra-rectal (I.R.) induction of serum IgG and IgA responses. IgA was detected in fecal samples of immunization groups by I.P. and I.R. routes. Interestingly, I.R. route induced higher IgA titer compared with I.P. route which was statistically significant. Moreover, mRNA levels of IL-6 and IFN-γ were significantly elevated in mice immunized intra-peritoneally with VLP2/6/7 compared to control group. As such, the mean change were 7.4 (p< 0.05) and 14.8 (P< 0.001) for IFN-γ and IL-6, respectively. Likewise, the same pattern was found when mice were immunized intra-rectally. Although elevated, the difference in the mean change for IL-10 was not statistically significant when compared to control group. Our findings indicated that VLPs constructed via a stable insect cell line are able to induce both humoral and cellular responses, a similar pattern as observed after immunization with live rotaviruses.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · Microbial Pathogenesis
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    Article: Rotaviruses
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    ABSTRACT: Recent advances of rotavirus (RV) basic and applied research are reviewed. They consist of: determination of the RV particle structure and functions of structural proteins, classification into genotypes based on whole genome analyses, description of the RV genome and gene protein assignments, description of the viral replication cycle and of functions of RV-encoded non-structural proteins as well as cellular proteins and cellular organelles involved, the present status of RV genetics and reverse genetics, molecular determinants of pathogenesis and pathophysiology, the RV-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, innate immune responses and correlates of protection, laboratory diagnosis, differential diagnosis and present status of treatment, the molecular epidemiology and mechanisms of evolution of RVs, the development and universal application of RV vaccines as well as issues arising from present universal RV vaccination programmes and work on alternative vaccines. The review concludes by presenting problems requiring further exploration and perspectives of future basic and translational research.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Virus Research
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To purify rotavirus (RV) with multimode media Capto core 700 so as to remove the residual host cell protein (HCP) and DNA in culture and increase the yield of virus. Methods The seeds of RV LH9 were inoculated to Vero cells, and the prepared bulk of RV was clarified, ultrafiltrated and purified by Capto core 700. LH9, LH9 + 150 mmol/L NaCl [using buffer A (20 mmol/L PB + 150 mmol/L NaCl, pH 7.0)], LH9 + 300 mmol/L NaCl [using buffer B (20 mmol/L PB + 300 mmol/L NaCl, pH 7.0)], LH9 + 450 mmol/L NaCl [using buffer C (20 mmol/L PB + 450 mmol/L NaCl, pH 7.0)] were served as samples for purification in groups A, B, C and D, respectively. The flowthrough peaks of various groups were collected and determined for the titer and yield of purified RV, RV RNA, RV antigenicity, residual HCP and DNA. Three batches of RV concentrated by ultrafiltration were purified by the preliminarily screened procedure, of which various indexes were tested and further verified. Results The yield of RV purified by using 20 mmol/L PB + 150 mmol/L NaCl as buffer and addition of 150 mmol/L NaCl into samples reached more than 80%, while the RV DNA was intact, the antigenicity showed no significant change, more than 94% of HCP was removed, and the residual DNA content met the requirements in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (Volume III, 2010 edition). Conclusion Both the yield and removal rate of residual HCP of RV purified by Capto core 700 were high. However, the procedure in group B was relatively simple and time-saving, which was more suitable for the purification of RV.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Chinese Journal of Biologicals
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