Article

Studies on the stability of turmeric constituents

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  • GAAS Corporation
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Abstract

In order to investigate the stability of curcuminoids in physiological media, two samples with different composition of curcumin (CUR I), mono-demethoxycurcumin (CUR II) and bis-demethoxycurcumin (CUR III) were incubated in phosphate buffer and cell culture medium without or with fetal calf serum. The curcuminoids decomposed very rapidly (more than 90% within 12 h) when serum was omitted, but were more stable in the presence of serum. The stability differed between the curcuminoids: CUR I was the least, and CUR III was the most stable curcuminoid. Several degradation products of CUR I were detected, most of which were not yet identified; ferulic acid and vanillin were disclosed as minor products.

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... The chemical composition of turmeric oil has been carried out various researchers [7,8,9]. ...
... They also proposed that the turmeric oil is capable of retarding oxidation reaction and is free radical mediated damage. The important properties of turmeric is the antimicrobial activity [9].The antimicrobial activity of turmeric oil were investigates by Singh et al. [11] The average yield of volatile oil is 8.20± 1.66 %v/w from powder turmeric using hydrodistillation method. The total curcuminoids was obtained as 7.57±0.04%w/w. ...
... Some other researchers were also obtained the turmeric oil by various extraction methods [9,[17][18][19][20][21][22][23] . They also analyze the composition of the turmeric oil. ...
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Conference Paper
The modified steam distillation process was used to obtain the essential oil from turmeric rhizomes. The modified steam distillation process is the combination of continuous water circulation, steam distillation and a packed bed for turmeric rhizomes. Fresh rhizomes were collected from local market of Patiala and Chandigarh. The process was optimized for the operation time of 210 minutes with ~2.5% (v/w) yield of essential oil. The present process is lead to redused wastage of water soluble components and the continious operation provides the short exposure of the heat sensitive components. The obtained turmeric oil was analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). It has been observed that Ar-turmerone, Curlone, Turmerone, Zingiberene and ar-curcumene are presnt as major component of the turmeric oil. Approximately ~35% components of turmeric oil were remained unidentify. The components of turmeric oil are having antifungal, antibacterial and antioxidant properties and uses in various medical treatments.
... The chemical composition of turmeric oil has been carried out various researchers [7,8,9]. ...
... They also proposed that the turmeric oil is capable of retarding oxidation reaction and is free radical mediated damage. The important properties of turmeric is the antimicrobial activity [9].The antimicrobial activity of turmeric oil were investigates by Singh et al. [11] The average yield of volatile oil is 8.20± 1.66 %v/w from powder turmeric using hydrodistillation method. The total curcuminoids was obtained as 7.57±0.04%w/w. ...
... Some other researchers were also obtained the turmeric oil by various extraction methods [9,[17][18][19][20][21][22][23] . They also analyze the composition of the turmeric oil. ...
Conference Paper
The modified steam distillation process was used to obtain the essential oil from turmeric rhizomes. The modified steam distillation process is the combination of continuous water circulation, steam distillation and a packed bed for turmeric rhizomes. Fresh rhizomes were collected from local market of Patiala and Chandigarh. The process was optimized for the operation time of 210 minutes with ~2.5% (v/w) yield of essential oil. The present process is lead to redused wastage of water soluble components and the continious operation provides the short exposure of the heat sensitive components. The obtained turmeric oil was analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). It has been observed that Ar-turmerone, Curlone, Turmerone, Zingiberene and ar-curcumene are presnt as major component of the turmeric oil. Approximately ~35% components of turmeric oil were remained unidentify. The components of turmeric oil are having antifungal, antibacterial and antioxidant properties and uses in various medical treatments.
... Commercial "curcumin" is usually a mixture of three curcuminoids. For example, the composition of a commercial "curcumin" is about 71.5% curcumin (curcumin I) (1), 19.4% demethoxycurcumin (curcumin II) (2), and 9.1% bisdemethoxycurcumin (curcumin III) (5) [56]. These three major curcuminoids are also found in some other species of Curcuma but have lower concentrations, e.g., C. amada Roxb. ...
... Halflife period T 1/2 of curcumin (1) is about 26.2 h at pH 9.0 in comparison of 501.5 h at pH 6.0 [138]. In another report, more than 90% of curcuminoids (composition of curcumin (1), demethoxycurcumin (2), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (5)) were decomposed within 12 h when serum was omitted [56]. All curcuminoids are stable when they are kept under minimum light condition [140]. ...
... It was found that the stability of curcumin (1) in aqueous solution is strongly increased by the presence of some antioxidants [141]. But the presence of other curcuminoids (II and III) which are antioxidants seem not prevent degradation of curcumin (1) [56]. ...
Full-text available
Article
Chemical constituents of various tissues of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) have been extensively investigated. To date, at least 235 compounds, primarily phenolic compounds and terpenoids have been identified from the species, in- cluding 22 diarylheptanoids and diarylpentanoids, eight phenylpropene and other phenolic compounds, 68 monoterpenes, 109 sesquiterpenes, five diterpenes, three triterpenoids, four sterols, two alkaloids, and 14 other compounds. Curcumi- noids (diarylheptanoids) and essential oils are major bioactive ingredients showing various bioactivities in in vitro and in vivo bioassays. Curcuminoids in turmeric are primarily accumulated in rhizomes. The essential oils from leaves and flowers are usually dominated by monoterpenes while those from roots and rhizomes primarily contained sesquiterpenes. The contents of curcuminoids in turmeric rhizomes vary often with varieties, locations, sources, and cultivation condi- tions, while there are significant variations in composition of essential oils of turmeric rhizomes with varieties and geo- graphical locations. Further, both curcuminoids and essential oils vary in contents with different extraction methods and are unstable with extraction and storage processes. As a result, the quality of commercial turmeric products can be mark- edly varied. While curcumin (1), demethoxycurcumin (2), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (5) have been used as marker com- pounds for the quality control of rhizomes, powders, and extract ("curcumin") products, Ar-turmerone (99), � -turmerone (100), and � -turmerone (101) may be used to control the product quality of turmeric oil and oleoresin products. Authentication of turmeric products can be achieved by chromatographic and NMR techniques, DNA markers, with morphological and anatomic data as well as GAP and other information available.
... Commercial "curcumin" is usually a mixture of three curcuminoids. For example, the composition of a commercial "curcumin" is about 71.5% curcumin (curcumin I) (1), 19.4% demethoxycurcumin (curcumin II) (2), and 9.1% bisdemethoxycurcumin (curcumin III) (5) [56]. These three major curcuminoids are also found in some other species of Curcuma but have lower concentrations, e.g., C. amada Roxb. ...
... Halflife period T 1/2 of curcumin (1) is about 26.2 h at pH 9.0 in comparison of 501.5 h at pH 6.0 [138]. In another report, more than 90% of curcuminoids (composition of curcumin (1), demethoxycurcumin (2), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (5)) were decomposed within 12 h when serum was omitted [56]. All curcuminoids are stable when they are kept under minimum light condition [140]. ...
... It was found that the stability of curcumin (1) in aqueous solution is strongly increased by the presence of some antioxidants [141]. But the presence of other curcuminoids (II and III) which are antioxidants seem not prevent degradation of curcumin (1) [56]. ...
... It is a rhizome used as a culinary spice and traditional medicine [4,5]. It is commonly used in foods as a color agent because of its yellow color characteristic [6,7]. In addition, turmeric can be used as a food additive in curries to enhance aroma, storage conditions, palatability, and preservation [8,9]. ...
... Samples were subjected to three levels of turmeric powder (TP): 0%, 1% and 2%. Other ingredients were included: 6 flavor, taste and overall liking (9 = like extremely, 8 = like very much, 7 = like moderately, 6 = like slightly, 5 = neither like nor dislike, 4 = dislike slightly, 3 = dislike moderately, 2 = dislike very much, 1= dislike extremely). Participants also completed an acceptability and purchase intent questionnaire. ...
... In addition, Low solubility, poor absorption, low intrinsic activity, rapid metabolism, inactivity of metabolic products and rapid systemic elimination, which mainly result from auto-oxidative transformation, can seriously limit curcumin application (Anand et al., 2007;Schneider et al., 2015). The results are in line with a study from Pfeiffer et al. (2003) which showed that the stability of curcumin is affected in a time dependent fashion and that addition of serum into the culture medium increased the stability of curcumin. ...
... The most stable being curcumin III, intermediate stability curcumin II and the least stable curcumin I. These findings are in line with a previous study, demonstrating different stabilities for the three curcuminoids (Pfeiffer et al., 2003). Indeed, it has been shown that the mixture of these curcuminoids may have a more powerful intracellular effect than either of them singly (Ahmed and Gilani, 2009). ...
Article
Lung cancer, colon cancer and Leukemia are among the ten most common cancers worldwide with high incidence of recurrence, metastasis and chemoresistance. Limitations of therapy have been attributed to cancer stem cells (CSCs). The natural multi-targeting agent curcumin (turmeric) has shown significant anti-cancer effects. In this study we investigated the effect of curcumin on cancer cell viability, proliferation and suppression of CSCs markers (CD44, CD133, ALDH1) in vitro. Additionally, as limitations for curcumin application arise from its poor bioavailability, the stability of curcumin in different media conditions was investigated. The effect of curcumin on three cancer cell lines (A549, HCT116, 183E95) was investigated with MTT-assay, Flowcytometry, Immunofluorescence and western blotting. Stability of curcumin (diferuloylmethane) and curcuminoids (bisdemetoxycurcumin; desmetoxycurcumin) was determined by HPLC technique in A549 cells in different culture systems (culture medium with/without 10 % FCS, culture medium and cells with/without 10 % FCS) every three hours for over 24 h. Curcumin suppressed cell viability and proliferation as well as expression of CD44 in a time- and dose-dependent manner in all cell lines. Exemplary immunofluorescent and western blot investigation of HCT116 demonstrated that curcumin down-regulated CD44, CD133 and ALDH1 time-dependently. Stability of curcumin was markedly prolonged in a medium supplemented with 10 % FCS independent of application to cell cultures. The most stable curcuminoid over time was bisdemetoxycurcumin and the least stable was Curcumin. The results underline the immense potential of curcumin as an anti-cancer agent by targeting CSCs and further demonstrate that adequate media composition can significantly enhance curcumin stability in vitro.
... When curcumin was added to 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, curcumin was stable after 1 hour and then started degrading gradually. Almost 50% and 90% of curcumin is degraded after 3 and 8 hours of incubation, mainly forming ferulic acid, feruloyl methane and vanillin due to non-enzymatic hydrolysis ( Fig. 1) (11). In comparison to curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin are much more stable (1). ...
... In comparison to curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin are much more stable (1). Interestingly, the instability was dependent on the concentration of the curcuminoids and was most pronounced at low concentrations (11). Moreover, curcumin have extensive intestinal metabolism (12) and in body it is rapidly metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase into dihydrocurcumin, octahydrocurcumin (minor metabolites) and tetrahydrocurcumin, (major metabolite). ...
Article
Turmeric is a yellowish orange spice, widely used in Asian cuisine and obtained from the rhizome of Curcuma longa. It is a mixture of three curcuminoids namely, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin. Turmeric has been used as a medicinal substance since ancient times for respiratory and gastrointestinal problems. The aim of the present study was to investigate which curcuminoid contributes to the observed pharmacological activities, all three curcuminoids, the major curcumin metabolite tetrahydrocurcumin, and the non-enzymatic curcumin hydrolysis products ferulic acid, feruloyl methane and vanillin were analyzed for spasmolytic, inotropic and chronotropic activity. Furthermore, their uptake in respective tissue samples was also investigated and correlated with activity. Spasmolytic activity was determined in guinea pig ileum, aorta and pulmonary artery. Inotropic and chronotropic activity was determined on guinea pig papillary muscles and right atrium respectively, while tissue uptake was quantified by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All the curcuminoids exhibited significant spasmolytic activity with highest EC50 values for bisdemethoxycurcumin (5.8 ± 0.6 μM) followed by curcumin (12.9 ± 0.7 μM), demethoxycurcumin (16.8 ± 3 μM) and tetrahydrocurcumin (22.9 ± 1.5 μM). While only demethoxycurcumin was able to significantly relax the pulmonary artery with EC50 value of 15.78 ± 0.85 μM. All three curcuminoids showed mild negative chronotropic effects in the isolated right atrium; tetrahydrocurcumin demonstrated no activity. Curcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin also showed mild positive inotropic effect whereas demethoxycurcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin exhibited weak negative inotropic one. Interestingly, ferulic acid, feruloyl methane and vanillin demonstrated no pharmacologicical activity at all in the various isolated organs. All three curcuminoids and tetrahydrocurcumin showed high uptake into the various tissues where concentrations correlated with pharmacological activity. The results indicate pronounced differences in the in vitro pharmacological activities of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin and tetrahydrocurcumin which have to be considered in humans after per-oral intake of turmeric powder.
... 10,11 This degradation is well recognized but incompletely understood. [11][12][13][14] We are interested in defining the products and mechanism of degradation of curcumin in vitro. Our long-term goal is to determine whether and how these products are mediating the biological activities of curcumin in vitro and in vivo. ...
... The degradation of the pure compounds was too slow for continuous recording using the UV/Vis spectrophotometric assay. 12 Therefore, degradation reactions of DMC and BDMC (30 μM each) were extracted at 0 and 24 h and the remaining starting material quantified by RP-HPLC with diode array detection. 57% of the initial amount of DMC remained unchanged at 24 h which gave a calculated degradation rate of 0.013 μM/min assuming a linear reaction. ...
Article
Extracts from the rhizome of the turmeric plant are widely consumed as anti-inflammatory dietary supplements. Turmeric extract contains the three curcuminoids, curcumin (≈80% relative abundance), demethoxycurcumin (DMC; ≈15%), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC; ≈5%). A distinct feature of pure curcumin is its instability at physiological pH resulting in rapid autoxidation to a bicyclopentadione within 10-15 min. Here, we describe oxidative transformation of turmeric extract, DMC, and BDMC, and the identification of their oxidation products using LC-MS and NMR analyses. DMC autoxidized over the course of 24 h to the expected bicyclopentadione diastereomers. BDMC was resistant to autoxidation, and oxidative transformation required catalysis by horseradish peroxidase and H2O2 or potassium ferricyanide. The product of BDMC oxidation was a stable spiroepoxide that was equivalent to a reaction intermediate in the autoxidation of curcumin. The ability of DMC and BDMC to poison recombinant human topoisomerase II was significantly increased in the presence of potassium ferricyanide indicating that oxidative transformation was required to achieve full DNA cleavage activity. DMC and BDMC are less prone to autoxidation than curcumin and contribute to the enhanced stability of turmeric extract at physiological pH. Their oxidative metabolites may contribute to the biological effects of turmeric extract.
... Therefore, the standardization process is most important when developing and producing health functioning foods. Although natural food materials have secured (DMC), and 9.1% bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) as major curcumin derivatives (curcuminoids), which are all diarylheptanoids [34,35]. Among these, CM is a yellow pigment and a polyphenol, and is a well-known major compound of curcuminoids [36]. ...
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Article
Curcumin (CM), demethoxycurcumin (DMC), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) are major curcumin derivatives found in the rhizome of turmeric (Curcuma Longa L.), and have yielded impressive properties to halt various diseases. In the present study, we carried out a method validation for curcumin derivatives and analyzed the contents simultaneously using HPLC with UV detection. For validation, HPLC was used to estimate linearity, range, specificity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ). Results showed a high linearity of the calibration curve, with a coefficient of correlation (R2) for CM, DMC, and BDMC of 0.9999, 0.9999, and 0.9997, respectively. The LOD values for CM, DMC, and BDMC were 1.16, 1.03, and 2.53 ng/μL and LOQ values were 3.50, 3.11, and 7.67 ng/μL, respectively. Moreover, to evaluate the ability of curcumin derivatives to reduce liver lipogenesis and compare curcumin derivatives’ therapeutic effects, a HepG2 cell model was established to analyze their hepatoprotective properties. Regarding the in vivo study, we investigated the effect of DMC, CM, and BDMC on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) caused by a methionine choline deficient (MCD)-diet in the C57BL/6J mice model. From the in vitro and in vivo results, curcumin derivatives alleviated MCD-diet-induced lipid accumulation as well as high triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels, and the protein and gene expression of the transcription factors related to liver adipogenesis were suppressed. Furthermore, in MCD-diet mice, curcumin derivatives suppressed the upregulation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, our findings indicated that all of the three curcuminoids exerted a hepatoprotective effect in the HepG2 cell model and the MCD-diet-induced NAFLD model, suggesting a potential for curcuminoids derived from turmeric as novel therapeutic agents for NAFLD.
... 29,30 Curcumin typically includes 0.76% alkaloid, 0.45% saponin, 1.08% tannin, 0.03% sterol, 0.82% phytic acid, 0.40% flavonoid, and 0.08% phenol in its composition, and both flavonoids and phenolic compounds are known to have a plasticizing effect. 31 The inclusion of an extra plasticizer into the resilient liner beside the plasticizer originally involved in its composition could increase the viscoelastic behavior of these plasticized resins. This enables the material flow over time with a corresponding occlusion of the porosities and irregularities within the liner surface, hence, generating lower surface roughness values. ...
... Hal tersebut disebabkan oleh adanya senyawa yang bernama kurkumin. Mekanisme kurkumin sebagai antioksidan, karena sifat antioksidatif kurkumin terkait dengan struktur difenol kurkumin (Pfeiffer, 2003). Serbuk kunyit dan kurkumin telah banyak digunakan dalam memperbaiki disfungsi spermatogenesis akibat gaya hidup yang abnormal dengan adanya kandungan zat antioksidan, dan zat antiinflamasi. ...
Full-text available
Article
Kunyit mengandung senyawa kurkumin yang dapat digunakan sebagai zat antiinflamasi dan membantu memperbaiki sel-sel yang rusak. Tujuan dari penelitian ini menganalisis pengaruh serbuk kunyit dan kurkumin pada jumlah dan ukuran sel spermatogonium; spermatosit primer; dan spermatosit sekunder; bobot testis serta diameter tubulus seminiferus Mus musculus yang diberi minuman beralkohol. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL), menggunakan 12 ekor Mus musculus jantan yang dibagi kedalam 4 kelompok perlakuan dan 3 kali ulangan. R0 merupakan kontrol, R1 kontrol alkohol, R2 pemberian serbuk kunyit sebanyak 0,1 mg/hari, R3 pemberian kurkumin sebanyak 0,01 mg/hari. Perlakuan diberikan selama 30 hari. Data penelitian dianalisis menggunakan analysis of variance (ANOVA) pada taraf kepercayaan 95%. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang diperoleh dapat disimpulkan bahwa tidak terdapat perbedaan bermakna (p>0.05) pada jumlah spermatogonium dan ukuran sel (spermatogonium, spermatosit primer, dan spermatosit sekunder), namun terdapat perbedaan bermakna pada (P<0,05) pada bobot testis, diameter tubulus seminiferus dan jumlah sel (spermatosit primer, dan spermatosit sekunder). Turmeric contains curcumin compounds that can be used as anti-inflammatory substances and help repair damaged cells. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of turmeric powder and curcumin on the number and size of spermatogonia cells; primary spermatocytes; and secondary spermatocytes; testicular weight and diameter of the seminiferous tubules of Mus musculus given alcoholic beverages. This study is an experimental study with a completely randomized design (CRD), using 12 male Mus musculus which were divided into 4 treatment groups and 3 replications. R0 is control, R1 is alcohol control, R2 is 0.1 mg/day of turmeric powder, R3 is 0.01 mg/day of curcumin. The treatment was given for 30 days. The research data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) at the 95% confidence level. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that there is no significant difference (p>0.05) in the number of spermatogonia and cell size (spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, and secondary spermatocytes), but there is a significant difference (P<0.05) in testicular weight, diameter of the seminiferous tubules and the number of cells (primary spermatocytes, and secondary spermatocytes).
... Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), is a polyphenolic compound profoundly found in the perennial herb Curcuma longa. Naturally, yellow pigments from turmeric contains curcuminoids, which are combination of curcumin I, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione-(1E,6E), demethoxy curcumin (curcumin II) and, bisdemethoxy curcumin (curcumin III), and the recently identified cyclocurcumin (1). The major components of commercial curcumin are curcumin I (77%), curcumin II(17%) and curcumin III (3%) (figure.1). ...
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Article
In this paper we have reported the one pot synthesis of curcumin analogues by using boron trifluoride etherate as catalyst. Various substituted aromatic aldehydes were reacted with 2,4-pentanedione in presence boron based reagent to form substituted curcumin. The boron based catalyst was found compatible with variety of aldehydes affording curcumin and its analogues in 56-79% yield. The complete procedure is time saving, clean and neat and successful in overcoming the challenges of 1,3-diketone chemistry and associated curcumin synthesis. The synthesized products were evaluated for their in-vitro antioxidant and anticancer potential by SRB assay using three human cancer cell lines MCF7, HepG2 and K562. Among all the synthesized analogs 3a, 3c, 3e, 3g were found to be highly active and exhibiting GI50 value ≤10 against MCF7& HepG2 cell lines compared to standard Adriamycin. O R O CH 3 O C H 3 + O O R R Boron based reagent KEYWORDS: Curcumin anagloue, Aldehyde, 2,4-pentanedione, boron trifluoride etherate, anticancer.
... However, the use of chemicals in high-value spices raises food safety and quality concerns from importing countries. Furthermore, environmental factors such as temperature, pH, light, presence of moisture and air, influence the quality of stored spices (Pfeiffer et al., 2003;Sowbhagya et al., 2005). ...
Article
Hermetical and traditional storage bags were evaluated for their effect on the postharvest storage of turmeric at laboratory conditions. The traditional Polypropylene (PP) woven bags and the jute bags were compared with Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS), Super Grainpro, Savegrain bags, and Ecotect bags. Every month, for eleven months, the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide, moisture, insect damage, live insect count, weight loss of turmeric rhizomes were monitored. A slight change in moisture was observed for turmeric stored in PICS, Grainpro, Savegrain, and Ecotect bags. But, a significant decrease in moisture was observed for turmeric stored in jute bags. The levels of oxygen in PICS and Ecotect bags decreased from 20% to 8% while carbon dioxide content increased in PICS bags from 0.2% to 12% during the period of storage. In jute bags, the level of oxygen was approximately 19.3% but the level of carbon dioxide increased from 0.05% to 0.43% due to insect activity. In all hermetic bags, the risk of insects has decreased over time, and weight loss has also decreased as compared with jute bags. In Polypropylene woven and jute bags, damage by insects and weight loss increased during storage while the curcumin content reduced. Our study showed the effectiveness of PICS, Grainpro, Savegrain, and Ecotec bags in controlling insects and weightloss in turmeric rhizomes over the traditional bags. All the four hermetic bags performed well in long-term storage of turmeric rhizome and can be recommended.
... For iron deficiency anemia, turmeric is recommended because the iron content in the extract can aid in the production of hemoglobin. Phytochemical composition of turmeric includes 0.4% saponin, 0.76% alkaloid, 0.03% sterol, 1.08% tannin, 0.40% flavonoid, 0.82% phytic acid, and 0.08% phenol [6]. ...
Article
Abstract Turmeric (curcuma longa) is a spice of yellow color and has been used to preserve food. Curcumin (diferuoyl methane) a yellow active ingredient in turmeric is a feruloylmethane homodimer consisting of a band of hydroxyl and methoxy (heptadiene with two Michael acceptors) and a b-diketone. Turmeric is capable of influencing the Akt, growth factors, NF-kB, & metastatic and angiogenic pathways. It modulates gene expression in human cancer cells in a time-and concentrationdependent way. Curcumin has good therapeutic and preventive potential against several major human conditions such as cardiovascular, inflammation suppression, antimicrobial, obesity, tumorigenesis, chronic tiredness, antidepressant & neurological function, anxiety, muscle & bone loss, and neuropathic pain.
... For iron deficiency anemia, turmeric is recommended because the iron content in the extract can aid in the production of hemoglobin. Phytochemical composition of turmeric includes 0.4% saponin, 0.76% alkaloid, 0.03% sterol, 1.08% tannin, 0.40% flavonoid, 0.82% phytic acid, and 0.08% phenol [6]. ...
... It is a mixture of three curcuminoids 71.5% curcumin (curcumin I) (1), 19.4% demethoxycurcumin (curcumin II) (2), and 9.1% bisdemethoxycurcumin (curcumin III). 5 Singh and Aggarwal 6 determined that turmeric suppressed the activation of NF-κB induced by PMA, TNF-α, or H 2 O 2 through blocking the phosphorylation of IKKα. It abrogates LPS induced mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and the translocation of NF-κB p65 in DCs. ...
... [12] Turmeric owes its characteristic yellow colour to three major pigments: curcumin (71.5%), demethoxy-curcumin (19.4%), and bis-demethoxycurcumin (9.1%). [13] From the safety point of view, the FAO/WHO expert on food additives jointly authorized curcumin, the yellow colouring agent of turmeric, for this purpose. [14] It represents about 3-5% of curcuminoids in the rhizomes of turmeric and is regarded as one of the strong phenolic antioxidants. ...
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Chapter
This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of gamma irradiation and turmeric powder (TP) on microbial quality (total aerobic bacteria and coliforms), physicochemical quality (pH, Hunter’s parameter, oxidative and microbial stabilities, haem pigment), stability, and antioxidant status of chicken meat. Accordingly, two doses (1 kGy and 2 kGy) of gamma irradiation alone and in combination with 3% TP along with the control (0 kGy) were applied. Aerobic and vacuum packaging were used for storage of chicken meat on the 0, 7th, and 14th days of storage at refrigeration temperature (4°C). The microbiological results showed that the contamination level decreased as the dose of gamma irradiation was increased for both total bacteria and coliforms, whereas no contamination was documented in the group treated with 2 kGy+TP for both aerobic and vacuum packaging. The results further showed that pH, haem pigment, and Hunter’s colour were also significantly influenced with respect to different groups. The peroxide value (POV), thio-barbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) differed significantly in chicken meat with different treatments and storage intervals. Higher POV and TBARS were noticed in chicken meat treated with 2 kGy under aerobic packaging after 14 days of storage, and TVBN was higher in the control on the 14th day under aerobic packaging. Total phenolics and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity were also higher in chicken meat treated with 2 kGy + TP on 0 day of storage. Furthermore, higher sensory attribute scores for attributes like appearance, taste, texture, flavour, and overall acceptability were found in the 2 kGy-treated group. It is concluded that chicken meat treated with 2 kGy+TP was considered better for microbial and physicochemical quality, antioxidant activity as well as sensorial properties of chicken meat.
... Commercial "cur-cumin" is usually a mixture of three curcuminoids. For example, the composition of a commercial "curcumin" is about 71.5% curcumin (curcumin I), 19.4% demethoxycurcumin (curcumin II), and 9.1% bisdemethoxycurcumin (curcumin III) [7]. ...
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Research
The leaves of Curcuma longa is commonly known as gummy gardenia/cambi gum tree. It is traditional medicinal plant grown in India, have many medicinal and therapeutic properties in diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, pancreatitis, arthritis, and chronic anterior uveitis. This leaf extracts are found to have antioxidant, chemopreventive agents, anti-inflammatory and anti cancer activities. Curcumin is the active principle which is responsible for anticancer effects. This work was aimed to study the effect of Curcuma longa methanol extracts on HCT116 cell lines. It was found methanolic extracts of Curcuma longa leaves has phytochemical compounds having good inhibitory scavenging and anticancer activities.
... Chemical compositions of spices. Spices Botanical name Composition References Turmeric Curcuma longa Diarylpentanoids, diarylheptanoids, sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, triterpenoids, diterpenes, sterols, and alkaloid 71.5% curcumin (curcumin I), 19.4% demethoxycurcumin (curcumin II), and 9.1% bisdemethoxycurcumin (curcumin III) Henrotin et al. (2010) and Pfeiffer, Höhle, Solyom, and Metzler (2003) Garlic Allium sativum L. Allicin, alliin, cycroalliin, DADS, and ajoene, βphellandrene, geraniol, citral, a-phellandrene, linalool and enzymes (allinase, myrosinase, and peroxidase) flavonoids, vitamins (A, B1, C), and minerals such as potassium, phosphorous, manganese, selenium, sulfur, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, germanium, and trace iodine Bungu, Van de Venter, and Frost (2008), Cerella, Dicato, Jacob, and Diederich (2011) Ginger Zingiber officinale Carbohydrates 60-70%, water 9-12%, protein9%, ash 8%, fatty oil 3-6%, crude fiber 3-8%, and volatile oil 2-3% 30-70% alpha-zingiberene, 15-20% beta-sesquiphellandrene, 10-15% betabisabolene, curcumene, betaphellandrene, camphene, zingiberene, cineole, geranyl acetate, terphineol, terpenes, geraniol, borneol, linalool, alpha-farmesene, and limonene Kumar et al. (2012) Cinnamon Cinnamomum zeylanicum ...
Article
In millennia, nutritionists are motivated to explore innovative approaches against lifestyle-related syndromes for improving public health and life span. Spices are the promising and costeffective choice for consumer owing to their high antioxidant potential, that is, ability to entrap free radicals at cellular level to alleviate various metabolic syndromes. Besides that, spices are not only popular in developed countries, but also attaining consideration in developing world due to extensive biological activity and safe status. In this regard, contemporary nutrition regime has gained researchers’ attention on spices to mitigate various metabolic syndromes. Moreover, the promising bioactive moieties – that is, curcumin and curcuminoids (turmeric); limonene (cardamom), allicin, allyl isothiocyanate (garlic), cinnamic aldehyde, 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde, and eugenol (cinnamon); gingerol, zingiberone, zingiberene (ginger), dipropyle disulfides, and quercetin (onion); piperidine piperine, limonene, α- and β-pinene (black pepper); crocetin, crocin, and safranal (saffron) – have been identified as chemopreventing agents against various malignancies.
... Curcumin is known to be photosensitive, however photoactivated curcumin is found to be capable of much more potent anti-cancer activity [9]. Curcumin is known to be the least stable of the three curcuminoids while BDMC is known to be the most stable [10,11]. ...
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The main active component present in turmeric is curcumin and is subsequently responsible for some of its therapeuticeffects. Turmeric, however, contains two other active molecules, namely demethoxycurcumin (DMC) and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC). Collectively, these three molecules are known as curcuminoids. Commercially available dietary supplements vary in these components. In this study the curcuminoids were analyzed using a reverse phase ion-pairing HPLC method. UV detection was used to detect the three curcuminoids at a single wavelength of 430 nm. The validation of the method was carried to ICH guidelines. Good repeatability of the method was achieved at concentrations of curcumin, DMC and BDMC equivalent to 136, 148 and 162 μM, respectively, with R.S.D. values of 2.25, 1.93 and 1.64%, respectively. Similarly, good reproducibility and linearity of the method was obtained for curcumin, DMC and BDMC. On completion of the validation, 10 commercially available turmeric dietary supplements were analyzed for their curcuminoid content. Results showed two of the turmeric dietary supplements to contain near pure curcumin. The other supplements tested contained significant amounts of DMC and BDMC. Similarly, there was a significant increase in curcuminoid content between supplements that contained turmeric extract and those that contained raw turmeric. Interestingly, supplements containing turmeric extract contained a significantly higher proportion of curcumin compared to DMC and BDMC, reflected in the ratio of curcumin: DMC: BDMC.
... Numerous studies to date have shown the pharmacological safety and efficacy of CM, however, it exhibits poor bioavailability due to fast metabolism primarily through reduction followed by conjugation to glucuronic or sulfuric acid [74]. Although the structural difference between CM and DMCM is a minor one (namely the presence or absence of a methoxy group), the chemical characteristics of DMCM are more stable [75]. Our data might inspire to future investigations of the performance of DMCM in prostate and colorectal cancers related to SERCA activity [76,77]. ...
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P-type ATPases catalyze the active transport of cations and phospholipids across biological membranes. Members of this large family are involved in a range of fundamental cellular processes. To date, a substantial number of P-type ATPase inhibitors have been characterized, some of which are used as drugs. In this work a library of natural compounds was screened and we first identified curcuminoids as plasma membrane H+-ATPases inhibitors in plant and fungal cells. We also found that some of the commercial curcumins contain several curcuminoids. Three of these were purified and, among the curcuminoids, demethoxycurcumin was the most potent inhibitor of all tested P-type ATPases from fungal (Pma1p; H+-ATPase), plant (AHA2; H+-ATPase) and animal (SERCA; Ca2+-ATPase) cells. All three curcuminoids acted as non-competitive antagonist to ATP and hence may bind to a highly conserved allosteric site of these pumps. Future research on biological effects of commercial preparations of curcumin should consider the heterogeneity of the material.
... These decomposition products have been detected in the degradation of curcumin at pH 7.2-7.4 (Pfeiffer et al., 2003;Wang et al., 1997). More recently, however, Gordon and Schneider have observed that vanillin, ferulic acid, and feruloylmethane were close to undetectable under those degradation conditions, and that the major degradation product is an oxidation bicyclopentadione product of curcumin (Gordon and Schneider, 2012). ...
Article
Mitochondria are dynamic double-membrane bound organelles which have key roles in a variety of cellular functions such as energy producing, regulation of calcium flux, cellular stress responses including autophagy and apoptosis. A growing body of evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction is the main culprit in a myriad of diseases such as neurodegenerative disease. This fact opens a new therapeutic window based on targeting mitochondrial dysfunction for treatment of these diseases. Recently an abundance of evidence shows the promising role of polyphenolic compounds on mitochondrial structure and function. Curcumin, a well-known polyphenolic compound, is an abundant component of turmeric. The promising roles of curcumin against different diseases are highly publicized. The aim of the present work is to critically review the scientific evidence to provide a clear view of how curcumin improves mitochondrial dynamics regarding mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy. We also present curcumin biosynthesis, source, bioavailability and metabolism in order to give an overview of this compound.
... Most of the studies report degradation of curcumin in the environment of acidic and alkaline hydrolysis, oxidation and photodegradation (Bernabe-Pineda et al. 2004;Pfeiffer et al. 2003;Price and Buescher 1996;Tonnesen et al. 1986;Wang et al. 1997). These studies suggest that curcumin is a pH-dependent drug along with faster reactions at neutral to basic conditions and with stability at pH below 6.5. ...
Article
Curcumin (Cur) is a potent anti-ischemic drug. Recently, on the basis of in vitro and in vivo studies reports, Cur (found in Curcuma longa) has been found to be very effective in cerebral ischemia. The aim was to develop and validate a highly sensitive ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC–MS/MS) method for estimation of Cur in rat brain homogenate and plasma. The chromatographic separation was performed on Waters ACQUITY UPLC™ BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm; 1.7 µm) with mobile phase conditions as: isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile: 2 mM ammonium acetate (85:15 v/v and flow rate of 0.25 mL min−1). The transitions occurred at m/z 367.08/217.03 for Cur and m/z 307.04/143.02 for the Internal Standard (IS) warfarin, respectively. The linear dynamic range established for Cur was at concentration of 0.50–1000.0 ng mL−1 (r 2; 0.9984 ± 0.0011). The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) as well as lower limit of detection (LLOD) was 0.054 and 0.017 ng/mL, respectively. The peaks observed having good resolution. The degradation kinetics for curcumin were observed in the stability order as: acidic medium (t 1/2 104.74/h; t 0.9, 16.59/h) > alkaline medium (t 1/2, 261.93/h; t 0.9, 41.09/h) > oxidative medium (t 1/2, 22.03/h; t 0.9, 4.21/h). The UHPLC–MS/MS method was developed and validated as well as successfully employed for degradation kinetics and pharmacokinetic studies in brain homogenate of Wistar rat with acceptable precision, adequate sensitivity and satisfied accuracy.
... Curcuminoids contain mainly 71.5% curcumin (curcumin I) (1), 19.4% demethoxycurcumin (curcumin II) (2), and 9.1% bisdemethoxycurcumin (curcumin III) (3). [16,17,18] (2) Demethoxycurcumin R1 = OCH3R2 = H Turmeric contains an essential oil (5%), which contains a variety of monoterpines, sesquiterpenes and diterpines. ...
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Curcuma longa commonly known as turmeric is a well herbal medicine traditionally used as a spice in Indian food. Turmeric is used in India for thousands of years as a major part of Ayurvedic medicine. It was first used as a dye and then later for its possible medicinal properties. Turmeric is traditionally used as a spice and coloring in foods due to curcuminoids curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bis as important chemical constituents. Curcuma longa shows wide ran biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, antiseptic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective and digestive activities. This Review expresses the development of long from a traditional spice to a modern application in the present period.
... Moreover, under alkaline conditions, curcumin undergoes a rapid hydrolysis, being decomposed into ferulic acid, its methyl ester and vanillin [4]. Curcumin is also susceptible to photochemical and thermal degradation that could be problematic for long-term storage [5]. Moreover, previous studies revealed that curcumin has a poor oral bioavailability and a short half-life, due to the rapid pre-systemic catabolism in the intestinal wall [6,7]. ...
... Despite the popularity and traditional use of turmeric, the solubility of the curcuminoids in acid pH is low and they degrade in basic pH (Tonnesen et al. 2002;Bambirra et al. 2002;Pfeiffer et al. 2003), which interferes in the therapeutic activity of this plant, negatively affecting its absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Examples are the absorption and distribution essays by who, when they administered 400 mg of turmeric to mice, observed that only 60% was absorbed, which means that 40% was excreted by the feces. ...
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Chronic inflammatory diseases including osteoarthritis, tumors and autoimmune conditions, continue to confound conventional effective management strategies. Pharmaceuticals used for the care of these patients possess lasting side effects and most eventually lose efficacy, leading to the use of stronger dosages. One major issue is that the inflammatory mechanisms, classic pharmaceuticals target are relatively non-specific and act primarily to act as a dampening effect on the immune system. This combination of side effects and potentially increased rates of infectious disease have led many practitioners to explore alternative modes of treatment, which include those practiced in traditional Chinese and Asian medicines. One such “nutraceutical” is turmeric, whose active principle curcumin, has been used for centuries to manage chronic disease. This chapter plans to explore the potential effectiveness of turmeric (curcumin) at managing chronic inflammation by examining its molecular effects on the immune system, together with a review of double blind clinical trial data of the phytochemical. Finally a discussion will be made of the safety and quality control issues behind the usages of this herb.
... Vanillin, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, and ferulic aldehyde are degradation products of curcumin; they are not toxic for cells, and they do not fluoresce as curcumin. [38][39][40][41] Conversely, curcumin in the NPs was more stable in the cell culture medium and was expected to be up-taken by cells for a longer interval (contributing to greater uptake of Cur-NPs compared to F-Cur). Similarly, as reported by Sun et al., 42 curcumin encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles was more easily up-taken by a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). ...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to fabricate polymeric nanoparticles as drug carriers for encapsulated curcumin with enhanced anti-colorectal cancer applications. Nanoparticles were formulated from chitosan and gum arabic, natural polysaccharides, via an emulsification solvent diffusion method. The formation of curcumin nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimeter. The results show that curcumin was entrapped in carriers with +48 mV, 136 nm size, and high encapsulation efficiency (95%). Based on an in vitro release study, we inferred that curcumin nanoparticles could tolerate hydrolysis due to gastric juice or small intestinal enzymes, and therefore, it should reach the colon largely intact. In addition, curcumin nanoparticles had higher anti-colorectal cancer properties than free curcumin due to greater cellular uptake. Therefore, we concluded that curcumin was successfully encapsulated in chitosan-gum arabic nanoparticles with superior anti-colorectal cancer activity. © The Author(s) 2015.
... Short-term clinical runs (6) demonstrated very low toxicity in a single daily doses of 12 and 8 g for 3 months. However, curcumin low solubility in aqueous solutions (7,8), instability in alkaline pH and short half-life lead to low oral bioavailability and therapeutic limitations (8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16). Curcumin solubility is a determining factor for its bioavailability when administered orally (17) and huge scientific work has been devoted to overcome this limitation (8,(18)(19)(20)(21)(22). ...
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This work aimed at improving the solubility of curcumin by the preparation of spray-dried ternary solid dispersions containing Gelucire®50/13-Aerosil® and quantifying the resulting in vivo oral bioavailability and anti-inflammatory activity. The solid dispersion containing 40% of curcumin was characterised by calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The solubility and dissolution rate of curcumin in aqueous HCl or phosphate buffer improved up to 3600- and 7.3-fold, respectively. Accelerated stability test demonstrated that the solid dispersion was stable for 9 months. The pharmacokinetic study showed a 5.5-fold increase in curcumin in rat blood plasma when compared to unprocessed curcumin. The solid dispersion also provided enhanced anti-inflammatory activity in rat paw oedema. Finally, the solid dispersion proposed here is a promising way to enhance curcumin bioavailability at an industrial pharmaceutical perspective, since its preparation applies the spray drying, which is an easy to scale up technique. The findings herein stimulate further in vivo evaluations and clinical tests as a cancer and Alzheimer chemoprevention agent.
... Yan et al. (2012) constructed a nanoemulsionbased delivery systems using an oil and phosphate buffer for polymethoxyflavones (PMFs), which are highly hydrophobic bioactive compounds present in citrus fruits, and demonstrated the stable presence of PMFs in their emulsion. Pfeiffer et al. (2003) reported the rapid decomposition of curcuminoids dispersed in a water-base solution (phosphate buffer containing 1% dimethyl sulfoxide). The curcuminoid-containing MCT fraction obtained with our method can be used for ...
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Turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizome contains abundant curcuminoids, which are highly hydrophobic bioactive compounds. This study aimed to extract curcuminoids using edible oil instead of chemical solvents, and a new extraction system using natural medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) was constructed. After grinding turmeric with MCTs, the liquid and solid fractions were separated by pressing and filtering, with the resulting liquid subsequently clarified by centrifuging and heating. The recovery rate of curcuminoids from turmeric to the clarified MCT fraction was ≈ 10%, but the MCT fraction seemed to be practically saturated with curcuminoids. MCT extracts including curcuminoids can be directly used to add yellow color to many kinds of food, as well as curcuminoid functionality together with the physical and biological properties of MCTs.
... The efficiency of turmeric depends on the content and molecular activity of its curcuminoid constituents which can be altered by many factors such as storage, processing conditions and the physico-chemical properties of end-used products, so it is necessary to study the effect of those factors. This study focused on only the modification of curcumin contents, since it was reported to be the least stable component that degraded even in the solid form at ambient temperature, when the others were quite stable 21 . The content of curcumin in turmeric powder stored over 6 months at room and refrigerated temperatures was assessed ( Table 2). ...
Article
The suitability of using turmeric powder in natural soaps was assessed by evaluating its stability and antioxidant activity in models and actual soaps. Proper storage conditions should be considered prior to use because 63% of curcumin was lost after 3 months of storage at room temperature. Among physical properties influencing soaps, pH exerts the most detrimental effect on curcumin stability. Only 8% of curcumin remained 7 days after its addition into liquid soap of pH 9.32, whereas it was degraded completely after 21 days of the soap-bar curing process, in which pHs varied from 13 to 10. Vanillin was detected as a major by-product of degradation and might make curcumin still valuable as an antioxidant in soaps. However, the antioxidant activities of turmeric extracts treated in the model system for soaps indicated that the contribution of vanillin to antioxidant activity was not significant since its occurrence in mu g was too low compared to the loss of mg of curcumin. In vitro assessment of the antioxidant activity of turmeric powder when extracted from a buffer of pH 10.6 confirmed that there was no vanillin contribution in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH center dot) radical-scavenging activity, since the IC50 increased as a function of the decreased residual curcumin content, despite the occurrence of vanillin. In the ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, vanillin contributed slightly to the ferric-reducing ability, since increasing EC1 was slowed down by gradually increased vanillin in the turmeric extract. The curcumin degradation demonstrated clearly in this study indicates that turmeric powder is not a suitable antioxidant additive and/or skin lightening agent in soap due to its physico-chemical properties.
... Recently, the antioxidant properties of curcuminoids, a group of three phenolic compounds, i.e., curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, isolated from the rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn., Zingiberaceae), have gained enormous attention in the field of cosmetics (Miquel et al., 2002;Scott, 1999;Selvam et al., 1995). Unfortunately, curcuminoids are easily degraded by acid and alkali hydrolysis, oxidation, and photodegradation (Ansari et al., 2005;Bernabe-Pineda et al., 2004;Pfeiffer et al., 2003;Sundaryono et al., 2003;Wang et al., 1997). This makes the stability issue of the compounds a discernible problem in product formulation. ...
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Dried turmeric powder has long been incorporated as an active ingredient in various cosmetic products. Recently, the antioxidant properties of curcuminoids have gained enormous attention as an anti-aging agent. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the effect of curcuminoids loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) facial cream as an anti-aging agent in healthy volunteers, and (2) test the safety of this product. This study was a prospective, half-face, randomization of face, cream base control trial. Thirty-three healthy volunteers with noticeable facial wrinkles participated in this study. The participants applied curcuminoids loaded SLN cream and cream base on the assigned side of their faces before bed for eight weeks. Skin wrinkles, hydration, melanin content, biological elasticity, and viscoelasticity were main outcomes measured. Skin irritation was indicated by transepidermal water loss index, skin pH, and physician's observations. The results indicated that, from week three onward, all measures of efficacy of the treatment side were significantly better than the control side. When compared with their baselines, all efficacy measures were significantly improved by two weeks. In addition, no sign of skin irritation was observed. In conclusion, curcuminoids loaded SLN cream was effective as an anti-aging preparation with acceptable safety.
... The major chemical constituents of volatile oils are founded to be ar-Turmerone, zingiberene, turmerone, and curlone. The non-volatile compounds of Turmeric-like coloring agent are found to be a rich source of phenolic compounds viz., curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin. [13,14] Yellow pigment of curcumin was composed of these non-volatile cucruminoids. It seems that these phenolic compounds may interact with metal ions on the metal surface and make a protective layer against corrosion in corrosive environments. ...
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In this study, the effect of Turmeric (Curcuma Longa) extract (TE), as an environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitor, was investigated in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Additionally, the proposed inhibitor was characterized by FTIR, and surface morphology of mild steel after and before its exposure to acid solution in the presence and absence of 0.030 g/l TE inhibitor was examined through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Effect of TE concentration and temperature was evaluated. Then, thermodynamic parameters have been calculated and adsorption studies have been investigated. A good fit to Freundlich adsorption isotherm was obtained between surface coverage degree and inhibitor concentration. SEM and AFM images and EDS analysis of mild steel specimens in the absence and presence of the TE inhibitor confirmed the protective layer formation on metal surface. Finally, electrostatic interaction between main component of inhibitor and metal surface was investigated. Inhibition efficiency up to 92% has been achieved in 1 M acid solution containing 0.030 g/l inhibitor at 22 °C. Neural network modeling shows low stability of TE by increasing temperature and time.
Article
Curcuma longa and its constituents, mainly curcumin, showed various of pharmacological effects in previous studies. This review article provides updated and comprehensive experimental and clinical evidence regarding the effects of C. longa and curcumin on respiratory, allergic, and immunologic disorders. Using appropriate keywords, databases including PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus were searched until the end of October 2021. C. longa extracts and its constituent, curcumin, showed the relaxant effect on tracheal smooth muscle, which indicates their bronchodilatory effect in obstructive pulmonary diseases. The preventive effects of extracts of C. longa and curcumin were shown in experimental animal models of different respiratory diseases through antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. C. longa and curcumin also showed preventive effects on some lung disorders in the clinical studies. It was shown that the effects of C. longa on pulmonary diseases were mainly due to its constituent, curcumin. Pharmacological effects of C. longa extracts and curcumin on respiratory, allergic, and immunologic disorders indicate the possible therapeutic effect of the plant and curcumin on these diseases.
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Cancer, one of the most nefarious maladies, is set to affect one in five of the global population soon. Aberrant uncontrolled cell divisions, proliferation and metastasis are hallmarks of cancer. For quite some time now, numerous cancer prevention and treatment strategies have been formulated with a capricious investment of wealth and resources. The state-of-the-art treatment procedures rely on surgeries, radiation therapies, stem cell induction in conjunction with chemotherapy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapeutics. Yet, these combined treatments are not foolproof often leading to secondary health risks, unspecific outcomes and toxicity. Plant extracts have been used to prevent and cure cancerous growth since times immemorial. In the traditional Indian pharmacopoeia, many phytochemical extracts are listed as potent pharmacotherapeutics against cancer. Zingiberaceae, one of the largest monocot families with a centre of diversity in India, is a promising source of many anti-cancerous, anti-proliferative compounds, attributable to its high polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Principal phytochemicals include curcumin, curcumol, kaempferol, zerumbone, apigenin, galangin, 6-gingerol and 8-gingerol. These compounds are reportedly effective against human colorectal, cervical, breast, lung, ovarian, gastric and liver cancers. Interestingly, the modus-operandi of each compound against cancer cells is unique: curcumin and curcumol reportedly induced apoptosis via p53 regulation and accumulation of ROS/oxidative stress or by modulation of MAPK pathway and inhibition of NF-κB; kaempferol inhibited angiogenesis by suppressing ERK-NFκB-cMyc-p21-VEGF pathway, while apigenin modulated signalling pathways that include PI3K/AKT, MAPK/ERK, JAK/STAT, NF-κB and Wnt/β-catenin pathways and zerumbone caused apoptosis by expression of pro-apoptotic proteins like Bax via cytochrome-c dependent caspase activation, simultaneously decreasing levels of anti-apoptotic proteins like Bcl2. These phytochemicals are effective in cancer cell lines resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs like cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. Plant-based compounds offer flexibility of usage and diversity of action, affording recourse to most of the woes left behind by systematic and commercial chemical drugs. In this context, the present chapter will thoroughly look into the pros and cons of using phytochemicals of Zingiberaceae on various cancer cell lines, delving into their mode of action, potential side effects, discussing how far research has progressed and what the immediate future holds for us.
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Nutraceutical properties of turmeric: The nutraceutical properties of turmeric are now widely accepted in modern medicine. The chapter elaborately discusses this aspect. Additionally, the chapter would also discuss the use of turmeric in the preparation of Ayurvedic products, the ancient Indian system of health care. Its role in wound healing, arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, antioxidant property, and chemopreventive, bioprotectant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antithrombotic, antiangiogenic, and hepatoprotective properties is also discussed in the chapter. Additionally, the role of turmeric in curing the dreaded disease, Alzheimer, is also discussed in the chapter. Use of turmeric in cosmetology is also discussed.
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The chemistry of turmeric: The chapter would discuss turmeric oil, turmeric oleoresin, microencapsulation, turmeric volatiles, turmeric turmerones, curcuminoids, and extraction procedures of curcumin.
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Since Vedic times, haldi has been used as an important spice and in medicinal remedies. Haldi as commonly known in North India is the powdered form of dried rhizomes obtained from Cucurma longa L. The active ingredients of the plant are curcuminoids and essential oils. The curcuminoids and essential oils obtained from the plant have therapeutic properties against a diverse range of ailments. Further, the alkaloids are used in dermatology, cosmetology as well as perfumery. These properties render this plant of high economic and medicinal value. Thus increased production and yield of the plant is highly required. The root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica (Serendipita indica) is exploited for enhanced production. The fungus increases growth and yield of the plant along with augmenting the secondary metabolities.
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Rejected-duck meat was obtained from old laying duck that unproductive aged 24-26 months. The purpose of this study was to determine the oxidation potential of curcumin extract and its potential in curing rejects the acceptability of duck meat and meat properties during frozen storage. The material used was 36 female rejected-duck the age range 24-26 months. The experimental design used was completely randomized design with 3x4 factorial variation. This factor of 0.0 %; 0.1 % ; 0.2 % and 0.3 % curcumin extract and the curing time 5, 10 and 20 minutes. The parameters examined included the acceptability of duck meat cured was determined by the method of Hedonic Test, moisture content , fat content, fatty acids and peroxide value of frozen storage for 8 weeks. The results showed that duck meatwas acceptable salvage most of duck meat with curing using 0.3 % turmeric extract with a curing time for 10 minutes. The addition of curcumin turmeric extract the meat of rejected-ducks could inhibit fatty acid peroxidation approximately 39.55 m.eq in frozen storage for five weeks. Water content and fat showed no real difference. However, free fatty acids increased significantly up to 5 weeks. Peroxide value increased until the fifth week of 39.55 %, and then decreased. From this study it can be concluded that the best use extract acceptability of curcumin 0.3 % with long curing 10 minutes, the frozen storagefor8weeks. Keywords: Rejected- ducks meat, curcumin, antioxidant, acceptability and quality of the meat ABSTRAK Daging itik afkir diperoleh dari itik petelur yang sudah tidak produktif yang berumur 24-26 bulan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui potensi oksidasi dari ekstrak kurkumin dan potensinya dalam curing daging itik afkir terhadap akseptabilitas dan sifat daging selama penyimpanan beku.Materi yang digunakan 36 ekor itik betina afkir dengan kisaran umur 24-26 bulan. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap pola faktorial 3x4 dengan faktor variasi ekstrak kurkumin 0,0%; 0,1%; 0,2% dan 0,3% dan lama curing 5, 10 dan 20 menit. Parameter yang diteliti meliputi akseptabilitas daging itik curing ditentukan dengan metode Hedonic Test, kadar air, kadar lemak, asam lemak dan angka peroksida penyimpanan beku selama 8 minggu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa daging itik afkir yang paling akseptabel adalah daging itik dengan curing menggunakan 0,3% ekstrak kunyit dengan lama curing selama 10 menit. Penambahan ekstrak kurkumin kunyit pada daging itik afkir mampu menghambat peroksidasi asam lemak sekitar 39,55% pada penyimpanan beku selama lima minggu. Kadar air dan lemak menunjukkan perbedaan yang tidak nyata. Namun asam lemak bebas mengalami kenaikan yang signifikan sampai minggu ke 5. Angka peroksida meningkat sampai minggu kelima sebesar 39,55 m.eq, kemudian menurun. Dari penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa akseptabilitas terbaik menggunakan ekstrak kurkumin 0,3% dengan lama curing 10 menit, pada penyimpanan beku selama 8 minggu. Kata kunci:Daging itik afkir, antioksidan kurkumin, akseptabilitas dan kualitas daging
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Photodegradation of dimethoxy curcuminoids in acetonitrile solution was found to depend on the position of the methoxy group bonded to the phenyl ring. The rate of decomposition was expressed as the lifetime of the decomposing substrate, being the shortest in the case of the 3,5-diOCH3 and the longest for the 2,5-diOCH3 derivative. For the 3,5-diOCH3 curcuminoid, the major degradation products were 3,5-dimethoxy benzaldehyde, 3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid and the Z and E isomers of dimethoxy cinnamic acid, together forming about 90% of the reaction mixture. Minor products found were 4,5-bis(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)hex-2-endionic acid, and products with the molecular formula C23H24O6 and C23H22O6 attributed to the reaction of intramolecular 2+2 cycloaddition of the dimethoxy curcuminoid and the dioxygenated bicyclopentadione derivative (C23H24O8) derived from autoxidative transformation of the dimethoxy curcuminoid.
Chapter
Curcuminoids are biologically active polyphenols present in the spice and coloring agent turmeric. Dietary intake of curcuminoids has been associated a wide range of medicinal properties, including possible beneficial effects in the prevention of many forms of cancer. Studies carried out in vitro on cultured cells show that curcuminoids reduce the rate of cell division and induce apoptosis by affecting signal transduction pathways. However, there is a discrepancy between the curcuminoid dosage required for these in vitro effects and the most optimistic estimates on curcuminoid bioavailability following oral uptake. Therefore, the mechanism by which curcuminoids exert their biological effects through dietary intake remains incompletely understood. Curcuminoid bioavailability is dependent on several factors. These include solubility, chemical stability, efficiency of digestive uptake, metabolic processing, and excretion. This review attempts to illuminate the current state of knowledge on the effect of these factors on curcuminoid bioavailability. In addition, efforts to augment curcuminoid bioavailability through chemical modifications, improved solubilization, increased stability, or alternative routes of administration are addressed. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. All rights are reserved.
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Glioblastoma, the most common primary brain tumor in adults, has an inauspicious prognosis, given that overcoming the blood-brain barrier is the major obstacle to the pharmacological treatment of brain tumors. As neoangiogenesis plays a key role in glioblastoma growth, the US Food and Drug Administration approved bevacizumab (BVZ), an antivascular endothelial growth factor antibody for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma in patients whose the initial therapy has failed. In this experimental work, BVZ was entrapped in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) prepared by the fatty-acid coacervation technique, thanks to the formation of a hydrophobic ion pair. BVZ activity, which was evaluated by means of four different in vitro tests on HUVEC cells, increased by 100- to 200-fold when delivered in SLNs. Moreover, SLNs can enhance the permeation of fluorescently labelled BVZ through an hCMEC/D3 cell monolayer-an in vitro model of the blood brain barrier. These results are promising, even if further in vivo studies are required to evaluate the effective potential of BVZ-loaded SLNs in glioblastoma treatment.
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Curcumin, the extract of the rhizome of Curcuma longa, is known for its health-promoting properties in traditional medicine. It has anti-inflammatory, antitumor and antioxidant properties and stimulates appetite. In the present study, we investigated the stability of curcumin and its effect on cytotoxicity, apoptosis and melanin content in melanoma cells and the effect on atrophic C2C12 muscle cells. Cytotoxicity of curcumin was dose-dependent and the EC50 for 24-h incubation was 69 μM. Saturation was reached at 30 μM for a 48-h incubation. The EC50 for 24-h incubation with degraded curcumin solution was 116 μM and that for 48-h was 94 μM. Curcumin induced a strong increase in caspase-3/7 activity at 30-40 μM. Electrical impedance measurements showed that sub-toxic doses of curcumin counteracted atrophy in an in vitro model system. These findings indicate not only the positive effects of curcumin on melanoma cells in vitro, but also that curcumin was able to considerably trigger anti-cachectic effects in vitro. However, the importance of the stability of curcumin and its tumoricidal and anti-cachectic potential might play a pivotal role in its use in the nutrition and health industrie since it degrades rapidly in aqueous solutions.
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The major obstacle to glioblastoma pharmacological therapy is the overcoming of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). In literature, several strategies have been proposed to overcome the BBB: in this experimental work, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), prepared according to fatty acid coacervation technique, are proposed as the vehicle for doxorubicin (Dox), to enhance its permeation through an artificial model of BBB. The in vitro cytotoxicity of Dox-loaded SLN has been measured on three different commercial and patient-derived glioma cell lines. Dox was entrapped within SLN thanks to hydrophobic ion pairing with negatively charged surfactants, used as counterions. Results indicate that Dox entrapped in SLN maintains its cytotoxic activity toward glioma cell lines; moreover, its permeation through hCMEC/D3 cell monolayer, assumed as a model of the BBB, was increased when the drug was entrapped in SLN. In conclusion, SLN proved to be a promising vehicle for the delivery of Dox to the brain in glioblastoma treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci
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The degradation kinetics of curcumin under various pH conditions and the stability of curcumin in physiological matrices were investigated. When curcumin was incubated in 0.1 M phosphate buffer and serum-free medium, pH 7.2 at 37°C, about 90% decomposed within 30 min. A series of pH conditions ranging from 3 to 10 were tested and the result showed that decomposition was pH-dependent and occurred faster at neutral-basic conditions. It is more stable in cell culture medium containing 10% fetal calf serum and in human blood; less than 20% of curcumin decomposed within 1 h, and after incubation for 8 h, about 50% of curcumin is still remained. Trans-6-(4′-hydroxy-3′-methoxyphenyl)-2,4-dioxo-5-hexenal was predicted as major degradation product and vanillin, ferulic acid, feruloyl methane were identified as minor degradation products. The amount of vanillin increased with incubation time.
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Turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) has been shown to inhibit chemical carcinogenesis. In this study, we compared the chemopreventive efficacy of an aqueous turmeric extract (AqTE) and its constituents, curcumin-free aqueous turmeric extract (CFAqTE) and curcumin, using the Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay and the bone marrow micronucleus test in female Swiss mice. AqTE exhibited antimutagenic activity against direct-acting mutagens, 4-nitro-O-phenylenediamine and 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine, in strains TA 98 and TA 100 respectively. Both AqTE and CFAqTE inhibited the mutagenicity of benzo [alpha]pyrene in the two strains in the presence of Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate. The inhibition in both studies was dose-dependent. Administration of AqTE, CFAqTE and curcumin at a dose of 3 mg/animal 18 h prior to i.p. benzo [alpha]pyrene injection (250 mg/kg) significantly inhibited bone marrow micronuclei formation in female Swiss mice by 43%, 76%, and 65% respectively. Furthermore, the incidence and multiplicity of forestomach tumours induced by benzo [alpha]pyrene (1 mg/animal, twice weekly, p.o. for 4 weeks) in female Swiss mice were significantly inhibited by AqTE, CFAqTE and curcumin given 2 weeks before, during and after the carcinogen treatment. These data indicate that the protection against genomic damage by turmeric extract and its components tested could be necessary for some aspects of its cancer chemoprevention.
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The data reviewed indicate that extracts of Curcuma longa exhibit anti-inflammatory activity after parenteral application in standard animal models used for testing anti-inflammatory activity. It turned out that curcumin and the volatile oil are at least in part responsible for this action. It appears that when given orally, curcumin is far less active than after i.p. administration. This may be due to poor absorption, as discussed. Data on histamine-induced ulcers are controversial, and studies on the secretory activity (HCl, pepsinogen) are still lacking. In vitro, curcumin exhibited antispasmodic activity. Since there was a protective effect of extracts of Curcuma longa on the liver and a stimulation of bile secretion in animals, Curcuma longa has been advocated for use in liver disorders. Evidence for an effect on liver disease in humans is not yet available. From the facts that after oral application only traces of curcumin were found in the blood and that, on the other hand, most of the curcumin is excreted via the faeces it may be concluded that curcumin is absorbed poorly by the gastrointestinal tract and/or underlies pre-systemic transformation. Systemic effects therefore seem to be questionable after oral application except that they occur at very low concentrations of curcumin. This does not exclude a local action in the gastrointestinal tract.
HPLC profiles of the incubation of (A) cCUR (phosphate buffer, 2 h, decomposition 526%), (B) pure CUR I (phosphate buffer, 2 h, decomposition 73.2%), and (C) cCUR (medium plus FCS plus cells, 18 h, decomposition 72.8%) Concentration was 5 lg/ml in all cases
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Fig. 3. HPLC profiles of the incubation of (A) cCUR (phosphate buffer, 2 h, decomposition 52.6%), (B) pure CUR I (phosphate buffer, 2 h, decomposition 73.2%), and (C) cCUR (medium plus FCS plus cells, 18 h, decomposition 72.8%). Concentration was 5 lg/ml in all cases. E. Pfeiffer et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 56 (2003) 257–259 259
Pharmacology of Curcuma longa
  • Ammon
Ammon, H. P., & Wahl, M. A. (1991). Pharmacology of Curcuma longa. Planta Medica, 57(1), 1–7.