Integration and Sustainability of Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention, and Pharmacotherapy in Primary Care Settings
Department of Family Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina. Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs
(Impact Factor: 2.76).
07/2013; 74(4):598-604. DOI: 10.15288/jsad.2013.74.598
At-risk drinking and alcohol use disorders are common in primary care and may adversely affect the treatment of patients with diabetes and/or hypertension. The purpose of this article is to report the impact of dissemination of a practice-based quality improvement approach (Practice Partner Research Network-Translating Research into Practice [PPRNet-TRIP]) on alcohol screening, brief intervention for at-risk drinking and alcohol use disorders, and medications for alcohol use disorders in primary care practices.
Nineteen primary care practices from 15 states representing 26,005 patients with diabetes and/or hypertension participated in a group-randomized trial (early intervention vs. delayed intervention). The 12-month intervention consisted of practice site visits for academic detailing and participatory planning and network meetings for "best practice" dissemination.
At the end of Phase 1, eligible patients in early-intervention practices were significantly more likely than patients in delayed-intervention practices to have been screened (odds ratio [OR] = 3.30, 95% CI [1.15, 9.50]) and more likely to have been provided a brief intervention (OR = 6.58, 95% CI [1.69, 25.7]. At the end of Phase 2, patients in delayed-intervention practices were more likely than at the end of Phase 1 to have been screened (OR = 5.18, 95% CI [4.65, 5.76]) and provided a brief intervention (OR = 1.80, 95% CI [1.31, 2.47]). Early-intervention practices maintained their screening and brief intervention performance during Phase 2. Medication for alcohol use disorders was prescribed infrequently.
PPRNet-TRIP is effective in improving and maintaining improvement in alcohol screening and brief intervention for patients with diabetes and/or hypertension in primary care settings.
Available from: Thomas F Kresina
- "The US Preventive Task Force recommends screening all patients for alcohol misuse and addressing hazardous or harmful use through a brief intervention . Screening instruments and evaluation protocols are important initial tools needed in addressing alcohol use/dependence and drug abuse    . Screening instruments such as the AUDIT, ASSIST, CAGE questionnaire, or other validated tool can be utilized to determine hazardous or harmful alcohol use, as well as identifying drug abuse and opioid dependence to help inform the primary care provider in determining the level of care and treatment setting for the patient [13– 15]. "
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ABSTRACT: Substance-related and addictive disorders are chronic relapsing conditions that substantially impact public health. Effective treatments for these disorders require addressing substance use/dependence comprehensively as well as other associated comorbidities. Comprehensive addressing of substance use in a medical setting involves screening for substance use, addressing substance use directly with the patient, and formulating an appropriate intervention. For alcohol dependence and opioid dependence, pharmacotherapies are available that are safe and effective when utilized in a comprehensive treatment paradigm, such as medication assisted treatment. In primary care, substance use disorders involving alcohol, illicit opioids, and prescription opioid abuse are common among patients who seek primary care services. Primary care providers report low levels of preparedness and confidence in identifying substance-related and addictive disorders and providing appropriate care and treatment. However, new models of service delivery in primary care for individuals with substance-related and addictive disorders are being developed to promote screening, care and treatment, and relapse prevention. The education and training of primary care providers utilizing approved medications for the treatment of alcohol use disorders and opioid dependence in a primary care setting would have important public health impact and reduce the burden of alcohol abuse and opioid dependence.
Available from: Alexander Y Walley
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ABSTRACT: This article presents an update on addiction-related medical literature for the calendar years 2010 and 2011, focusing on studies that have implications for generalist practice. We present articles pertaining to medical comorbidities and complications, prescription drug misuse among patients with chronic pain, screening and brief interventions (SBIs), and pharmacotherapy for addiction.
Available from: Lynne S. Nemeth
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ABSTRACT: Overconsumption of alcohol is well known to lead to numerous health and social problems. Prevalence studies of United States adults found that 20% of patients meet criteria for an alcohol use disorder. Routine screening for alcohol use is recommended in primary care settings, yet little is known about the organizational factors that are related to successful implementation of screening and brief intervention (SBI) and treatment in these settings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate organizational attributes in primary care practices that were included in a practice-based research network trial to implement alcohol SBI. The Survey of Organizational Attributes in Primary Care (SOAPC) has reliably measured four factors: communication, decision-making, stress/chaos and history of change. This 21-item instrument was administered to 178 practice members at the baseline of this trial, to evaluate for relationship of organizational attributes to the implementation of alcohol SBI and treatment. No significant relationships were found correlating alcohol screening, identification of high-risk drinkers and brief intervention, to the factors measured in the SOAPC instrument. These results highlight the challenges related to the use of organizational survey instruments in explaining or predicting variations in clinical improvement. Comprehensive mixed methods approaches may be more effective in evaluations of the implementation of SBI and treatment.
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