ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

Species prioritization is a crucial step in any development of conservation strategy, especially for crop wild relatives (CWR), since financial resources are generally limited. This study aimed at: assessing the biodiversity of crop wild relatives in Benin and identifying priority species for active conservation. Data were collected through literature review to establish an exhaustive list of CWR in Benin. Eight prioritization criteria and different prioritization systems were used. The top 50 species obtained by each of these methods were identified and twenty final top CWR were shortlisted as those occurring as priority across methods. A total of 266 plant species belonging to 65 genera and 36 families were identified. The most represented are: Cyperaceae (12.50 %), Leguminosae-Papilionoideae (11.87 %), Convolvulaceae (11.25 %), Poaceae (10.31 %), Asteraceae (7.81 %), Solanaceae (6.87 %) and Dioscoreaceae (5.31 %). Among the 20 species of highest priority for conservation, Manihot glaziovii Mu¨ll. Arg. and Piper guineense Schumach. et Thonn., appeared as the most represented species on top of the list.
Content may be subject to copyright.
RESEARCH ARTICLE
National inventory and prioritization of crop wild relatives:
case study for Benin
Rodrigue Idohou Achille Ephrem Assogbadjo
Belarmain Fandohan Gerard Nounagnon Gouwakinnou
Romain Lucas Glele Kakai Brice Sinsin Nigel Maxted
Received: 11 June 2012 / Accepted: 10 October 2012
ÓSpringer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012
Abstract Species prioritization is a crucial step in
any development of conservation strategy, especially
for crop wild relatives (CWR), since financial
resources are generally limited. This study aimed at:
assessing the biodiversity of crop wild relatives in
Benin and identifying priority species for active
conservation. Data were collected through literature
review to establish an exhaustive list of CWR in
Benin. Eight prioritization criteria and different
prioritization systems were used. The top 50 species
obtained by each of these methods were identified and
twenty final top CWR were shortlisted as those
occurring as priority across methods. A total of 266
plant species belonging to 65 genera and 36 families
were identified. The most represented are: Cyperaceae
(12.50 %), Leguminosae-Papilionoideae (11.87 %),
Convolvulaceae (11.25 %), Poaceae (10.31 %), As-
teraceae (7.81 %), Solanaceae (6.87 %) and Dioscore-
aceae (5.31 %). Among the 20 species of highest
priority for conservation, Manihot glaziovii Mu
¨ll. Arg.
and Piper guineense Schumach. et Thonn., appeared
as the most represented species on top of the list.
Keywords Biodiversity Conservation
Crop wild relatives Threat West Africa
Introduction
Millions of the world’s poor rely for a large part of
their income/food intake on a wide variety of indig-
enous edible plants to sustain their livelihood. This is
particularly the case in Sub-Saharan Africa, where
over 70 % of the people reside in rural areas and use
plant resources to meet their routine needs (Cavendish
2000; Mahapatra et al. 2005). Crop wild relatives
(CWR) are wild plant taxa more or less closely related
to species of direct socio-economic importance
including food, fodder and forage crops, medicinal
plants, condiments, ornamental and forestry species,
as well as those related to crops used for industrial
purposes such as oils and fibres (Maxted et al. 2007).
CWR include the progenitors of crops as well as
other species more or less closely related to them, and
have been undeniably beneficial to modern agricul-
ture, providing plant breeders with a broad pool of
R. Idohou A. E. Assogbadjo B. Fandohan (&)
G. N. Gouwakinnou R. L. Glele Kakai B. Sinsin
Laboratory of Applied Ecology,
University of Abomey-Calavi, 01 BP 526 Cotonou, Benin
e-mail: bfandohan@gmail.com;
belarmain.fandohan@unep-iemp.org
B. Fandohan
International Ecosystem Management Partnership,
United Nations Environment Programme,
c/o Institute of Geography and Natural Resources
Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences,
No. 11A Datun Rd., Beijing 100101, China
N. Maxted
School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham,
Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
123
Genet Resour Crop Evol
DOI 10.1007/s10722-012-9923-6
potentially useful genetic resources (Hajjar and Hodg-
kin 2007). Hence, CWR represent a tangible resource
of actual or potential economic benefit for humankind
as they have contributed significantly to improvement
of food production. Prescott-Allen and Prescott-Allen
(1986) calculated that the yield and quality contribu-
tion by CWR to the US-grown or imported crops was
over US$350 million a year. Phillips and Meilleur
(1998) noted that losses of rare wild plants represent a
substantial economic loss to agriculture, estimating
that the endangered food crop relatives have a worth of
about US$10 billion annually in wholesale farm
values. Pimentel et al. (1997), for their part, estimate
a global value of CWR at US$115 billion per annum.
Like for the rest of biodiversity, CWR are threatened
by mismanagement of landscape. Furthermore, habitat
fragmentation, climate change and agricultural inten-
sification put at risk the CWR and traditional cultivars.
Accordingly, it is urgent to take actions to reduce
genetic erosion or species extinction.
FAO (2009) reported a significant increase in the
number of CWR inventories. However, in Sub-Saha-
ran Africa, there is a recurrent lack of knowledge
regarding the breadth and/or potential use of CWR
diversity. Presently, inventories are lacking for most
countries and CWR diversity is largely uncharacter-
ized or un-evaluated and not systematically conserved.
With so much CWR diversity, it’s necessary to
inventory the diversity of these species and establish
priorities for conservation (Kell et al. 2008). Prioriti-
zation for conservation can be undertaken at different
levels: species, ecosystem, etc. (Brehm et al. 2010). A
method of prioritizing at species level is preferable
because it allows conservationists to know which taxa
should be primarily targeted for conservation, which
are not priorities, and which have insufficient infor-
mation to know whether they are priorities for
conservation or not (Brehm et al. 2010).
Numerous methods for setting species’ priorities
have been developed over time (Rabinowitz et al.
1986; Coates and Atkins 2001). There has been
considerable debate over which criteria should be
considered when prioritizing species for conservation
(see Maxted et al. 1997). Recently, Brehm et al.
(2010) proposed various criteria and different prior-
itization schemes. This study aimed at developing an
innovative prioritization scheme making use of the
readily available data and to identify priority CWR
and Wild Harvested Plants (WHP) for conservation
in Portugal (Brehm et al. 2010). This new scheme
was applied in the current study. The objective of
the present study was to create a national inventory
of wild relatives of priority crops in Benin and
highlight priority species as a useful case study for
the establishment of Phytogenetic Genetic Resource
(PGR) conservation strategies.
Materials and methods
Study area
The study was carried out in the Republic of Benin,
located between 6°and 12°500N and 1°and 3°400Ein
West Africa (Adomou 2005). Three large chorological
climatic zones (Sudanian, Sudano-Guinean and Gui-
neo-Congolian zones; Fig. 4) embody ten phytogeo-
graphic zones, which are Atacora chain, Bassila,
coastal, Mekrou-Pendjari, North-Borgou, Plateau,
Pobe
`, South-Borgou, Valley of Oueme and Zou
(Adomou 2005). Vegetation in Benin comprises
semi-deciduous rain forest, swamp forest, gallery
forest, dense dry forest, open forest, woodland
savanna and tree and shrub savanna (Adomou et al.
2010). The flora is estimated at 2,807 species of plants
divided into 1,129 genera and 185 families (Akoe
`gni-
nou et al. 2006). The most diversified families in terms
of number of species are: Leguminosae (14.8 %),
Poaceae (9.3 %), Rubiaceae and Cyperaceae (5 %
each), Asteraceae (4.6 %) and Euphorbiaceae (4.3 %).
In the south of the country, mean monthly temper-
atures oscillate between 26 and 28 °C while in the
north they are generally above 35 °C, and in some
places they average out at 40 °C (Adomou 2005).
Rainfall varies from 900 to 1,400 mm per year
according to West-East and South-North gradient.
Rainfall distribution shows two types of climates. In
the south, the climate is tropical humid (Subequatorial
or Guinean) with two rainfall maxima in April–July
and September–October. In the North, the climate is
tropical sub-humid dry to arid from 8°N northwards,
with one maximum in June (Adomou 2005).
In 2009, agriculture contributed 33.2 % to the Gross
National Product (GNP) of Benin. The main crops are
cereals (maize, rice, sorghum, etc.), legumes (cowpea,
peanuts, etc.), tubers (manioc, yam, etc.), market garden
products (lettuce, cabbage, etc.) and industrial crops
(cotton, cashew nuts, pineapple, etc.) (MAEP 2010).
Genet Resour Crop Evol
123
Inventory of crop wild relatives in Benin
The starting point for preparing a national CWR
conservation strategy is the generation of a national
CWR inventory. Here, we recorded Taxa selected on
the basis of their closeness to priority crops of Benin,
using the ‘‘taxonomic group’’ concept of Maxted et al.
(2006). Since the flora of Benin is not yet accessible in
a database that can be matched digitally with the
existing crop databases, the process to produce the
national CWR inventory was carried out manually.
This approach was recently successfully implemented
for Bhutan (Tamang 2004), the Seychelles (Antoine
2004), and Venezuela (Chiara and Crespo 2012). It
consisted, first, of making an exhaustive census of all
the cultivated crops in Benin. Data were collected
from libraries (public and private), agricultural exten-
sion services, research institutes, laboratories, and
botanical garden of the University of Abomey Calavi.
Then a list of the cultivated crops was matched with
the existing floras (Flora of West Tropical Africa,
Analytic flora of Benin and Biodiversity atlas for West
Africa) to select the species in the same genus as the
crops. The CWR inventory was then compiled from
the species found in the same genus as the cultivated
plant and that occur in the national flora. Records
for each genus included in the CWR inventory were
also taken from databases of major herbaria and gene
banks worldwide, which were accessed online through
the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, GBIF
(www.gbif.net).
Setting priorities for CWR conservation
The process of establishing priorities is a first step in
any conservation strategy (Maxted and Kell 2009a,b).
The criteria used for the prioritization are those
proposed by Brehm et al. (2010) and described as
follows:
1. Native status. Since the inventory has both native
and introduced species, priorities were given to
native (indigenous) taxa;
2. Economic value. The CWR have their main potential
application in genetic improvement of existing
cultivars. Therefore, the economic importance of
the related crop species is one good indicator of their
value as a wild relative.
3. Ethnobotanical value. This was assessed through
local knowledge on the species uses. Priority was
given to the species having a high importance for
local communities.
4. Global distribution. Priority increases with the
more a restricted distribution, therefore, nation-
ally- or regionally-restricted species (or endem-
ics) were given higher priority than species
occurring world-wide.
5. National distribution. National distribution was
considered here as an indicator of rarity. A species
occurring in a few provinces was considered rarer
than a species occurring throughout the country.
6. In-situ and ex-situ conservation status. Before a
taxon can be given high priority for conservation,
current conservation activities relating to it should
be reviewed. If sufficient genetic diversity is
already being conserved in situ and/or ex-situ,
additional conservation efforts may not be justi-
fied, and resources should focus on those species
that are not being conserved.
7. Legislation. A species under any kind of legisla-
tion requires conservation attention because
national governments are responsible for protect-
ing them.
8. Threat assessment. The IUCN Red List threat
status is probably the most used criterion for
determining conservation priority. Endangered
species received greater attention than those that
are not.
Four different methods of combining the above
mentioned eight criteria were used as described in
Brehm et al. (2010): point scoring procedure (PSP),
point scoring procedure with weighting (PSPW),
compound ranking system (CRS), and binomial rank-
ing system (BRS).
In the PSP, a series of scores for multiple criteria
was assigned to each species, with the highest number
always indicating the highest priority. For example,
the overall score for each CWR was obtained by
the sum of all individual criteria: (native status ?
economic value ?ethnobotanical value ?global
distribution ?national distribution ?conservation ?
legislation ?threatened status). Then, higher scores
indicate greater conservation concern. The PSPW is very
similar to the PSP with the difference that to each
criterion a particular weight is given. The CRS uses
individual criteria ranking positions (not scores as in
Genet Resour Crop Evol
123
PSP), which are then combined in order to obtain a
compound rank for each of the species and for each of the
major criteria. The BRS is based on a series of Yes/No
questions. A ‘‘Yes’’ answer is always a higher priority
than a ‘‘No’’ answer. For both CRS and BRS, three types
of ranking were used as described in Brehm et al. (2010).
Then, the top 50 species were obtained for each method:
PSP, PSPW, CRS (CRS1, CRS2 and CRS3) and BRS
(BRS1, BRS2 and BRS3). The number of times each top
50 species occurred in the different sub lists was
recorded. The priority species were those that occurred
most commonly in individual lists (For further informa-
tion see Brehm et al. 2010)(Fig. 1).
Results
Taxonomic diversity of the crop wild relatives
Matching the list of the cultivated crops with the species
present in the flora of Benin enabled generation of a
CWR list for Benin. This original inventory contained
266 species belonging to 65 genera (Figs. 2,3)and36
families, of which the most represented were: Cyperaceae
(12.50 %), Leguminosae-Papilionoideae (11.87 %),
Convolvulaceae (11.25 %), Poaceae (10.31 %), Astera-
ceae (7.81 %), Solanaceae (6.87 %) and Dioscoreaceae
(5.31 %). Among the families, 67.57 % were represented
by one genus; 18.82 % by 2 genera, while 13.51 % were
represented by more than 2 genera. Note also that some
crops (42.59 %) have no wild relatives in Benin, these are
largely exotic crops introduced from outside of Africa.
Priority CWR for active conservation
Use of different methods of combining the data sets
generated different lists of priority taxa for CWR. The
PSP method yielded a list of priority species for
conservation, with the Dioscoreaceae family widely
represented (26 %), followed by the Leguminosae-
Papilionoideae (22 %). The two most prioritized
species were: Dioscorea praehensilis Benth., (Dio-
scoreaceae) and Manihot glaziovii Mu
¨ll. Arg. (Eu-
phorbiaceae). For the PSPW method, Dioscorea
burkilliana J. Miege (Dioscoreaceae) appeared as the
highest priority. This family was widely represented
(10 species) and four of these species were among the
top 5 priority species for conservation. It was followed
Fig. 1 Methodology used
for establishing
conservation priorities for
CWR in Benin, Adapted
from Brehm et al. (2010)
Genet Resour Crop Evol
123
by the Convolvulaceae and Leguminosae-Papilionoi-
deae, which have, respectively, 9 and 8 priority
species for conservation. Also, the CRS (with variants)
generated a list of 50 species for active conservation
among which D. burkilliana (Dioscoreaceae), D.
praehensilis (Dioscoreaceae) and M. glaziovii (Eu-
phorbiaceae) were the most prioritized species for
conservation. Among the families, Dioscoreaceae is
the most diverse family in the group (containing 26 %
of prioritized species). Each variant of the BRS
generated a list of 50 priority species for conservation
among which the most represented are Ipomoea
beninensis Akoe
`gninou, Lisowski et Sinsin (Convol-
vulaceae), M. glaziovii (Euphorbiaceae), Abelmoschus
moschatus Medik. (Malvaceae) and Piper guineense
Schumach. et Thonn. (Piperaceae). The Poaceae
family is the most represented group (26 %), fol-
lowed by the families Convolvulaceae (20 %), and
Leguminosae-Papilionoideae (12 %). These three
families constitute 58 % of priority species for
conservation.
Finally, appearance of the top 50 species on the
various lists (obtained by the methods of prioritization)
was noted. These lists were used to identify the first 20
species of highest priority for conservation (Table 1).
The appearance of the species on each of the list is
described below (Table 1). This table shows that 2
species, M. glaziovii and P. guineense appeared as the
most important for conservation in Benin. These are
followed by Corchorus trilocularis L., D. burkilliana,
D. praehensilis,Dioscorea togoensis Knuth, Blighia
welwitschii (Hiern) Radlk., Pennisetum glaucum (L.)
R. Br. subsp. violaceum (Lam.) Rich, Pennisetum
macrourum Trin, I. beninensis,Sesamum alatum
Thonn., Cajanus kerstingii Harms, Celosia bonnivairii
Schinz, Cucumis prophetarum L., Cyperus papyrus L.,
Fig. 2 Diversity of genera
among the CWR’s family
Fig. 3 Diversity of species
among CWR’s family
Genet Resour Crop Evol
123
Dioscorea preussii Pax, Dioscorea hirtiflora Benth.,
Dioscorea mangenotiana J. Mie
`ge, Jatropha neriifolia
Mu
¨ll. Arg. and Vigna juruana (Harms) Verdc. Among
the species, 55 % are confined to one phytodistrict and
just 20 % are found in four phytodistricts (Table 2).
This shows the restricted distribution of the above-
mentioned species, which should therefore be taken
into account for active conservation (Fig. 4).
Discussion
This study aimed at establishing the first national
CWR of a sub-Saharan country and setting priority for
conservation of the CWR in Benin. There are 266
CWR species in Benin (about 10 % of the floristic
diversity). This diversity seems low compared to the
one for other countries such as the United Kingdom
(65 % of the floristic diversity) (Maxted et al. 2007)
and Portugal (75 % of the floristic diversity) (Brehm
et al. 2007) but high compared to the one for Venezuela
(about 2 % of the floristic diversity)(Chiara and Crespo
2012). The observation above is explained by the fact
that the method used to produce the inventory was based
on native food crop gene pools, and that many Benin
crops (corn, cashew nuts, pineapple, peanuts, papaya,
citrus fruits, spinach, etc.) are of exotic origin (MAEP
2010). Therefore, there is a small proportion of native
crops and a corresponding native CWR diversity.
Much attention has historically been given to plant
conservation in Benin (Codjia et al. 2003; Vodouhe
ˆ
et al. 2010; N’Danikou et al. 2011) and priority plant
species have previously been included in conservation
plans, but previously none has focused systematically
on CWR diversity. The only previous attempt at
active CWR conservation tried to conserve some
families of wild plants especially Dioscoreaceae and
Euphorbiaceae (Adomou et al. 2010). Current results
Table 1 List of the 20 priority CWR for active conservation in Benin obtained using the methodology combining four different
priority setting methods (with variants)
Species PSP PSPW CRS1 CRS2 CRS3 BRS1 BRS2 BRS3 Total
Manihot glaziovii Mu
¨ll. Arg. X X X X X X X 7
Piper guineense Schumach. et Thonn. X X X X X X X 7
Corchorus trilocularis L. X X XXXX6
Dioscorea burkilliana J. Mie
`ge XX XX XX 6
Dioscorea praehensilis Benth. X X X X X X 6
Dioscorea togoensis Knuth X X X X X X 6
Blighia welwitschii (Hiern) Radlk. X X X X X X 6
Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br. subsp. violaceum (Lam.)
Rich.
XX XX XX 6
Pennisetum macrourum Trin. X X X X X X 6
Ipomoea beninensis Akoe
`gninou, Lisowski et Sinsin X X X X X X 6
Sesamum alatum Thonn. X X X X X X 6
Cajanus kerstingii Harms X X X X X X 6
Celosia bonnivairii Schinz X X X X X X 6
Cucumis prophetarum L. XX X XXX 6
Cyperus papyrus L. X X X X X X 6
Dioscorea preussii Pax X X X X X X 6
Dioscorea hirtiflora Benth. X X X X X X 6
Dioscorea mangenotiana J.Mie
`ge X X X X X X 6
Jatropha neriifolia Mu
¨ll. Arg. X X X X X X 6
Vigna juruana (Harms) Verdc. X X X X X X 6
PSP, point scoring procedure; PSPW, point scoring procedure with weighing; CRS, compound ranking system; BRS, binomial
ranking system; 1, 2, 3 =variants of the methods. For further information see Brehm et al. (2010)
Genet Resour Crop Evol
123
Table 2 Ethnobotanical uses, national distribution and threats of the most prioritized species
Taxa Ethnobotanical uses National
distribution
Threats
assessment
(Adomou et al.
2010)
Threats assessment
(IUCN (2011))
Manihot glaziovii Mu
¨ll. Arg. Rubber production, ornamental and medicinal use 3 phytodistricts CR NE
Piper guineense Schumach. et Thonn. Food, insecticide and medicinal uses 2 phytodistricts EN NE
Corchorus trilocularis L. Food and craft use 1 phytodistrict NE NE
Dioscorea burkilliana J. Mie
`ge Medicinal use 1 phytodistrict NE NE
Dioscorea praehensilis Benth. Food and medicinal use 2 phytodistricts NE NE
Dioscorea togoensis Knuth Medicinal use 4 phytodistricts NE NE
Blighia welwitschii (Hiern) Radlk. Food and medicinal use 1 phytodistrict NE NE
Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br. subsp. violaceum (Lam.) Rich. Fodder 1 phytodistrict NE NE
Pennisetum macrourum Trin. Fodder 1 phytodistrict NE NE
Ipomoea beninensis Akoe
`gninou, Lisowski et Sinsin Unknown 4 phytodistricts EN NE
Sesamum alatum Thonn. Medicinal and fodder uses 1 phytodistrict NE
Cajanus kerstingii Harms Unknown 4 phytodistricts NE NE
Celosia bonnivairii Schinz Unknown 1 phytodistrict NE NE
Cucumis prophetarum L. Medicinal use and strong poison 1 phytodistrict NE NE
Cyperus papyrus L. Unknown 1 phytodistrict NE NE
Dioscorea preussii Pax Unknown 2 phytodistricts NE NE
Dioscorea hirtiflora Benth. Unknown 4 phytodistricts NE NE
Dioscorea mangenotiana J. Mie
`ge Unknown 2 phytodistricts NE NE
Jatropha neriifolia Mu
¨ll. Arg. Unknown 1 phytodistrict NE NE
Vigna juruana (Harms) Verdc. Unknown 1 phytodistrict NE NE
CR, critically endangered; EN, endangered; NE, not evaluated
Genet Resour Crop Evol
123
concur with this attempt in finding the latter families to
be among the most prioritized for active conservation
in Benin.
Immediate conservation action to save the CWR of
Benin would be the only way to ensure the availability
of these plants for future generations. As shown in
Table 2, most of the priority CWR species are
currently used by local communities. However, these
plants are faced with several threats, such as repeated
clearing and wildfires due to agricultural activities,
which have resulted in serious degradation of natural
forest reserves. Further threat comes from ongoing
strategic plan for the agricultural sector in Benin
through which, the demand for new land for agricul-
ture (land clearing) is an additional threat to the wild
plant species in general, and CWR in particular. In
Fig. 4 Map of the Republic
of Benin showing the
phytogeographical districts
and the occurrence of the
most prioritized CWR
Genet Resour Crop Evol
123
addition, urbanization (which increase the demand on
fuel wood, charcoal, building materials, medicinal,
etc.), the problems of invasive species, and climate
change all result in rapid declines of these species. To
date, a detailed threat assessment using IUCN Red List
Criteria has only been attempted for a few species
(Table 2), yet most species facing human harvesting
pressure are often exposed to decline. Therefore, there
is a need to undertake ecogeographic, distribution, gap
analysis studies and the impact of climate change on
the conservation of each of the twenty priority species.
As available financial resources are not enough to
conserve all species, focus can at least be made on the
first two in the list (M. glaziovii and P. guineense).
Active conservation of CWR in Benin should be a
priority as the country occupies an important part in
the ‘Dahomey Gap’ which is a break in the dense
forest on the coast of West Africa (Akoe
`gninou et al.
2006). Thus, the flora of Benin shares many species
with the flora of the countries covered by dense
forest (Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana and Nigeria).
Consequently, only three new species from Benin
(Thunbergia atacorensis Akoe
`gninou et Lisowski
(Acanthaceae), I. beninensis Akoe
`gninou, Lisowski
et Sinsin (Convolvulaceae) and Kyllinga beninensis
Samain, Reynders et Goetghebeur (Cyperaceae) are
recently described by science and may be considered
as the only endemics (Adomou et al. 2010). It is
therefore clear that the flora of Benin is very poor in
endemic species. Consequently, conservation of the
CWR in Benin will benefit other West African
countries with which Benin shares the same species.
Such conservation will help to maintain the genetic
variability contained in most cultivars to meet future
demands. Furthermore, CWR provide traits such as
disease resistance, tolerance to extreme temperatures,
salt tolerance and drought resistance which are useful
for strengthening the genetic make-up of the grown
crops.
An active conservation of PGR, particularly CWR
diversity, requires the establishment of priority within
species (Maxted et al. 2006). But there is no single
method to develop effective strategies for biodiversity
conservation (Maxted et al. 2006). Methodologically,
our approach differs from that used by Lawrence et al.
(2005), Maraseni (2008) and Vodouhe
ˆet al. (2009)
who identified the most important Non-Timber Forest
Products in Cameroun, Nepal, and northern Benin,
respectively. N’Danikou et al. (2011) used an inde-
pendent scoring of species in value and conservation
criteria developed by the community. As such, these
authors argued that successful management strategies
will then need to consider the criteria that communi-
ties use in their species valuation, because strategies
that operate exclusively with market-based or conser-
vation-based criteria are likely to overlook communi-
ties’ interests. All these methodologies differ from the
one used in this study because they do not combine the
different criteria (importance and ecological criteria)
in different methods. Although N’Danikou et al.
(2011) recommend the use of the scoring method for
studies of this type, the result obtained by one method
should be compared to the one of the others to bring
out priority species for conservation. Yet, each of
these methods used in the current study can be updated
whenever new information is collected. As data were
not always available for the IUCN status of species,
legislation and conservation strategies, it is strongly
recommended that priorities be reassessed and refined
when more detailed information is available. Brehm
et al. (2010) argue that prioritization of species should
be a dynamic process and as noted by UNEP (1995),
the success of any method of prioritization will
depend, in large part, on the inclusion of results in
conservation activities, and especially the support of
the international community (hardware and financial)
in the preservation of biodiversity.
This study highlights CWR diversity in Benin and
the priority species for conservation. In view of setting
appropriate conservation strategies, further steps
should include thorough studies on representation,
management and ecological gap analyses, state of
traditional management practices and the impacts of
climate change on each priority CWR.
Acknowledgments We are very grateful to the members of
the laboratory of Applied Ecology (University of Abomey
Calavi) who were actively involved in the study. We are
indebted to the Explorers Club Granting Fund which provided
us with financial assistance for the field work. Our appreciation
also goes to the Ministry of Agriculture and to the national
research institute for their assistance. We thank all reviewers
and Ayub Oduor for comments on a previous version.
Appendix
See Table 3.
Genet Resour Crop Evol
123
Table 3 List of the cultivated plants and their relatives in Benin
Family Genera Crop Crop wild relatives
Alliaceae Allium Allium cepa L. cv. group Aggregatum
Allium cepa L. cv. group Common Onion
Allium sativum L.
Amaranthaceae Amaranthus Amaranthus cruentus L.
Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex TheIl.
Amaranthus graecizans L.
Amaranthus blitum L.
Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell.
Amaranthus spinosus L.
Amaranthus viridis L.
Celosia Celosia argentea L. var. argentea (L.) Schinz
Celosia argentea L. var. cristata (L.) Kuntze
Celosia bonnivairii Schinz
Celosia laxa Schumach. et Thonn.
Celosia leptostachya Benth.
Celosia trigyna L.
Anacardiaceae Anacardium Anacardium occidentale L. –
Mangifera Mangifera indica L. –
Apiaceae Centella Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.
Daucus Daucus carota L. subsp. sativus (Hoffm.) Arcang.
Petroselinum Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A. W. Hill
Apocynaceae Nerium Nerium oleander L. –
Araceae Colocasia Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott
Arecaceae Cocos Cocos nucifera L. –
Elaeis Elaeis guineensis Jacq. –
Asteraceae Lactuca Lactuca sativa L. Lactuca inermis Forssk. var. inermis
Vernonia Vernonia amygdalina Delile Vernonia adoensis Sch. Bip. ex Walp.
Vernonia ambigua Kotschy et Peyr.
Vernonia camporum A. Chev.
Vernonia chthonocephala O. Hoffm.
Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less.
Vernonia colorata (Willd.) Drake
Vernonia conferta Benth.
Vernonia galamensis (Cass.) Less.
Vernonia gerberiformis Oliv. et Hiern subsp. macrocyanus (O. Hoffm.)
C. Jeffrey
Vernonia glaberrima Welw. ex O. Hoffm.
Vernonia guineensis Benth. var. guineensis
Vernonia guineensis Benth. var. procera (O. Hoffm.) C.D. Adams
Vernonia klingii O. Hoffm. et Muschl.
Vernonia migeodii S. Moore
Vernonia nestor S. Moore
Vernonia nigritiana Olı
¨v. et Hiern
Vernonia perrottetii Sch. Bip. ex Walp.
Vernonia poskeana Vatke et Hildebr. var. elegantula (Hutch. et Dalziel)
C. D. Adams
Vernonia pumila Kotschy et Peyr.
Vernonia purpurea Sch. Bip. ex Walp.
Vernonia stellulifera (Benth.) C. Jeffrey
Vernonia undulata Oliv. et Hiern
Basellaceae Basella Basella alba L. –
Bombacaceae Pachira Pachira aquatica Aubl.
Pachira glabra Pasquale
Pachira sessilis Benth.
Genet Resour Crop Evol
123
Table 3 continued
Family Genera Crop Crop wild relatives
Bromeliaceae Ananas Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.
Burseraceae Raphanus Raphanus sativus L. –
Caricaceae Carica Carica papaya L. –
Combretaceae Terminalia Terminalia ivorensis A. Chev.
Terminalia mantaly H. Perrier
Terminalia superba Engl. et Diels
Terminalia avicennioides Guill. et Perr.
Terminalia catappa L.
Terminalia glaucescens Planch. ex Benth.
Terminalia laxiflora Engl.
Terminalia macroptera Guill. et Perr.
Terminalia mollis M. A. Lawson
Convolvulaceae Ipomoea Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. Ipomoea acanthocarpa (Hochst. et Choisy) Ascherson et
Schweinf.
Ipomoea alba L.
Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.
Ipomoea argentaurata Hallier f.
Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr.) Roem. et Schult.
Ipomoea barteri Baker var. barteri
Ipomoea beninensis Akoe
`gninou, Lisowski et Sinsin
Ipomoea blepharophylla Hallier f.
Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet
Ipomoea chrysochaetia Hallier f. var. velutipes (Welw. ex
Rendle) Lejoly et Lisowski
Ipomoea coptica (L.) Roth. ex Roem. et Schult.
Ipomoea coscinosperma Hochst. ex Choisy in DC.
Ipomoea eriocarpa R. Br.
Ipomoea fistulosa Mart. ex Choisy
Ipomoea fulvicaulis (Choisy) Hallier f.
Ipomoea hederifolia L.
Ipomoea heterotricha F. Didr.
Ipomoea imperati (Vahl) Griseb.
Ipomoea indica (Burm.f.) Merr.
Ipomoea involucrata P. Beauv.
Ipomoea kotschyana Hochst. ex Choisy
Ipomoea marginata (Desr.) Verdc.
Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq.
Ipomoea nil (L.) Roth
Ipomoea obscura (L.) Ker-Gawl.
Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R. Br.
Ipomoea pes-tigridis L. var. pes-tigridis
Ipomoea pyrophila A. Chev.
Ipomoea quamoclit L.
Ipomoea rubens Choisy
Ipomoea triloba L.
Ipomoea turbinata Lag.
Ipomoea vagans Baker
Ipomoea verticillata Forssk.
Ipomoea welwitschii Hallier f.
Genet Resour Crop Evol
123
Table 3 continued
Family Genera Crop Crop wild relatives
Cucurbitaceae Citrullus Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.
Cucumeropsis Cucumeropsis mannii Naud. Cucumeropsis edulis (Hook. f.) Cogn.
Cucumis Cucumis sativus L. Cucumis melo L. subsp. agrestis
Cucumis metuliferus E. Mey. ex Naudin
Cucumis prophetarum L.
Cucurbita Cucurbita maxima Duchesne Cucurbita moschata Duchesne
Cucurbita pepo L. –
Lagenaria Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.
Telfairia Telfairia occidentalis Hook. f.
Cyperaceae Cyperus Cyperus esculentus L. Cyperus alopecuroides Rottb.
Cyperus amabilis Vahl
Cyperus articulatus L.
Cyperus buchholzii Boeck.
Cyperus compressus L.
Cyperus congensis C. B. Clarke
Cyperus crassipes Vahl
Cyperus cuspidatus Kunth
Cyperus cyperoides (L.) Kuntze s. l.
Cyperus difformis L.
Cyperus dilatatus Schum. et Thonn.
Cyperus distans L. f. s. l.
Cyperus dubius Rottb.
Cyperus exaltatus Retz.
Cyperus fenzelianus Steud.
Cyperus haspan L.
Cyperus imbricatus Retz.
Cyperus iria L.
Cyperus latifolius Poir.
Cyperus ligularis L.
Cyperus maculatus Boeck.
Cyperus margaritaceus Vahl
Cyperus odoratus L.
Cyperus papyrus L.
Cyperus pectinatus Vahl
Cyperus podocarpus Boeck.
Cyperus pustulatus Vahl
Cyperus reduncus Hochst. ex Boeck.
Cyperus rotundus L.
Cyperus soyauxii Boeck.
Cyperus sphacelatus L.
Cyperus squarrosus L.
Cyperus submicrolepis Ku
¨k.
Cyperus tenax Boeck.
Cyperus tenuiculmis Boeck. s. l.
Cyperus tenuis Sw. s. l.
Cyperus tenuispica Steud.
Cyperus tisserantii Cherm.
Cyperus tonkinensis C. B. Clarke var. baikiei (C. B. Clarke)
S. S. Hooper
Genet Resour Crop Evol
123
Table 3 continued
Family Genera Crop Crop wild relatives
Dioscoreacea Dioscorea Dioscorea alata L.
Dioscorea bulbifera L.
Dioscorea dumetorum (Kunth) Pax
Dioscorea rotundata Poir.
Dioscorea abyssinica Hochst. ex Kunth
Dioscorea burkilliana J. Mie
`ge
Dioscorea cayenensis Lam.
Dioscorea hirtiflora Benth.
Dioscorea lecardii De Wild.
Dioscorea mangenotiana J. Mie
`ge
Dioscorea minutiflora Engl.
Dioscorea praehensilis Benth.
Dioscorea preussii Pax
Dioscorea quartiniana A. Rich.
Dioscorea sansibarensis Pax
Dioscorea smilacifolia De Wild.
Dioscorea togoensis Knuth
Euphorbiaceae Jatropha Jatropha curcas L.
Jatropha gossypiifolia L.
Jatropha multifida L.
Jatropha podagrica Hook.
Jatropha integerrima Jacq.
Jatropha kamerunica Pax et K. Hoffm. var. trochainii Le
´andri
Jatropha neriifolia Mu
¨ll. Arg.
Manihot Manihot esculenta Crantz Manihot glaziovii Mu
¨ll. Arg.
Lamiaceae Ocimum Ocimum basilicum L.
Ocimum canum Sims
Ocimum americanum L.
Ocimum americanum L.
Lauraceae Persea Persea americana Mill. –
Leg-
Papilionoideae
Arachis Arachis hypogaea L. –
Cajanus Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. Cajanus kerstingii Harms
Cajanus scarabaeoides (L.) Thouars var. scarabaeoides
Canavalia Canavalia ensiformis (L.) Ce. Canavalia africana Dunn
Canavalia ensiformis (L.) Ce.
Glycine Glycine max (L.) Merr.
Lablab Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet
Vigna Vigna frutescens A. Rich.
Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek
Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.
Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp.
unguiculata var. unguiculata
Vigna adenantha (G. F. Mey.) Mare
´chal, Mascherpa et Stainier
Vigna comosa Baker
Vigna falicaulis Hepper
Vigna gracilis (Guill. et Perr.) Hook. f.
Vigna juruana (Harms) Verdc.
Vigna kirkii (Baker) Gillett
Vigna laurentii De Wild.
Vigna luteola (Jacq.) Benth.
Vigna multinervis Hutch. et Dalziel
Vigna nigritia Hook. f.
Vigna oblongifolia A. Rich.
Vigna pseudovenulosa (Mare
´chal, Mascherpa et Stainier)
Pasquet et Maesen
Vigna pubigera Baker var. beninensis (Pasquet et Mare
´chal)
Pasquet et Maesen
Vigna pubigera Baker var. pubigera Baker
Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilezek var. sublobata (Roxb.) Verdc.
Vigna racemosa (G. Don) Hutch. et Dalziel
Vigna reticulata Hook. f.
Vigna stenophylla Harms
Genet Resour Crop Evol
123
Table 3 continued
Family Genera Crop Crop wild relatives
Vigna trichocarpa (C. Wright) A. Delgado
Vigna triphylla (R. Wilezek) Verdc.
Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. baoulensis (A. Chev.) Pasquet
Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata var. spontanea (Schweinf.)
Pasquet
Vigna venulosa Baker
Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. var. angustifolia (Schumach. et Thonn.) Baker
Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. var. vexillata
Malvaceae Gossypium Gossypium barbadense L.
Gossypium hirsutum L.
Gossypium arboreum L.
Musaceae Musa Musa acuminata L.
Musa balbisiana L.
Myrtaceae Psidium Psidium guajava L.
Psidium guineense Sw.
Passiffloraceae Passiflora Passiflora edulis Sims Passiflora foetida L.
Pedaliaceae Sesamum Sesamum indicum L. Sesamum alatum Thonn.
Sesamum radiatum Schumach. et Thonn.
Piperaceae Piper Piper nigrum L. Piper guineense Schumach. et Thonn.
Poaceae Cymbopogon Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf Cymbopogon giganteus (Hochst.) Chiov.
Digitaria Digitaria exilis Stapf Digitaria argillacea (Hitchc. et Chase) Fern.
Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler
Digitaria debilis (Desf.) Willd.
Digitaria delicatula Stapf
Digitaria diagonalis (Nees) Stapf var. hirsuta (De Wild. et Th. Dur.) Troupin
Digitaria gayana (Kunth) Stapf ex A. Chev.
Digitaria horizontalis Willd. var. porrhanta (Steud.) Henr. ex Hubb. et
Vaughan
Digitaria leptorhachis (Pilger) Stapf
Digitaria longiflora (Retz.) Pers.
Digitaria nuda Schumach.
Digitaria gayana (Kunth) Stapf ex A. Chev.
Oryza Oryza glaberrima Steud.
Oryza sativa L.
Oryza barthii A. Chev.
Oryza longistaminata A. Chev. et Roehr.
Oryza punctata Steud.
Pennisetum Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.
subsp. glaucum
Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br. subsp. sieberianum (Schlecht.) Stapf et C.
E. Hubb.
Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br. subsp. violaceum (Lam.) Rich.
Pennisetum hordeoides (Lam.) Steud.
Pennisetum macrourum Trin.
Pennisetum pedicellatum Trin.
Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult. subsp. atrichum (Stapf et C. E. Hubb.)
Brunken
Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Roem. et Schult. subsp. polystachion (L.) Schult.
Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult. subsp. setosum (Sw.) Brunken
Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.
Pennisetum subangustum (Schumach.) Stapf et C. E. Hubb.
Saccharum Saccharum officinarum L. –
Sorghum Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench Sorghum arundinaceum (Willd.) Stapf
Zea Zea mays L. –
Genet Resour Crop Evol
123
References
Adomou AC (2005). Vegetation patterns and environmental
gradient in Benin: implications for biogeography and
conservation. Ph.D. Thesis, Wageningen University, The
Netherlands
Adomou AC, Sinsin B, Akoe
`gninou AA, van der Maesen J
(2010) Plant species and ecosystems with high conservation
priority in Benin. In: van der Burgt X, van der Maesen J,
Onana J-M (eds) System Conservation African Plants.
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp 429–444
Akoe
`gninou A, van der Burg WJ, van der Maesen LJG (2006) Flore
Analytique du Be
´nin. Backhuys Publishers, Wageningen
Antoine H (2004) Crop wild relative inventory of the Sey-
chelles. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Birmingham, Bir-
mingham, (Unpublished)
Brehm JM, Maxted N, Ford-Lloyd BV, Martins-Louc¸a
˜oMA
(2007) National inventories of crop wild relatives and wild
Table 3 continued
Family Genera Crop Crop wild relatives
Primulaceae Talinum Talinum portulacifolium (Forssk.)
Asch. et Schweinf.
Talinum portulacifolium (Forssk.) Asch. et Schweinf.
Ixora Ixora coccinea L. Ixora brachypoda ne.
Rutaceae Citrus Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. et
Panzer) Swingle
Citrus aurantium L.
Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.
Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merrill
Citrus medica L.
Citrus reticulata Blanco
Citrus sinensis Osbeck
Sapindaceae Blighia Blighia sapida Ko
¨nig Blighia unijugata Baker
Blighia welwitschii (Hiern) Radlk.
Sapotaceae Synsepalum Synsepalum dulcificum
(Schumach. et Thonn.) Daniell
Synsepalum brevipes (Baker) T. D. Penn.
Synsepalum glycydora Wernham
Synsepalum passargei (Engl.) T. D. Penn.
Solanaceae Capsicum Capsicum annuum L.
(Chinense Group)
Capsicum annuum L.
(Chillies Group)
Capsicum annuum L.
(Bird Pepper Group)
Capsicum annuum L. (Sweet
pepper and paprika Group)
Lycopersicon Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. –
Nicotiana Nicotiana tabacum L. –
Solanum Solanum aethiopicum L. Group
Gilo
Solanum aethiopicum L. Group
Shum
Solanum distichum Schumach.
Solanum macrocarpon L.
Solanum melongena L.
Solanum scabrum Mill.
Solanum tuberosum L.
Solanum americanum Mill.
Solanum anguivi Lam.
Solanum anomalum Thonn.
Solanum dasyphyllum Schumach. et Thonn.
Solanum sisymbriijolium Lam.
Solanum terminale Forssk. subsp. inconstans (C. H.Wright) Heine
Solanum torvum Sw.
Tiliaceae Corchorus Corchorus olitorius L. Corchorus aestuans L.
Corchorus fascicularis Lam.
Corchorus tridens L.
Corchorus trilocularis L.
Zingiberaceae Costus Costus afer Ker Gawl. Costus spectabilis (Fenzl) K. Schum.
Genet Resour Crop Evol
123
harvested plants: case-study for Portugal. Genet Resour
Crop Evol 55:779–796
Brehm JM, Maxted N, Martins-Louc¸a
˜o MA, Ford-Lloyd BV
(2010) New approaches for establishing conservation pri-
orities for socio-economically important plant species.
Biodivers Conserv 19:2715–2740
Cavendish W (2000) Empirical regularities in the poverty-
environment relationship of rural households: evidence
from Zimbabwe. World Dev 28:1979–2003
Chiara B, Crespo BM (2012) Inventory of related wild species of
priority crops in Venezuela. Genet Resour Crop Evol
59:655–681
Coates DJ, Atkins KA (2001) Priority setting and the conser-
vation of Western Australia’s diverse and highly endemic
flora. Biol Conserv 97:251–263
Codjia JTC, Assogbadjo AE, Ekue MRM (2003) Diversity and
local valorisation of vegetal edible products in Be
´nin.
Cahiers d’Etudes et de Recherches Francophones/Agri-
cultures 12(5):321–331
FAO (2009) Second report on the state of the world’s plant
genetic resources for food and agriculture. Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome
Hajjar R, Hodgkin T (2007) The use of wild relatives in crop
improvement: a survey of developments over the last
20 years. Euphytica 156:1–13
IUCN (2011) IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2011.
2. www.iucnredlist.org. Accessed 21 Dec 2011
Kell SP, Knu
¨pffer H, Jury SL, Ford-Lloyd BV, Maxted N (2008)
Crops and wild relatives of the Euro-Mediterranean region:
making and using a conservation catalogue. In: Maxted N,
Ford-Lloyd BV, Kell SP, Iriondo J, Dulloo E, Turok J (eds)
Crop wild relative conservation and use. CAB Interna-
tional, Wallingford, pp 69–109
Lawrence A, Phillips OL, Ismodes AR, Lopez M, Roses W,
Farfan AJ (2005) Local values for harvested forest plants in
Madrede Dios, Peru: towards a more contextualized
interpretation of quantitative ethnobotanical data. Biodi-
vers Conserv 14(1):45–79
MAEP (2010) Annuaire statistiques. Campagnes Agricoles
2008–2009. Direction de la programmation et de la Stat-
istique, p 187
Mahapatra AK, Albers HJ, Robinson EJZ (2005) The impact of
NTFP sales on rural households cash income in India’s dry
deciduous forest. Environ Manage 35(3):258–265
Maraseni TN (2008) Selection of non-timber forest species for
community and private plantations in the high and low
altitude areas of Makawanpur District, Nepal. Small-Scale
For 7(2):151–161
Maxted N, Kell SP (2009a) Establishment of a global network for
the in-situ conservation of crop wild relatives: status and
needs. FAO Consultancy Report. Rome, FAO, pp 1–265
Maxted N, Kell SP (2009b) Commission on genetic resources
for food and agriculture. Establishment of a global network
for the in-situ conservation of crop wild relatives: status
and needs. Background study paper no. 39, pp 212
Maxted N, Ford-Lloyd BV, Hawkes JG (1997) Plant genetic
conservation: the in-situ approach. Chapman and Hall,
London
Maxted N, Ford-Lloyd BV, Jury S, Kell S, Scholten M (2006)
Towards a definition of a crop wild relative. Biodivers
Conserv 15(8):2673–2685
Maxted N, Scholten M, Codd R, Ford-Lloyd B (2007) Creation
and use of a national inventory of crop wild relatives. Biol
Conserv 140:142–159
N’danikou S, Achigan-Dako E, Wong JLG (2011) Eliciting
local values of wild edible plants in Southern Be
´nin to
identify priority species for conservation. Econ Bot
65(4):381–395
Phillips OL, Meilleur B (1998) Economic potential of the rare and
endangered plants of North America. Econ Bot 52:57–67
Pimentel D, Wilson C, McCullum C, Huang R, Dwen P, Flack J,
Tran Q, Saltman T, Cliff B (1997) Economic and envi-
ronmental benefits of biodiversity. Bioscience 47:747–757
Prescott-Allen R, Prescott-Allen C (1986) The first resource:
wild species in the North American economy. Yale Uni-
versity, New Haven
Rabinowitz D, Cairns S, Dillon T (1986) Seven forms of rarity
and their frequency in the flora of British Isles. In: Soule
ME (ed) Conservation biolology: science of scarcity and
diversity. Sinauer Associate, Sunderland, pp 182–204
Tamang A (2004) Crop wild relative inventory of Bhutan. M.Sc.
Thesis, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, (Unpublished)
UNEP (United National Environment Programme) (1995) In:
Heywood V (ed) Global biodiversity assessment. Cam-
bridge University Press, Cambridge
Vodouhe
ˆFG, Coulibaly O, Greene C, Sinsin B (2009) Esti-
mating the local value of non-timber forest products to
Pendjari Biosphere Reserve Dwellers in Benin. Econ Bot
63(4):397–412
Vodouhe
ˆFG, Coulibaly O, Ade
´gbidi A, Sinsin B (2010)
Community perception of biodiversity conservation within
protected areas in Benin. For Policy Econ 12(7):505–512
Genet Resour Crop Evol
123
... But, the extent to which such PAs would become potential refugia for Vigna CWR diversity under the changing climate (Jarvis et al., 2008) was not addressed. Further, as part of the initial steps towards the development of sustainable conservation measures for CWRs in the region, prioritisation of CWRs has been done in Benin (Idohou et al., 2013) and West Africa (Nduche et al., 2021), but studies on the effects of climate change on CWRs are nebulous in the literature for the region. To date, many studies that have been conducted in this respect have mostly been on non-CWR tree species (e.g., Favi et al., 2021;Lompo et al., 2021;Salako et al., 2021;Assogba et al., 2022), palms (Idohou et al., 2017a;Salako et al., 2019), and woody lianas (Vihotogbé et al., 2021). ...
... This study is a follow-up on the national inventory and prioritisation of CWRs for Benin (Idohou et al., 2013). The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF, www.gbif.org) ...
Article
Full-text available
Sustainable conservation of crop wild relatives is one of the pathways to securing global food security amid climate change threats to biodiversity. However, their conservation is partly limited by spatio-temporal distribution knowledge gaps mostly because they are not morphologically charismatic species to attract conservation attention. Therefore, to contribute to the conservation planning of crop wild relatives, this study assessed the present-day distribution and predicted the potential effect of climate change on the distribution of 15 Vigna crop wild relative taxa in Benin under two future climate change scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) at the 2055-time horizon. MaxEnt model, species occurrence records, and a combination of climate- and soil-related variables were used. The model performed well (AUC, mean = 0.957; TSS, mean = 0.774). The model showed that (i) precipitation of the driest quarter and isothermality were the dominant environmental variables influencing the distribution of the 15 wild Vigna species in Benin; (ii) about half of the total land area of Benin was potentially a suitable habitat of the studied species under the present climate; (iii) nearly one-third of the species may shift their potentially suitable habitat ranges northwards and about half of the species may lose their suitable habitats by 5 to 40% by 2055 due to climate change; and (iv) the existing protected area network in Benin was ineffective in conserving wild Vigna under the current or future climatic conditions, as it covered only about 10% of the total potentially suitable habitat of the studied species. The study concludes that climate change will have both negative and positive effects on the habitat suitability distribution of Vigna crop wild relatives in Benin such that the use of the existing protected areas alone may not be the only best option to conserve the wild Vigna diversity. Integrating multiple in situ and ex situ conservation approaches taking into account “other effective area-based conservation measures” is recommended. This study provides a crucial step towards the development of sustainable conservation strategies for Vigna crop wild relatives in Benin and West Africa.
... But, the extent to which such PAs would become potential refugia for Vigna CWR diversity under the changing climate (Jarvis et al., 2008) was not addressed. Further, as part of the initial steps towards the development of sustainable conservation measures for CWRs in the region, prioritisation of CWRs has been done in Benin (Idohou et al., 2013) and West Africa (Nduche et al., 2021), but studies on the effects of climate change on CWRs are nebulous in the literature for the region. To date, many studies that have been conducted in this respect have mostly been on non-CWR tree species (e.g., Favi et al., 2021;Lompo et al., 2021;Salako et al., 2021;Assogba et al., 2022), palms (Idohou et al., 2017a;Salako et al., 2019), and woody lianas (Vihotogbé et al., 2021). ...
... This study is a follow-up on the national inventory and prioritisation of CWRs for Benin (Idohou et al., 2013). The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF, www.gbif.org) ...
Article
Full-text available
Sustainable conservation of crop wild relatives is one of the pathways to securing global food security amid climate change threats to biodiversity. However, their conservation is partly limited by spatio-temporal distribution knowledge gaps mostly because they are not morphologically charismatic species to attract conservation attention. Therefore, to contribute to the conservation planning of crop wild relatives, this study assessed the present-day distribution and predicted the potential effect of climate change on the distribution of 15 Vigna crop wild relative taxa in Benin under two future climate change scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) at the 2055-time horizon. MaxEnt model, species occurrence records, and a combination of climate- and soil-related variables were used. The model performed well (AUC, mean = 0.957; TSS, mean = 0.774). The model showed that (i) precipitation of the driest quarter and isothermality were the dominant environmental variables influencing the distribution of the 15 wild Vigna species in Benin; (ii) about half of the total land area of Benin was potentially a suitable habitat of the studied species under the present climate; (iii) nearly one-third of the species may shift their potentially suitable habitat ranges northwards and about half of the species may lose their suitable habitats by 5 to 40% by 2055 due to climate change; and (iv) the existing protected area network in Benin was ineffective in conserving wild Vigna under the current or future climatic conditions, as it covered only about 10% of the total potentially suitable habitat of the studied species. The study concludes that climate change will have both negative and positive effects on the habitat suitability distribution of Vigna crop wild relatives in Benin such that the use of the existing protected areas alone may not be the only best option to conserve the wild Vigna diversity. Integrating multiple in situ and ex situ conservation approaches taking into account “other effective area-based conservation measures” is recommended. This study provides a crucial step towards the development of sustainable conservation strategies for Vigna crop wild relatives in Benin and West Africa.
... Different criteria and methods were used to prioritize species for conservation, including socio-economic importance and the species threat status. Some authors pooled such criteria into an ordinal classification or ranking (Assogbadjo et al., 2017;Kell et al., 2017;Idohou et al., 2013;Adomou et al., 2010;Magos Brehm et al., 2010). These approaches which considered only one method of ordinal classification are tainted by biases associated with converting some quantitative data into ordinal ones (Yaoitcha et al., 2015). ...
... All six criteria were deemed important and discriminatory by the local populations. The overall score for each species was obtained by the sum of the scores for each criterion (Idohou et al., 2013;Kell et al., 2017;Magos Brehm et al., 2010). The potential utilization of the WOPs for plant breeding programs or known to contain traits of interest for plant improvement of almost Benin WOP taxa is not yet known, justifying its non-inclusion in the criteria in this study (Table 2). ...
Article
Wild oil plants (WOP) are species used for food, cosmetics, nutraceutical, and medicine. In Benin, their importance is still poorly documented. This study investigated the diversity of WOPs and identified priority species for valorization in Benin. Literature synthesis was used to gather data on a list of WOP species. This was completed by ethnobotanical surveys involving users (traditional healers, farmers, fishers, traders, and resource persons), actors in the three biogeographical zones of Benin (Guineo-Congolian, Sudano-Guinean, and Sudanian zones). In addition, field visits to the species habitats were conducted with the help of local populations to assess the true presence of species mentioned during the survey and their availability. Data were collected on the identity of informants, WOPs used or known, ethnobotanical, nutritional and economic values, valorization level, their national distribution and threat status. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square test and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Findings showed that oils extracted from these WOP seeds serve for medicinal (49.25%), food (29.85%), cosmetic (17.91%), and fuel (2.99%) purposes, and neither gender nor the main occupation defined knowledge of WOP diversity. A total of 36 WOPs belonging to 25 botanical families were identified. The top five priority species to be valorized across the country were: Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile, Ricinodendron heudelotii (Bail.) Pierre, Lophira lanceolata Tiegh. ex Keay, Sesamum indicum L., and Cleome gynandra L. These species were identified as important resources for alleviating poverty and food insecurity in the communities and as potential candidates for the development of the oilseed sector in Benin. Further studies are needed to document the indigenous knowledge associated with those species, existing processing techniques, and exploitable capital to ensure their sustainable management.
... De nos jours, ils occupent une place importante dans les industries agroalimentaires et pharmaceutiques à travers le monde (Mapongmetsem et al., 2012). Ils sont utilisés à des fins de consommation directe, commerciales et médicinales (Idohou et al., 2013 ;Maxted et al., 2008). Ce sont des compléments alimentaires pendant les périodes de soudure (Diarra et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Diospyros mespiliformis est une espèce d’arbre très peu étudiée malgré son importance pour les communautés locales au Bénin. Cette étude a évalué la variabilité des usages de l’espèce et de ses organes suivant les facteurs sociodémographiques (la provenance, les catégories socioculturelles, le sexe, l’âge et la profession des utilisateurs). Une enquête auprès de 233 participants a été réalisée dans les communes de Tchaourou, Sinendé et Bembèrèkè. La fréquence de citation, les usages rapportés et l’indice d’importance des organes de l’espèce ont été calculés. Des analyses de la covariance sur les usages totaux rapportés ont été effectuées afin d’évaluer les déterminants des usages de l’espèce. Des analyses en composantes principales ont été effectuées afin de caractériser les usages, suivant les déterminants des usages de l’espèce. Les résultats ont révélé que le sexe, l’âge et la provenance socioculturelle (P < 0,05) ont déterminé les usages dans la zone d’étude. Les hommes adultes ont eu plus d’intérêt pour l’espèce. Les Peuhls de Tchaourou et les Bariba de Sinendé ont utilisé davantage l’espèce comme bois énergie et bois d’œuvre. Les Bariba de Tchaourou, de Sinendé et les Peuhls de Sinendé sont plus intéressés par l’espèce pour des usages alimentaires, le fourrage et la pharmacopée. L’utilisation des organes est déterminée par l’âge et les interactions provenance-profession-âge (P < 0,05). Les racines et les écorces sont les parties les plus appréciées par les adultes et les personnes âgées. Les éleveurs, en général, et les agriculteurs de Tchaourou sont particulièrement intéressés par les racines, les tiges et les noix de l’espèce. Les agriculteurs de Bembèrèkè et les commerçants de Sinendé et de Bembèrèkè sont, quant à eux, plus enclins à l’usage des écorces. Par ailleurs, les usages de l’espèce en tant que bois et fourrage ont affecté négativement (P < 0,000) son usage alimentaire. Ces résultats sont à prendre en compte pour une stratégie de valorisation et de conservation durable de l’espèce.
... This approach overcomes the bias of over and underestimation which occurs with a traditional scoring method. This approach was successfully used to establish priority conservation for socio-economically important plant species (Brehm et al. 2010), and to identify priority crop wild relative, commercial timber species and woody species for conservation actions (Akpona et al. 2017;Idohou et al. 2013;Lokonon et al. 2019). ...
... This approach overcomes the bias of over and underestimation which occurs with a traditional scoring method. This approach was successfully used to establish priority conservation for socio-economically important plant species (Brehm et al. 2010), and to identify priority crop wild relative, commercial timber species and woody species for conservation actions (Akpona et al. 2017;Idohou et al. 2013;Lokonon et al. 2019). Baobab pulp for the regional market ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) designate goods of biological origin other than timber from natural, modi ed or managed forested landscapes. A number of short cycle and cultivated species contributing to food security that remain traditional tend to get less research attention, training and extension. Such plant resources are termed Orphan Crops (OCs), also referred to as minor crops. Due to the increased demands, harvest/ collection of minor crops has tremendously escalated threat of biodiversity loss. Besides, the increased market value of minor crops and their importance in improving livelihood of people in the rural areas raises the need of sustainable management of those crops, which entails e orts toward domestication, selection and improvement. This chapter presents the methods and principles for the genetic improvement of Non- Timber Forest Products & Orphan Crops. It established a 7 steps general roadmap for breeding minor crops. The exercise begins with appropriate goals setting, then germplasm is gathered through collection missions, followed by their morphological and molecular characterization, to provide basic information of lines and guide choice of parental lines. It is very common to encounter narrow genetic base in minor crops. This is dealt with by creating new variants through massive hybridization and more speedily, using mutagenesis. Hybridization has got many designs that serve various purposes, also selection methods are diverse. In case of low inherited traits, the detection of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) that set prospects for marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been emphasized. Also, newer breeding tools such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selections (GS) have been discussed. Keywords: Hybridization, Genetic improvement, Marker-assisted selection, Mutation, Orphan Crops
... This approach overcomes the bias of over and underestimation which occurs with a traditional scoring method. This approach was successfully used to establish priority conservation for socio-economically important plant species (Brehm et al. 2010), and to identify priority crop wild relative, commercial timber species and woody species for conservation actions (Akpona et al. 2017;Idohou et al. 2013;Lokonon et al. 2019). Baobab pulp for the regional market ...
... This approach overcomes the bias of over and underestimation which occurs with a traditional scoring method. This approach was successfully used to establish priority conservation for socio-economically important plant species (Brehm et al. 2010), and to identify priority crop wild relative, commercial timber species and woody species for conservation actions (Akpona et al. 2017;Idohou et al. 2013;Lokonon et al. 2019). Baobab pulp for the regional market ...
Book
Full-text available
Research on Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) in West Africa has made considerable progress. This provides a collection of hug number of scientific evidences that can be pooled in the form of book for the characterization and monitoring of changes in NTFPs. Numerous observations point out the difficulties in efficiently pooling data in view of their disparity due to various attempts to contextualize methods. To solve this problem, this book is initiated to provide the approaches and methods for monitoring, assessment and conservation of NTFPs. The purpose of this book is to serve as a practical guide to sampling methods, data collection and analysis techniques of NTFPs. This book meets the imperatives of quest for performance and excellence imposed by the dynamics of science. It outlines different sampling approaches for NTFPs inventories and also presents appropriate statistical tools and methods for processing different types of data. Undoubtedly, this book meets a need for scientific information from researchers and students on NTFPs. The book is a guide which remains open to innovations and scientific progress that could enrich possible news editions. This book will be very useful for the scientific community with interest in the sciences of NTFPs.
... Convention for Conservation (Convention on Biological Diversity CBD 1992), Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (CBD 2010a), Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (CBD 2010b), International Seed Treaty (FAO 2001) and European Strategy for Plant Conservation (Planta Europa 2008) are major initiatives to preserve natural genetic resources globally while tagging in various countries also aside, e.g., Benin (Idohou et al. 2012), United States (Khoury et al. 2013), Finland (Fitzgerald 2013), Spain (Rubio Teso et al. 2013), and Italy (Panella et al. 2014). Recently United Kingdom also agreed and showed interest to conserve the native plant species as priority in situ as well as ex situ across the United Kingdom and territory of Scotland (Fielder et al. 2015a(Fielder et al. , 2015b. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Crop wild relative (CWR) is a wild ancestor plant/related taxon, closely related to cultivated domesticated plant whose geographic origins can be traced to regions known as Vavilov centers. CWRs have been significantly important to provide efficient traits to crops for improving agricultural production leading toward sustainable agro-ecosystems. Genetic material from CWRs has been utilized since long time as wild maize (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis H. H. Iltis & Doebley) and is routinely grown alongside maize to promote natural crossing. More recently, plant breeders have utilized CWR genes to improve a wide range of crops like maize (Zea mays ssp. mays), rice (Oryza sativa), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and legumes. Grain legumes have been a major crop group in present time with the objectives to include its tolerance to abiotic stresses, and recently wild pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) was highlighted to improve the CWR germplasm collection with particular emphasis on potential traits for abiotic stress tolerance. CWR may be a potential source for better genes/traits to develop plant breeding or transgenic crops.
Article
Full-text available
It is widely recognized that the conservation of the Crop Wild Relatives (CWR) in their wild habitats is fundamental to ensure the continuous supply of novel genetic material, crucial for future crop improvement. Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) and V. subterranea (bambara groundnut) are amongst the most significant African legumes as sources of food and fodder. In this study we investigated the diversity of Vigna species in Angola, to identify hotspot areas for their in situ conservation, and thus underpin future food security in Sub-Saharan Africa. Based on four criteria (i.e. potential utilization for crop improvement, threat status, ethnobotanical value, and geographical distribution) we prioritize Vigna CWR for conservation actions in Angola. Our results reveal that 28 Vigna species occur in Angola, two of which are endemic (V. mendesii and V. ramanniana). These species are unevenly distributed across the country, with greater dominance in the central-north and western areas, where four hotspot areas (Saurimo, Serra da Chela, N’dalatando, and Huambo) are identified. However, significant gaps in the current in situ conservation strategies are highlighted by our results, since the CWR diversity hotspots remain unprotected and only nine of the 28 Vigna species are recorded in protected areas. Moreover, in light of the fact that only one accession of Vigna collected in Angola exists in genebanks globally at present, we recommend a targeted seed collecting programme to support future management and ex situ conservation of plant genetic resources in Angola. Our study calls attention to the fact that Angola, together with Zambia, has the highest Vigna species richness in Sub-Saharan Africa, and provides new data and tools for the sustainable use of these species in crop improvement.
Technical Report
Full-text available
IUCN species threat status and assessment. See: http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/39307/0
Article
Full-text available
Eliciting Local Values of Wild Edible Plants in Southern Bénin to Identify Priority Species for Conservation. When financial resources are limited, prioritization of species for conservation becomes essential. Elicitation of local perceptions of threats can be a useful means of prioritizing species and can help strengthen local conservation actions for important plant species. In the neighborhood of Dan forest (southern Bénin), we used quantitative ethnobotany tools to explore: a) how local communities value wild resources, b) if concerns of resource depletion can engender pro-active management to conserve plants and, if so, c) which criteria local people would use to select species deserving conservation. Ethnobotanical knowledge was collected using a range of different techniques. Results indicate that the villagers eat 41 wild plant species belonging to 17 families with the most important being Parkia biglobosa, Vitex doniana, Vitellaria paradoxa, Launaea taraxacifolia, and Prosopis africana. Local criteria against which value is evaluated include: i) the market importance, ii) the nutritive value, iii) the number of complementary uses of species, and iv) the availability of the resource. Additional criteria are species specific and include: v) rapid growth and production, vi) resistance to drought and diseases, and vii) life form. Although there is a real appreciation of threats, there is little evidence of pro-active conservation management by harvesters. The needs for further investigations to promote conservation of wild edible plants through use were explored.
Article
Full-text available
A prerequisite in any conservation programme of Plant Genetic Resources is estimation of diversity. The inventory of wild and naturalized relatives of priority crops in Venezuela (CWR) is based on the main Catalogues of Flora in the country, selecting taxa closely related to crops, according to the concepts of ‘‘gene pool’’ and ‘‘taxonomic group’’. We included 47 genera, 217 species and 228 taxa belonging to 28 plant families. Among them, those with higher richness are: Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Araceae, Lauraceae, Dioscoreaceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae and Myrtaceae. Genera with a higher number of species are Xanthosoma, Persea, Dioscorea, Prunus, Psidium, Phaseolus, Solanum, Vigna, Capsicum, Manihot, Theobroma, Ipomoea and Oryza. A total of 26 endemic species are found, which belong to genera Xanthosoma, Persea, Dioscorea, Prunus and Manihot. The primary gene pool of crops include native species from genera such as Manihot, Solanum (Section Petota), Lycopersicon, Ananas, Capsicum, Dioscorea, Xanthosoma, Phaseolus, Theobroma, Ipomoea, Gossypium, Arracacia and Psidium. Genera with native species weakly related to crops are Saccharum, Persea, Ipomoea, Prunus, Vigna, Solanum (Section Melongena) and Daucus. Crop genera without native species in Venezuela are Allium, Musa, Brassica, Spinacia, Helianthus, Pisum, Lactuca, Citrus, Elaeis, Beta, Glycine and Triticum. Only a few taxa have already been evaluated according to the IUCN criteria, and Venezuelan accessions of crop wild relatives in national and international genebanks are very scarce.