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Abstract

Background: While only 30% of all hip fractures occurred in Asia in 1990, more than 50% will occur by the year 2050. We investigated the relationship between the Stiffness Index (SI), assessed with quantitative ultrasound, and calcium intake in a cross-sectional survey of suburban males of different ages. Methods: From 496 people who were invited, 274 participated (55%). A single operator performed quantitative ultrasound measurements at the right calcaneus using Lunar Achilles. We derived the Sri Lankan T-score values for SI. Calcium intake was measured using semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire to measure the previous 7 days intake. Results: There was gradual decrease in mean SI from the age of 30 years. Eighty percent of the men between 21–40 years had normal T-scores. This percentage value fell to high 60s in men between 41–70 years. After 71 years, 35% had normal T-scores and 30% had T-scores less than –2.5. The mean calcium intake was 197 mg/day (95% CI 187–287 mg). Conclusions: This is the first population-based study done in Sri Lanka regarding calcium intake and SI in males. Although few men had low T-scores according to SI after 40 years, bone health of elderly (after 71 years) is at risk levels. The overall prevalence of low SI was negligible (4%) even with low calcium intake. Age is the only factor that influenced SI.

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... Hence, prevalence figures reported in these studies have shown a wide variation. The 5.8% prevalence of osteoporosis we report in this study is comparable with the previous study by Siribaddana et al., reporting 4% prevalence of male osteoporosis in Sri Lanka [13]. Tenenhouse et al. found 6.6% Canadian males, older than 50 years, to have osteoporosis either in the spine or femoral neck [14], while Pongchaiyakul et al. detected 4.6% of Thai men to have osteoporosis in the spine and 12.6% in the femoral neck [15]. ...
... In the USA, the prevalence of male osteoporosis changed from 1–4% to 4–6% when male reference data were applied instead of female reference data [7]. Siribaddana et al. found a wide variation in the prevalence of osteoporosis when two reference databases, one provided by the manufacturer and other local, were used [13]. In 2002, ISCD recommended using male reference data to calculate T scores and applying T score threshold of −2.5 to diagnose male osteoporosis [9]. ...
Article
This study, based on phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD) of 1,174 community dwelling male volunteers aged 50 years or more from seven provinces in Sri Lanka, shows 5.8% prevalence of osteoporosis among them. Advancing age, less physical activity, and low body weight were associated with low BMD. Men with larger families were more likely to have a lower bone mineral density. Purpose The prevalence of osteoporosis among Sri Lankans is not well-known. We wished to estimate the prevalence and determinants of osteoporosis among older men in Sri Lanka. Methods One thousand one hundred seventy-four healthy, community dwelling male volunteers, aged 50 years or more from seven out of nine provinces in Sri Lanka underwent phalangeal bone mineral density estimation using an AccuDXA® scanner. We calculated T scores using the local reference data, and subjects with T score equal or less than −2.5 was considered to have osteoporosis. Results Sixty-six men (5.8%) were detected to have osteoporosis. In contrast to men in the highest tertile of bone mineral density, men in the lowest tertile were older (60.0 versus 55.8 years, p < 0.001), lighter (56.3 versus 65.6 kg, p < 0.001), less physically active (16.1% versus 5.5%, p < 0.001) and had larger families consisting of four or more children (36% versus 20.9%, p < 0.001). Smoking, alcohol, or milk consumption showed no association with bone mineral density. Conclusions We report 5.8% prevalence of osteoporosis among men older than 50 years in Sri Lanka, and advancing age, less physical activity, and low body weight were associated with low bone mineral density. Men with larger families were more likely to have a lower bone mineral density.
... [71] [72] This technology evaluates both quantitative and qualitative characteristics of bone. [73] The frequency of Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS) waves lies between 200 kHz and 1.5 MHz. [74] QUS bone scanning is well established amongst researchers, since it is cheaper, portable, free of ionizing radiation and accepted as a reliable method of predicting osteoporosis fractures. ...
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Introduction: The current global prevalence of osteoporosis is over 200 millionpeople, but it can fluctuate in different populations not only country to country but also within different areas of the same country. Osteoporosis affects both developed and developing countries and has become a common chronic medical condition in Asian populations. The ageing of populations and the modern changes in lifestyle are further influencing the osteoporosis rate increase. Aim: The aim of this review is to understand the prevalence of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for osteoporosis and increased fracture risk. Finding: Current sedentary, machinery driven life styles and body image issues are affecting population bone health at the time of life where the bone mass accumulates preventing it from reaching its peak by adulthood and maintaining its quality thereafter. Earlier identification of those at risk may prevent complications later. More research is required to find affordable screening tools.
... Though DXA is the gold standard in assessing BMD [16][17][18] quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is used to detect bone strength and fracture risk, particularly in less resourceful settings [19,20]. QUS is cheaper, portable and free of ionized radiation, hence can be used in many situations [21,22]. ...
Article
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Objectives: This study aims to develop and validate a country specific osteoporosis risk assessing tool for Sri Lankan postmenopausal women. Methods: Community-dwelling postmenopausal women were enrolled to development (n = 602) and validation (n = 339) samples. Clinical risk factors (CRFs) of osteoporosis were assessed. Bone mineral densities (BMD) of femoral neck, total hip and lumbar spine were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Radial ultrasound (US) bone scan was done. Linear regression analysis was performed in development sample considering regional BMDs as dependent and CRFs as independent variables. Regression equations were developed to estimate regional BMDs using best predictive CRFs. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were assessed to validate the new tools. Results: Age, body weight and US T-scores showed positive correlations with BMDs of all 3 sites. Two osteoporosis risk assessing tools (OPRATs) were developed as OPRAT-1 and OPRAT-2. Prevalence of osteoporosis, in the validation sample was 74.3%. Sensitivity were high in both tools (OPRAT-1 and OPRAT-2; 83.2% and 82.5%) while specificity were moderate (44.8% for both). PPV of OPRAT-1 and OPRAT-2 were 79.5% and 81.2%. Both tools showed moderate NPV (OPRAT-1 and OPRAT-2; 51% and 47%). Conclusions: Both OPRAT-1 and OPRAT-2 have high performance in screening postmenopausal women in Sri Lanka for risk of osteoporosis. OPRAT-2 is more convenient and can be used in any healthcare setting with limited resources to identify women who will be benefitted by DXA. OPRAT-1 can be used if the radial US facility is available.
Article
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I dentifying twins for a population-based register can be achieved through birth records or community surveys. We studied the feasibility and effectiveness of different methods of identifying and recruiting twins to establish a population based register. To trace twins a population survey was carried out using an interviewer administered questionnaire. We also inspected the birth registration certificates at a divisional secretariat reported from a specified hospital between the years of 1985–1997 and compared it to the birth register of this same hospital. To recruit twins a random sample of 75 twin pairs (150 twins) identified at the Divisional Secretariat were contacted through the post and 25 twin pairs (50 twins) were personally visited. The prevalence of twins was 6.5 twins per 1000 people in the area surveyed. The twinning rate at the hospital was 18.92 twins per 1000 births. A discrepancy of 38 multiples births between the hospital labour room records and those registered at the DS was noted. The response from the postal invitation for recruitment was 59% and the response from the personal invitation was 68%. (Difference 9.4% 95% CI; 7.06–11.73). Community survey and systematic inspection of birth records either at the hospital or the birth registration office was an effective method to trace twins. Once traced, personal contact was more effective than the postal invitation for recruitment of younger twins. A cost-effective approach would be to use a postal coverage followed by personal contact for non-responders. The alternative method, community coverage, would have financial implications.
Article
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Background: Quantitative ultrasound of bone is a new radiation-free technique that measures bone mass and may assess bone quality. Retrospective studies have suggested that low-bone ultrasound of the calcaneus is associated with an increased risk for hip and other fractures in older women. Objectives: To establish the utility of calcaneal quantitative ultrasound of bone for the prediction of fractures and to compare quantitative ultrasound of bone with bone mineral densitometry by performing a prospective cohort study within the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Subjects and Methods: We studied 6189 postmenopausal women older than 65 years at 4 US clinical centers. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), a measurement of the differential attenuation of sound waves transmitted through the calcaneus, and bone mineral density of the calcaneus and hip were measured. Subsequent hip and other nonspine fractures were documented during a mean follow-up of 2.0 years. Results: In age- and clinic-adjusted analyses, each SD reduction in calcaneal BUA was associated with a doubling of the risk for hip fractures (relative risk [RR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-2.7); a similar relationship was observed with bone mineral density of the calcaneus (RR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.9-3.0) and femoral neck (RR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.9-3.8). After adjustment for bone mineral density of the femoral neck, BUA was still associated with an increased risk for hip fracture (RR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.1). Intertrochanteric fractures in particular were strongly associated with a low BUA measurement (RR, 3.3; 95% CI, 2.0-5.5). Conclusions: Broadband ultrasound attenuation predicts the occurrence of fractures in older women and is a useful diagnostic test for osteoporosis. The strength of the association between BUA and fracture is similar to that observed with bone mineral density.Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:629-634
Article
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Objective: This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis among postmenopausal women selected from seven provinces in Sri Lanka. Method: The study was a community-based cross-sectional survey of a group of 1642 community-dwelling postmenopausal women in seven provinces, except the North and East, in Sri Lanka. Phalangeal bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in all subjects using an AccuDEXA. In a subgroup of 150 women BMDs in the spine from L2–L4 and proximal femur were measured using a Norland Eclipse central DXA machine. In this subgroup, the diagnosis of osteoporosis was made according to the WHO criteria based on T-scores of the spine or femoral neck. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of different phalangeal BMD levels were examined and the prevalence of osteoporosis was calculated using the most acceptable cut-off value. Results: A sharp decline in phalangeal BMD (0.006 g/cm2/year) was seen during the postmenopausal period. Phalangeal T-score of −2.00, which had sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 78%, 85%, 91% and 68% respectively, was selected as the most suitable value to predict osteoporosis: 357 women had phalangeal T-scores either equal to or lower than −2.00. When the positive predictive value and negative predictive value of this cut-off value were applied, 736 women (44.9%) in our sample were likely to have osteoporosis. Conclusions: Osteoporosis is a prevalent disease among postmenopausal women in Sri Lanka. Similar prevalence figures have been reported from other Asian countries.
Article
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Osteoporosis, a silently progressing metabolic bone disease that leads to loss of bone mass, is widely prevalent in India and osteoporotic fractures are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in adult Indian men and women. This review of the international patterns of osteoporosis reveals two distinctive clinical features of this disease in Indians. Firstly, hip fractures occur at a relatively earlier age in Indian males and females, compared to their western counterparts; and secondly, a higher male-to-female ratio suggests that Indian males are at a higher risk for hip fractures. The reasons for these differences are not known. It is possible that a dietary deficiency of calcium, beginning early in life, leads to a lower peak bone mass, and consequently osteoporosis at an earlier age. Furthermore, malabsorption of calcium due to a subclinical deficiency of vitamin D may lead to osteoporosis, without causing osteomalacia. With the increase in life expectancy, osteoporosis has become a formidable public health problem in India and a multidisciplinary approach is needed to identify its aetiological factors and devise strategies for mass prevention of calcium and vitamin D deficiency (possibly by fortification of food with these nutrients). Another issue that needs to be addressed is the social dogma against hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. These measures, coupled with health education of the masses, should help promote bone health and control osteoporosis in India.
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The aim of this cross-sectional study was to use a novel method of data analysis to demonstrate that patients with osteoporosis have significantly lower ultrasound results in the heel after correcting for the effect of bone mineral density (BMD) measured in the spine or hip. Three groups of patients were studied: healthy early postmenopausal women, within 3 years of the menopause (n = 104, 50%), healthy late postmenopausal women, more than 10 years from the menopause (n = 75, 36%), and a group of women with osteoporosis as defined by WHO criteria (n = 30, 14%). Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS) and Stiffness wer measured using a Lunar Achilles heel machine, and BMD of the lumbar spine and left hip was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). SOS, BUA and Stiffness were regressed against lumbar spine BMD and femoral BMD for all three groups combined. The correlation coefficients were in the range 0.52-0.58, in agreement with previously published work. Using a calculated ratio R, analysis of variance demonstrated that the ratio was significantly higher in the osteoporotic group compared with the other two groups. This implied that heel ultrasound values are proportionately lower in the osteoporotic group compared with the other two groups for an equivalent value of lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD. We conclude that postmenopausal bone loss is not associated with different ultrasound values once lumbar spine or femoral neck BMD is taken into account. Ultrasound does not give additional information about patterns of bone loss is postmenopausal patients but is important in those patients with osteoporosis and fractures.
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We screened 597 newly-diagnosed diabetic patients (201 women) mean +/- SD age 42.3 +/- 6.2 years to determine the prevalence of diabetic complications; 22% presented because of symptoms of diabetes, 27% were diagnosed when hyperglycaemia was discovered at a health screening, and 36% were diagnosed while being treated for intercurrent illness. Neuropathy was present in 25.1%, nephropathy in 29%, retinopathy in 15%, coronary vascular disease in 21%, stroke in 5.6%, peripheral vascular disease in 4.8%, hypertension in 23%, obesity in 16%, central obesity in 21.3%, hypercholesterolaemia in 11%, hypertriglyceridaemia in 14%, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in 12%. The prevalence of coronary vascular disease, hypertension, stroke, neuropathy and retinopathy at the time of diagnosis were higher in our patients than in Caucasian and Indo-Asian patients in the UK. Both a genetic predisposition to develop complications, and exposure to a longer duration of asymptomatic hyperglycaemia due to poor access to adequate health care, may contribute to the high frequency of complications at diagnosis. Since complications are already present at diagnosis, there is a case for implementing primary prevention programmes combined with screening for diabetes in high-risk groups.
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Despite abundant sunlight, rickets and osteomalacia are prevalent in South Asian countries. The cause of this paradox is not clear. The objective was to assess 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status and its functional significance in apparently healthy subjects residing in Delhi, a city in the northern part of India. Serum 25(OH)D, total calcium, inorganic phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, intact parathyroid hormone, and 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)(2)D] were measured in groups of healthy subjects who differed with respect to variables relevant to vitamin D and bone mineral metabolic status, such as direct sunlight exposure, season of measurement, skin pigmentation, dietary calcium and phytate contents, and altered physiologic states such as pregnancy and neonatal age. All groups except one with maximum direct sunlight exposure had subnormal concentrations of 25(OH)D. The 25(OH)D-deficient groups tended to have an imbalance in bone mineral metabolic homeostasis when exposed to winter weather and low dietary calcium and high dietary phytate, with significantly low calcium and elevated intact parathyroid hormone concentrations, chemical osteomalacia, or both. Increased values of 1,25(OH)(2)D during pregnancy did not help correct the imbalance in bone mineral metabolic homeostasis. Healthy subjects with low 25(OH)D concentrations are at risk of bone mineral metabolic imbalance when exposed to factors that strain bone mineral homeostasis.
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Large segments of the population at risk for osteoporosis and fracture have not been evaluated, and the usefulness of peripheral measurements for short-term prediction of fracture risk is uncertain. To describe the occurrence of low bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women, its risk factors, and fracture incidence during short-term follow-up. The National Osteoporosis Risk Assessment, a longitudinal observational study initiated September 1997 to March 1999, with approximately 12 months of subsequent follow-up. A total of 200 160 ambulatory postmenopausal women aged 50 years or older with no previous osteoporosis diagnosis, derived from 4236 primary care practices in 34 states. Baseline BMD T scores, obtained from peripheral bone densitometry performed at the heel, finger, or forearm; risk factors for low BMD, derived from questionnaire responses; and clinical fracture rates at 12-month follow-up. Using World Health Organization criteria, 39.6% had osteopenia (T score of -1 to -2.49) and 7.2% had osteoporosis (T score </=-2.5). Age, personal or family history of fracture, Asian or Hispanic heritage, smoking, and cortisone use were associated with significantly increased likelihood of osteoporosis; higher body mass index, African American heritage, estrogen or diuretic use, exercise, and alcohol consumption significantly decreased the likelihood. Among the 163 979 participants with follow-up information, osteoporosis was associated with a fracture rate approximately 4 times that of normal BMD (rate ratio, 4.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.59-4.53) and osteopenia was associated with a 1.8-fold higher rate (95% CI, 1.49-2.18). Almost half of this population had previously undetected low BMD, including 7% with osteoporosis. Peripheral BMD results were highly predictive of fracture risk. Given the economic and social costs of osteoporotic fractures, strategies to identify and manage osteoporosis in the primary care setting need to be established and implemented.
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Identifying twins for a population-based register can be achieved through birth records or community surveys. We studied the feasibility and effectiveness of different methods of identifying and recruiting twins to establish a population based register. To trace twins a population survey was carried out using an interviewer administered questionnaire. We also inspected the birth registration certificates at a divisional secretariat reported from a specified hospital between the years of 1985-1997 and compared it to the birth register of this same hospital. To recruit twins a random sample of 75 twin pairs (150 twins) identified at the Divisional Secretariat were contacted through the post and 25 twin pairs (50 twins) were personally visited. The prevalence of twins was 6.5 twins per 1000 people in the area surveyed. The twinning rate at the hospital was 18.92 twins per 1000 births. A discrepancy of 38 multiples births between the hospital labour room records and those registered at the DS was noted. The response from the postal invitation for recruitment was 59% and the response from the personal invitation was 68%. (Difference 9.4% 95% CI; 7.06-11.73). Community survey and systematic inspection of birth records either at the hospital or the birth registration office was an effective method to trace twins. Once traced, personal contact was more effective than the postal invitation for recruitment of younger twins. A cost-effective approach would be to use a postal coverage followed by personal contact for non-responders. The alternative method, community coverage, would have financial implications.
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Osteoporosis is a major public health problem, associated with substantial morbidity and socio-economic burden. An early detection can help in reducing the fracture rates and overall socio-economic burden in such patients. The present study was carried out to screen the bone status (osteopenia and osteoporosis) above the age of 25 years in urban women population in this region. A hospital based study was carried out in 158 women by calculating T-scores utilizing calcaneal QUS as diagnostic tool. The result suggested that a substantial female population had oesteopenia and osteoporosis after the age of 45 years. The incidence of osteoporosis was (20.25%) and osteopenia (36.79%) with maximum number of both osteoporosis and osteopenic women recorded in the age group of (55-64 years). After the age of 65 years, there was an almost 100% incidence of either osteopenia or osteoporosis, indicating that it increases with age and in postmenopausal period, thereby suggesting lack of estrogenic activity might be responsible for this increasing trend. Religion, caste and diet had an influence on the outcome of osteopenic and osteoporosis score in present study, but still it has to be substantiated by conducting larger randomized clinical trials in future. A substantial female population was screened for osteoporosis and osteopenia using calcaneal QUS method utilizing same WHO T score criteria that otherwise shall remain undiagnosed and face the complications and menace of osteoporosis.
Article
OBECTIVE(S) : To find the incidences of osteopenia and osteoporosis and their relation with age, diet and mensturation in women above the age of 40 years. METHOD(S) :Successive 200 women attending our well women clinic from January 2002 to December 2003 had their BMD estimated by DEXA. The results were analyzed. RESULTS : After the age of 60 years there was an almost 100% incidence of either osteopenia or osteoporosis. In the age group between 40 and 65 years, the incidence of osteopenia was 34% and osteoporosis 8%. CONCLUSION(S) :A substantial female population has osteopenia and osteoporosis after the age of 40 years.
Article
Osteoporotic fractures are a prominent cause of disability, and hip fracture produces 20% excess mortality in the ensuing year. The expanding population of elderly is expected to raise both direct and indirect costs of fractures in the United States and elsewhere in the world. Risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD) and the incidence of fractures during 12 months of follow-up were studied in 200,160 ambulatory postmenopausal women aged 50 years or older, none of whom had been diagnosed as osteoporotic. Follow-up data were available for 82% of the group, whose mean age was 64.5 years. Nearly 90% of the study population were white. BMD was measured variably in the forearm, finger, or heel. Nearly 4 in 10 of the women tested (39.6%) had osteopenia at one or more of the measurement sites, and another 7.2% had osteoporosis. Advancing age was the outstanding risk factor; the odds ratio for osteoporosis rose from 1.79 in women 55 to 59 years of age to 22.6 for those aged 80 and older. The risk also increased with the years since menopause (independently of age), but only for those at least 30 years postmenopausal. Poor self-rated health, a history of fracture, and a maternal history of either fracture after age 45 or osteoporosis all made osteoporosis significantly more likely. Asian and Hispanic women were more at risk than whites, whereas African American women had just over half the risk level of white women. Increasing body mass index correlated with a lower risk of osteoporosis, as did either the former or especially current use of estrogen postmenopausally. Current exercise also lowered the risk, as did consuming one to six alcoholic beverages per week. On follow-up, analysis using T-score categories showed that osteoporosis increased the risk of fracture 4-fold compared with normal BMD, and women with osteopenia had a 1.8-fold higher fracture rate. In a Cox proportional hazards model, osteoporosis and osteopenia increased the risk of fracture within 12 months by 2.74- and 1.73-fold, respectively. There seems no doubt that a large population of women expected to live well into the present century will be at risk of fracture. The risk exists at the time low BMD is recognized at peripheral skeletal sites.
Article
The objectives of the present study were to estimate long-term risks of osteoporotic fractures. The incidence of hip, distal forearm, proximal humerus and vertebral fracture were obtained from patient records in Malmo¨, Sweden. Vertebral fractures were confined to those coming to clinical attention, either as an inpatient or an outpatient case. Patient records were examined to exclude individuals with prior fractures at the same site. Future mortality rates were computed for each year of age from Poisson models using the Swedish Patient Register and the Statistical Year Book. The incidence and lifetime risk of any fracture were determined from the proportion of individuals fracture-free from the age of 45 years. Lifetime risk of shoulder, forearm, hip and spine fracture were 13.3%, 21.5%, 23.3% and 15.4% respectively in women at the age of 45 years. Corresponding values for men at the age of 45 years were 4.4%, 5.2%, 11.2% and 8.6%. The risk of any of these fractures was 47.3% and 23.8% in women and men respectively. Remaining lifetime risk was stable with age for hip fracture, but decreased by 20–30% by the age of 70 years in the case of other fractures. Ten and 15 year risks for all types of fractures increased with age until the age of 80 years, when they approached lifetime risks because of the competing probabilities of fracture and death. We conclude that fractures of the hip and spine carry higher risks than fractures at other sites, and that lifetime risks of fracture of the hip in particular have been underestimated.
Article
Osteoporosis is widely viewed as a major public health concern, but the exact magnitude of the problem is uncertain and likely to depend on how the condition is defined. Noninvasive bone mineral measurements can be used to define a state of heightened fracture risk (osteopenia), or the ultimate clinical manifestation of fracture can be assessed (established osteoporosis). If bone mineral measurements more than 2 standard deviations below the mean of young normal women represent osteopenia, then 45% of white women aged 50 years and over have the condition at one or more sites in the hip, spine, or forearm on the basis of population-based data from Rochester, Minnesota. A smaller proportion is affected at each specific skeletal site: 32% have bone mineral values this low in the lumbar spine, 29% in either of two regions in the proximal femur, and 26% in the midradius. Although this overall estimate is substantial, some other serious chronic diseases are almost as common. More importantly, low bone mass is associated with adverse health outcomes, especially fractures. The lifetime risk of any fracture of the hip, spine, or distal forearm is almost 40% in white women and 13% in white men from age 50 years onward. If the enormous costs associated with these fractures are to be reduced, increased attention must be given to the design and implementation of control programs directed at this major health problem.
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Hip fractures are recognized to be a major public health problem in many Western nations, most notably those in North America, Europe and Oceania. Incidence rates for hip fracture in other parts of the world are generally lower than those reported for these predominantly Caucasian populations, and this has led to the belief that osteoporosis represents less of a problem to the nations of Asia, South American and Africa. Demographic changes in the next 60 years, however, will lead to huge increases in the elderly populations of those countries. We have applied available incidence rates for hip fracture from various parts of the world to projected populations in 1990, 2025 and 2050 in order to estimate the numbers of hip fractures which might occur in each of the major continental regions. The projections indicate that the number of hip fractures occurring in the world each year will rise from 1.66 million in 1990 to 6.26 million by 2050. While Europe and North America account for about half of all hip fractures among elderly people today, this proportion will fall to around one quarter in 2050, by which time steep increases will be observed throughout Asia and Latin America. The results suggest that osteoporosis will truly become a global problem over the next half century, and that preventive strategies will be required in parts of the world where they are not currently felt to be necessary.
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The hypothesis that the high mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) in South Asians settled overseas compared with other populations is due to metabolic disturbances related to insulin resistance was tested in a population survey of 3193 men and 561 women aged 40-69 years in London, UK. The sample was assembled from industrial workforces and general practitioners' lists. In comparison with the European group, the South Asian group had a higher prevalence of diabetes (19% vs 4%), higher blood pressures, higher fasting and post-glucose serum insulin concentrations, higher plasma triglyceride, and lower HDL cholesterol concentrations. Mean waist-hip girth ratios and trunk skinfolds were higher in the South Asian than in the European group. Within each ethnic group waist-hip ratio was correlated with glucose intolerance, insulin, blood pressure, and triglyceride. These results confirm the existence of an insulin resistance syndrome, prevalent in South Asian populations and associated with a pronounced tendency to central obesity in this group. Control of obesity and greater physical activity offer the best chances for prevention of diabetes and CHD in South Asian people.
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A frequential type self-questionnaire enabling evaluation of the calcium content of the diet of an individual as well as of a given population was designed on the basis of 20 different types of food (items) rich in calcium and/or frequently eaten in metropolitan France. Comparison with the weekly docket system, chosen as a reference method, validated the self-questionnaire. Similarity with the weekly docket method disappeared when the size of portions was left to one side, drinks were eliminated or only dairy products were taken into account. The self-questionnaire with its 20 items thus offers a simple and rapid method for estimation of the daily calcium intake of a given individual to within an accuracy of 20% and as result is a dietetic evaluation technique suitable for both clinical and epidemiological use.
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Endemic dental fluorosis is very common in the North Central Province of Ceylon where 55·2–77·0% of school children have mottled teeth. A fluoride concentration of as high as 9 p.p.m. has been found in this area. There is no fluoride in the water in the Central hill area. There was a striking difference in the prevalence of caries in the two areas. Although there was a good correlation between dental fluorosis and the presence of fluorine in drinking water, in some subjects the fluoride in drinking water could not explain the presence of dental fluorosis.
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Assessment of precision errors in bone mineral densitometry is important for characterization of a technique's ability to detect longitudinal skeletal changes. Short-term and long-term precision errors should be calculated as root-mean-square (RMS) averages of standard deviations of repeated measurements (SD) and standard errors of the estimate of changes in bone density with time (SEE), respectively. Inadequate adjustment for degrees of freedom and use of arithmetic means instead of RMS averages may cause underestimation of true imprecision by up to 41% and 25% (for duplicate measurements), respectively. Calculation of confidence intervals of precision errors based on the number of repeated measurements and the number of subjects assessed serves to characterize limitations of precision error assessments. Provided that precision error are comparable across subjects, examinations with a total of 27 degrees of freedom result in an upper 90% confidence limit of +30% of the mean precision error, a level considered sufficient for characterizing technique imprecision. We recommend three (or four) repeated measurements per individual in a subject group of at least 14 individuals to characterize short-term (or long-term) precision of a technique.
Article
We measured the heels of 43 women who had recently sustained a hip fracture and 86 age matched controls, using an Achilles ultrasound device. Average BUA, SOS, and Stiffness were significantly lower in fractured patients (p < 0.0001). We also estimated ultrasound parameters for patients as a function of controls and found the mean BUA to be -1.09 SD compared with controls, the mean SOS -0.89 SD, and the mean Stiffness -0.98 SD. Femoral BMD measured at the neck, Ward's triangle, and the trochanter with a DPX Plus was also significantly lower in fractured patients (p < 0.0001). The increased risk of hip fracture associated with low ultrasound values was estimated with logistic regression analysis for each bone parameter, adjusted for height and weight. The adjusted regression coefficients associated with BUA, SOS, Stiffness, and BMD were all significant (p < 0.0001) demonstrating the influence of all ultrasound and DXA parameters on the risk of hip fracture. After adjusting the logistic regressions for BMD neck, BUA, SOS, and Stiffness were still significant independent predictors of hip fracture. Sensitivity and specificity of all measures were analyzed with the area under the ROC curve which were for BUA, 0.77 +/- 0.04; for SOS, 0.75 +/- 0.04; for Stiffness, 0.78 +/- 0.04; and for BMD, 0.74 +/- 0.04. We determined the range for the best compromise between sensitivity and specificity of BUA, 97-98 dB/MHz; SOS, 1482-1487 m/s; Stiffness 59-62% Young Adult; and of BMD, 0.64-0.69 g/cm2. The area under the ROC curves of BUA, SOS, Stiffness, and DXA were compared and no statistically significant difference was found.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
The ability of ultrasonographic measurements to discriminate between patients with hip fracture and age-matched controls has until now been tested mainly through cross-sectional studies. We report the results of a prospective study to assess the value of measurements with ultrasound in predicting the risk of hip fracture. 5662 elderly women (mean age 80.4 years) had both baseline calcaneal ultrasonography measurements and femoral radiography (dual-photon X-ray absorptiometry, DPXA) to assess their bone quality. Follow-up every 4 months enabled us to identify incident fractures. 115 hip fractures were recorded during a mean follow-up duration of 2 years. Low calcaneal ultrasonographic variables (obtained from measurements of broadband ultrasound attenuation by, and speed of sound through the bone) were able to predict an increased risk of hip fracture, with similar accuracy to low femoral bone mineral density (BMD) obtained by DPXA. The relative risk of hip fracture for 1 SD reduction was 2.0 (95% CI 1.6-2.4) for ultrasound attenuation and 1.7 (1.4-2.1) for speed of sound, compared with 1.9 (1.6-2.4) for BMD. After control for the femoral neck BMD, ultrasonographic variables remained predictive of hip fracture. The incidence of hip fracture among women with values above the median for both calcaneal ultrasound attenuation and femoral neck BMD was 2.7 per 1000 woman-years, compared with 19.6 per 1000 woman-years for those with values below the median for both measures. Ultrasonographic measurements of the os calcis predict the risk of hip fracture in elderly women living at home as well as DPXA of the hip does, and the combination of both methods makes possible the identification of women at very high or very low risk of fracture.
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine whether a transition period occurs between cortical and cancellous bone in the relationship between ultrasound parameters [broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and ultrasonic velocity] and density. Twenty-two cancellous bone discs wee obtained from proximal bovine tibiae. Also included were three samples of human vertebral cancellous bone from an elderly female and four samples of bovine cortical bone. Ultrasonic velocity did not show any transition period as density varied from cancellous to cortical bone. Ultrasonic velocity exhibited a definite linear dependence on density over the entire range examined. However, BUA has shown a transition period as density varied. Although BUA increased linearly with density for a low density cancellous bone tested (below 0.64 g cm-3), the dependence of BUA on density is nonlinear with a downwardly inflected parabola shape when covering a wide density range (0.130-0.913 g cm-3) of cancellous bone. When one includes cortical bone, the parabola tends to level off in a slow exponential decay. This nonlinear dependence may help to understand the characteristics of BUA measurement.
Article
We assessed a method for the measurement of ultrasound velocity in cortical bone of the human tibia using a probe designed to minimize the effects of surrounding soft tissues. Of four different measurement values, the maximum velocity (average of the five highest readings) gave the lowest errors of reproducibility in relation to the population variance (standardized coefficient of variation = 1.8%). The maximum velocity varied according to the tibial site measured and for practical reasons the mid-tibial site was chosen for further study. The short-term intra- and inter-observer reproducibilities (coefficients of variation) were 0.35% (n = 22) and 0.50% (n = 27) respectively. Long-term reproducibility over 4 months in 31 subjects was 0.68%. There was no significant difference in maximum ultrasound velocity between the dominant and nondominant tibia in 78 women (3764 +/- 209 vs 3763 +/- 199 m/s). Tibial ultrasound velocity was significantly higher in 73 premenopausal women (3999 +/- 102 m/s) than in 129 women referred for assessment of postmenopausal osteoporosis (3780 +/- 168 m/s), 26 women with steroid-induced osteoporosis (3790 +/- 188 m/s) and 4 women with hyperparathyroidism (3575 +/- 261 m/s). In premenopausal women, ultrasound velocity did not correlate significantly with age, height, weight or body mass index. In women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, ultrasound velocity decreased with age after the menopause (r = -0.47, p < 0.0001) and body weight exerted a weaker protective effect. The apparent annual decrease in velocity with age in postmenopausal osteoporosis (8.5 m/s) was comparable to the error of reproducibility. We conclude that the technique for measuring tibial ultrasound velocity is highly reproducible in relation to the distribution of values in the population and is sensitive to age- and osteoporosis-induced changes in bone. Further studies are required to examine its relationship to other indices of skeletal status to determine the biological and clinical relevance of the technique.
Article
1. The incidence of hip fracture is increasing in urbanized parts of Asia. 2. The incidence of hip fracture in Asian populations is still only 60% of that in Caucasians. 3. The lower incidence of hip fracture in Asian populations is not due to a higher bone mineral density, but may be due to a shorter hip axis length. 4. A low dietary calcium intake, lack of physical activity and falls are important risk factors for hip fracture in Chinese.
Article
Quantitative ultrasound of bone is a new radiation-free technique that measures bone mass and may assess bone quality. Retrospective studies have suggested that low-bone ultrasound of the calcaneus is associated with an increased risk for hip and other fractures in older women. To establish the utility of calcaneal quantitative ultrasound of bone for the prediction of fractures and to compare quantitative ultrasound of bone with bone mineral densitometry by performing a prospective cohort study within the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. We studied 6189 postmenopausal women older than 65 years of 4 US clinical centers. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), a measurement of the differential attenuation of sound waves transmitted through the calcaneus, and bone mineral density of the calcaneus and hip were measured. Subsequent hip and other nonspine fractures were documented during a mean follow-up of 2.0 years. In age- and clinic-adjusted analyses, each SD reduction in calcaneal BUA was associated with a doubling of the risk for hip fractures (relative risk [RR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-2.7); a similar relationship was observed with bone mineral density of the calcaneus (RR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.9-3.0) and femoral neck (RR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.9-3.8). After adjustment for bone mineral density of the femoral neck, BUA was still associated with an increased risk for hip fracture (RR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0-2.1). Intertrochanteric fractures in particular were strongly associated with a low BUA measurement (RR, 3.3; 95% CI, 2.0-5.5). Broadband ultrasound attenuation predicts the occurrence of fractures in older women and is a useful diagnostic test for osteoporosis. The strength of the association between BUA and fracture is similar to that observed with bone mineral density.
Article
Osteoporosis is now being recognized as a "silent epidemic" and there is an increasing need to improve its diagnosis and management. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurement [broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and velocity] is emerging as an alternative to photon absorptiometry techniques in the assessment of osteoporosis. The fundamental principles governing ultrasound measurements are discussed, and some of the commercially available clinical systems are reviewed, particularly in relation to data acquisition methods. A review of the published in vivo and in vitro data is presented. The general consensus is that ultrasound seems to provide structural information in addition to density. The diagnostic sensitivity of ultrasound measurement of the calcaneus in the prediction of hip fracture has been shown by recent large prospective studies to be similar to hip bone mineral density (BMD) measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and superior to spine BMD. Ultrasound has also been shown to correlate better with the type of hip fracture (intertrochanteric or cervical) than BMD and to provide comparable diagnostic sensitivity to spine BMD in vertebral fractures. It has also been observed that combining the results of both ultrasound and DXA BMD significantly improved hip fracture prediction. Areas where further research is required are identified.
Article
We evaluated different definitions of osteoporosis in a population-based sample of 348 men (age 22-90 years) compared with 351 women (age 21-93 years). Thirty-six men (10%) and 46 women (13%) had a history of osteoporotic fracture (hip, spine, or distal forearm due to moderate trauma at >/= age 35). In logistic regression analysis, osteoporotic fracture risk was associated with bone mineral density (BMD) at all sites (neck, trochanter, total hip, lumbar spine, and total wrist) in both genders (p < 0.001) except spinal BMD in men. After adjusting for age, total hip BMD was the strongest predictor of fracture risk in women (odds ratio [OR] per 1 SD decline, 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-3.7), while wrist BMD was best in men (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.0). Among men but not women, bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) was a better predictor of fracture than BMD (wrist BMAD OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.3). Hip BMD/BMAD decreased linearly from age 20 years onward in both genders, while spinal BMD/BMAD declined after age 40 in women but not in men. In both genders, total wrist BMD/BMAD decreased after age 50. By World Health Organization criteria, the age-adjusted prevalence of osteoporosis at the hip, spine, or wrist was 35% among women >/=50 years of age. A similar approach (BMD > 2.5 SD below the young male mean) produced an osteoporosis prevalence rate in men >/=50 years of age of 19%. Thus, bone density predicts fracture risk in men as it does in women, and the prevalence of osteoporosis in men, using sex-specific normal values, is substantial. These observations indicate a need for better prevention and treatment strategies for men.
Article
We measured the ultrasound parameters of the heels of 49 women with vertebral fractures and 87 age-matched controls using an Achilles ultrasound device. Average broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS) and Stiffness were significantly lower in fracture patients (p<0.0001). We also estimated the ultrasound parameters of patients compared with age-matched non-fracture controls and found the mean BUA to be −1.02 SD below control values. The mean SOS was −0.97 SD and the mean Stiffness was −1.12 SD below control values. Femoral bone mineral density (BMD) at the neck, Ward’s triangle and the trochanter, the total-body BMD and L2–4 BMD were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and found to be significantly lower in fracture patients (p<0.0001). All correlation coefficients between ultrasound parameters and DXA measurements were >0.5 and statistically significant (p<0.0001). A stepwise logistic regression with presence or absence of vertebral fracture as the response variable and all ultrasound – DXA parameters as the explanatory variables indicated that the best predictor of fracture was Stiffness, with additional predictive ability provided by spine BMD. Sensitivity and specificity of all measures were determined by the areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, which were 0.76 ± 0.04 for BUA, 0.77 ± 0.04 for SOS, 0.78 ± 0.04 for Stiffness and 0.78 ± 0.03 for spine BMD. The areas under the ROC curves of BUA, SOS, Stiffness and spine BMD were compared and it was found that Stiffness and spine BMD were significantly better predictors of fracture than BUA and SOS. These results support many recent studies showing that ultrasound measurements of the os-calcis have diagnostic sensitivity comparable to DXA, and also demonstrated that Stiffness was a better predictor of fracture than spine BMD.
Article
Although relatively little is known about osteoporotic risk factors in women from the Indian subcontinent, osteoporotic fractures usually occur 10-20 years earlier in Indian men and women compared with their western Caucasian counterparts. The primary purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the relative contributions of ethnicity, reproductive history, body size (height, weight) and composition, bone turnover, serum 25(OH)vitamin D3 [25(OH)D3], dietary intake (of calcium, fiber and alcohol) and energy expenditure to femoral bone mineral density (BMD) in Indian and Pakistani (Indian/Pakistani; n = 47) versus American (n = 47) Caucasians. We also contrasted femoral BMD and hip axis length in these two distinct groups of premenopausal females living in the USA. The Indian/Pakistani (0.875 ± 0.0962) women had lower (p = 0.0014) femoral BMD (g/cm2) than their American (0.937 ± 0.088) counterparts, placing them at greater osteoporotic risk. However, the shorter (p = 0.0002) hip axis length (cm) of the Indian/Pakistani (10.54 ± 0.57) versus American (11.11 ± 0.78) Caucasians might attenuate hip fracture risk in the former group. Significant contributors to proximal femur BMD were maximum non-pregnant lifetime weight, age at menarche, ratio of Σcentral-to-peripheral skinfold thicknesses, calcium intake from milk and usual alcohol intake. Although serum 25(OH)D3 and urinary N-telopeptide concentrations did not contribute to femoral BMD in the regression models, the lower (p < 0.0001) serum 25(OH)D3 (33.1 ± 16.5 vs 64.0 ± 22.0 nmol/l) and higher (p = 0.0004) urinary N-telopeptide (45.9 ± 43.3 vs 18.9 ± 18.7 nmol BCE/mmol) values in Indian/Pakistani versus American Caucasians, respectively, coupled with their lower BMD, places the Indian/Pakistani women at greater osteoporotic risk. These results suggest that a clinical trial to increase BMD and reduce osteoporotic risk is warranted in this ethnic group of premenopausal women.
Article
Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements of bone have been shown to be independent predictors of osteoporotic fracture risk. Drawbacks of this technique have included the precision of the scanners, which is said to be poorer than in dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), in part due to difficulty in repositioning of the foot in an os calcis system and difficulty in comparison across different technologies. A new type of QUS scanner has been introduced that produces an image of the area scanned and is believed to improve precision by aiding repositioning. In this study, we compare three scanners: a dry system (McCue CUBA Clinical); a nonimaging water-bath system (Lunar Achilles(+)); and an imaging water-bath system (Osteometer DTU-One). Short-term phantom precision was calculated by repeating measurements ten times in succession on the manufacturer-supplied phantom. Long-term phantom precision was calculated by examining the phantom measurements over a 6 month period. In vivo precision was calculated in 26 normal volunteers (19 women, 7 men) and 20 women with osteoporosis. Monitoring time intervals (MTIs) were also calculated using the manufacturer's normative database. The MTI is the period between scans required to show that a "true" change has occurred, and was between 0.5 year for stiffness (a derived index produced by the Lunar Achilles instrument) and >5 years for all other measurements. The imaging system did not seem to improve precision. Precision for the QUS phantom was similar to that of DXA with a coefficient of variation (CV) of around 1.5% for BUA and <1% for speed of sound (SOS). The precision was such that the technique may be considered for monitoring skeletal changes. However, the change of bone mass at the os calcis in response to treatment was slow, which made the time needed to wait before assessing change, on the whole, longer than that for DXA. An exception may be the Lunar Achilles "stiffness" parameter, but this can only be determined in a longitudinal, comparative treatment study.
Article
To determine retrospectively the prevalence of osteoporosis in a referral population of female patients and to compare the sensitivity for diagnosing osteoporosis by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) at multiple skeletal sites. We studied the data from 625 consecutive women (mean age, 57.3 +/- 13.9 years), who had been referred to our center for lumbar spine (anteroposterior [AP] and lateral region) and hip (femoral neck [FN], Ward's triangle [WT], trochanter, intertrochanteric region, and total hip) BMD measurements with use of DXA (Hologic QDR-2000) between June 1994 and July 1998. Osteoporosis (based on the World Health Organization definition--T-score of -2.5 or lower for BMD) was diagnosed by DXA at the following sites: AP spine in 21.7%, lateral spine in 43.2%, FN in 33.6%, WT in 49.1%, trochanter in 26.1%, intertrochanteric region in 25.9%, and total hip in 28.4% of study patients. Significant site differences were found in the prevalence of osteoporosis between the lateral and AP spine (P < 0.001), as well as between WT and the FN, trochanter, intertrochanteric region, and total hip (P < 0.001). In a subgroup of 71 women, forearm (ultradistal radius and radius 1/3 region) BMD results indicated low sensitivity for diagnosing osteoporosis, similar to that seen at the AP spine, trochanter, and intertrochanteric region. Not surprisingly, the prevalence of osteoporosis increased with advancing age (15.5% in patients younger than 50 years, in comparison with 59.6% in those older than 69 years of age). The frequency of misclassification of patients (osteoporosis at one site and normal BMD at another) with use of the seven measurement sites was 16.6% (104 of the 625 patients). For diagnosis of osteoporosis, DXA BMD measurements are significantly more sensitive at the lateral spine than at the AP spine, as well as at WT than at the FN, trochanter, intertrochanteric region, and total hip sites.
Article
Caucasians and Asians are among those with the highest risk for involutional osteoporosis. To obtain accurate data about the prevalence of osteoporosis or osteopenia in different age groups, a large epidemiological study is necessary. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of bone is a promising technique in assessing bone microarchitecture in addition to bone mass. This study had two aims. The first was to establish bone mineral density (BMD) using QUS in subjects with no obvious disease undergoing routine health examination. The second was to determine risk factors for osteoporosis in Taiwan in order that better prevention and treatment measures may be provided for these patients. A prospective study of the risk factors for fracture was conducted in the health examination division of Chang Gung Medical Center in Linkou, Taiwan, from January 1996 to December 1997. Broadband ultrasound attenuation of the right heel was measured with an achilles bone densitometer (Lunar, Nauheim, Germany). A total of 16,862 subjects were examined, including 9,314 women (mean age 51.5+/-11.7 years) and 7,548 men (mean age 51.1+/-12.1 years). The incidence of osteoporosis in all subjects increased from 1.13% in the 21--30-year-old age group to 54.55% in those over 80 years of age. 12.02% of the subjects had osteoporosis and 34.45% had osteopenia. From multivariate analysis, bone density evaluated by QUS showed a relationship with age, gender, body mass index, waist/hip ratio, smoking and frequency of exercise. In conclusion, BMD evaluated by QUS is not found to be higher in Taiwan than elsewhere. The role of QUS in predicting fractures in Taiwan requires further investigation.
Article
The Black Women's Health Study (BWHS) was designed to investigate determinants of health and disease in US black women. More than 64,000 women are enrolled in the BWHS cohort. This study assessed the relative validity of the 68-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in the BWHS baseline questionnaire. Four hundred and eight BWHS enrollees were asked to provide three telephone, 24-hour recalls and one written 3-day food diary over a one-year period. Means and Pearson correlations were computed to compare estimates for energy, total fat, saturated fat, protein, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, calcium, iron, vitamin C, folate, beta-carotene, and vitamin E from the FFQ, recalls, and diaries. Mean energy intake (kcal) was higher for the diary (1716) than the FFQ (1601) or recalls (1510). Other nutrient estimates (% kcal or per 1000 kcal) were similar across methods, except beta-carotene (FFQ higher). Correlations (energy-adjusted, except for energy, and corrected for intraperson variation) between the FFQ and the recalls were higher than for the diary data and were between 0.5 and 0.8, except for energy and vitamin E (both <0.3). The BWHS FFQ will support meaningful analyses of diet-health associations for 10 of the 11 energy-adjusted nutrient intake variables analyzed.
Article
The phase 3 program for strontium ranelate, a new oral agent in the treatment of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, was aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of the daily oral dose of 2 g. This program was conducted in 12 countries, involved 75 centers, and was structured in 3 studies: FIRST (Fracture International Run-in for Strontium ranelate Trial), SOTI (Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention study) and TROPOS (TReatment Of Peripheral OSteoporosis). FIRST, a run-in open study, was designed to start the normalization of the calcium and vitamin D status of the patients, check all entry criteria, and ensure inclusion of a sufficient number of well-motivated patients in either one of the two therapeutic intervention protocols, SOTI or TROPOS: FIRST included 9,196 patients. SOTI and TROPOS were prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trials comparing, in two parallel groups, the daily oral dose of 2 g of strontium ranelate with placebo, the patients of both groups receiving calcium and vitamin D according to their own deficiencies. The main objective of SOTI and TROPOS was to demonstrate a reduction in the incidence of postmenopausal women experiencing a new osteoporotic fracture (vertebral fracture in SOTI and nonvertebral fracture in TROPOS) over a 3-year treatment period, the total duration of the studies being 5 years. SOTI included 1,649 women with at least one osteoporotic vertebral fracture at inclusion and a lumbar BMD </=0.840 g/cm(2). TROPOS included 5,091 women with a femoral neck BMD </=0.600 g/cm(2). The phase 3 program for the clinical development of strontium ranelate in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis is a long-term program with the main statistical analysis after 3 years of treatment. Its aim is to demonstrate the effect of strontium ranelate on the axial and appendicular skeleton as well as its tolerability in osteoporotic patients with replete calcium and vitamin D stores.
Article
Relationships among quantitative ultrasound of bone (QUS), bone mineral density (BMD) and bone microarchitecture have been poorly investigated in human calcaneus. .Twenty-four specimens, from 12 men and 12 women (mean age 78 ± 10 years; range 53–93), removed from cadavers were studied. The feet were axially sectioned above the ankle. Two variables were measured for QUS (Achilles®, Lunar): broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS). A third variable, the stiffness index (SI), which is a combination of both BUA and SOS, was also calculated. BMD (a lateral view) was measured on a QDR 2000 densitometer (Hologic). Bone microarchitecture was assessed by computed tomography (CT) using a conventional CT-system. Fifteen sagittal sections (1 mm in width and 2 mm apart) were selected for CT. Methods used for characterizing bone microarchitecture consisted in structural (trabecular network characterization) and a fractal analyses. The relationships between QUS and bone microarchitecture were assessed by simple linear regression analysis with and without adjustment for BMD (partial correlation) and by backward stepwise regression analysis. Strong relationships were found between BMD and QUS. Adjusted r2 values were 0.545 for SOS and 0.717 for SI. Two microarchitectural variables were also significantly correlated with both SOS and SI: apparent trabecular separation (App Tr Sp) and trabecular bone pattern factor (App TBPF). After adjustment for BMD few correlations between QUS and microarchitectural variables were always significant. Adjusted squared semipartial coefficients of correlation (rs p2) values between SOS and bone microarchitecture were 6%, 6.8%, 13.2% and 4.6% for App BV/TV, App Tr Sp, App TBPF and fractal dimension (FD), respectively. For SI, corresponding figures were 3.7%, 4.1%, 5.2% and 3.2%. Backward stepwise regression analysis using BMD and microarchitecture showed a slight increase of r2 values that varied from 8.4% for SI to 17.8% for SOS, compared with BMD alone. The current study suggests that although BMD is a major determinant of acoustic properties of human calcaneus, significant density independent relationships with bone microarchitecture should also be taken into account.
Conference Paper
In recent years, quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements has played a growing role in the assessment of skeletal status. This development is attributable to the now wide availability of ultrasonic equipment which provides equivalent fracture risk assessment compared to conventional X-ray absorptiometric techniques. Currently available technologies are based on measurements in transmission of the slope of the frequency-dependent attenuation and the speed of sound at peripheral skeletal sites (calcaneus, finger phalanges, radius). Several investigations are currently being conducted by our group and others to develop innovative QUS techniques to determine and utilize the full potential of QUS for the benefit of detecting pathological conditions that affect bone strength, such as imaging QUS technology, reflection techniques based either on critical angle reflectometry or backscatter, and axial transmission techniques based on the propagation of guided waves along the bone surface
Population Projections for Sri Lanka 1991–2041
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Ultrasound assessment of bone
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Population Projections for Sri Lanka 1991–2041. Institute of Policy Studies
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De Silva WI (1997) Population Projections for Sri Lanka 1991–2041. Institute of Policy Studies, Colombo.
Bone density and fracture risk in men
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Melton LJ 3rd, Atkinson EJ, O'Connor MK, O'Fallon WM, Riggs BL (1998) Bone density and fracture risk in men. J Bone Miner Res 13, 1915–23.
Lifestyle and biologic contributions to proximal femur and hip axis length in two distinct ethnic groups of premenopausal women
  • Alkel