Educational Psychology: Developing Learners

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Edition: Fourth Edition
Publisher: Prentice Hall
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  • ... 1. Validation of a product can be done through FGD by experts, both face to face and online [39]. 2. FGD, there are three important things, namely: the process of gathering information, the discussion is focused on a particular topic, and participants come from experts in their fields [40]. ...
    Article
    p class="0abstract">This study aims to develop edmodo-based interactive teaching materials as an alternative media for science learning to improve critical thinking skills of junior high school students. This type of research is Research and Development (R&D) with ADDIE (Analyze, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation) models. The research subjects were 28 students of grade VII in Jember district (Indonesia) who were obtained by cluster random sampling technique. Data were collected using validation sheets, observation sheets, critical thinking skills tests, and students responses questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, normalized gain (n-gain), and paired sample t-test. The results show that edmodo-based interactive teaching materials can be used as an alternative media for learning science in junior high schools because they meet the following criteria: (1) validity, in terms of the validity assessment score of 3.60 (from the range of scores from 0 to 4) in the criteria are very valid, (2) practicality, in terms of the score of learning feasibility of 3.20 in good criteria, (3) effectiveness, in terms of an increase students critical thinking skills were statistically significant at α = 5% with an average n-gain of .71 in high criteria, and student responses of 83% in very good criteria.</p
  • ... The premise of the study is rooted in the concept of self-efficacy, which was introduced by Albert Bandura as a component of his social-cognitive theory. Selfefficacy is the assessment of one's capabilities to organize and execute a particular task successfully, it is a belief in one's capacities to achieve meaningful results, address issues and complete tasks successfully Ormrod, 2006). A high sense of selfefficacy implies optimism and exuberance, whereas, a low sense of self-efficacy implies pessimism and apathy in achieving desired goals (Kumar & Lal, 2006). ...
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    The present study explored the effect of Hettler's six dimensions of wellness on teachers' self-efficacy. Teachers in the experimental group participated in the Optimal Wellness course. All study participants (experimental and control group) completed Bandura's Teacher Self-Efficacy Scale and a Wellness Dimensions Scale, especially developed for this study, at pretest and posttest. Results showed that the Optimal Wellness course had a significant effect on the experimental group's self-efficacy and wellness ratings in the six dimensions. All six wellness dimension ratings contributed significantly towards the overall self-efficacy in the experimental group. Emotional wellness contributed the most towards female teachers' self-efficacy, whereas, intellectual wellness towards the males' self-efficacy. However, intellectual and occupational wellness contributed towards the untreated control group's male and female teachers' self-efficacy. Findings of this study have potential implications for education administrators, learning and teaching development professionals, curriculum supervisors, instructional designers and trainers.
  • ... Generative Instructional Strategy is a step-by-step instructional strategy, which is based on learners' views and experiences in active classroom activities (Wittrock, 1999). It is a learnercentered approach whereby pieces of information retrieved from learners' memories on a particular concept, are explained and modified by learners themselves Ormrod, 2003). Generative Instructional Strategy allows for individualized form of learning and empowers learners with the ability to express their personal views. ...
    Article
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    The period 1999 to 2009 in Nigeria witnessed persistent poor students' performance in Physics at the Senior School Certificate level. This has been linked to the adoption of instructional strategies which did not give enough consideration to learners' previous knowledge and how they reasoned in order for learners to construct their knowledge based on these. This study therefore implemented generative instructional strategy for teaching selected Physics concept using the pre-test, post-test control group quasi-experimental design. Findings showed that students exposed to the generative instructional strategy performed better (adjusted mean =29.14) than their peers in the conventional teaching group (adjusted mean =25.16) to a significant extent (F (1.205) = 18.08; p < .05). Based on these, recommendations were made for Physics teachers to adopt generative instruction which encourages student construction of their learning and active involvement in classroom activities while capacity building programmes for science teachers should be organized to popularize the strategy.
  • ... Motivation can be manipulated through certain instructional practices. It can direct behavior toward specific goals and leads to increased effort, energy, initiation, and persistence of activities (Ormrod, 2008;Tohidi & Jabbari, 2011;Amedi, 2013;). Finally, motivation leads to improvement in performance. ...
  • ... Die Entwicklungstheorie von Piaget hat aus verschiedenen Perspektiven Kritik erfahren (vgl. Keller 2015;Ormrod 2011;Sodian 2018 ...
    Chapter
    Menschen verändern sich ständig, sie passen sich der momentanen Situation, aber auch langfristig wirksamen Anforderungen und Umweltbedingungen an. Dieses Kapitel befasst sich mit nachhaltigen Veränderungen im Kindes- und Jugendalter. Es werden Gegenstand und Aufgaben der Entwicklungspsychologie vorgestellt und Methoden der Entwicklungspsychologie besprochen, wobei die Beobachtung eine besonders wichtige Stellung einnimmt. Es werden beschreibende Ordnungssysteme für Entwicklungsprozesse dargestellt und erklärende Modelle der Entwicklung diskutiert. Das Entwicklungsmodell von Jean Piaget wird als Beispiel eines Stufenmodells und der Informationsverarbeitungsansatz als alternativer theoretischer Zugang vorgestellt.
  • ... This is the focus of the supportive strategy which is, promoting positive behavior that will lead to less corrective interventions. Ormrod (2013) argues that supportive strategy in the classroom significantly contributes to the learning and development of students. Besides, supportive strategy which could re-energize the class can motivate students simply and effectively (Newcomer, 2009) ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    The importance of Physical Education (PE) is acknowledged worldwide. However, various countries have found many problems with regards to PE teaching and learning such as the existence of unknowledgeable and incompetent teachers. The purpose of this study is to determine the significant differences between trained and untrained PE teachers in relation to classroom management strategies (CMS) and teaching motivation (TM) by using independent t-test. Additionally, this study sought to examine the relationship between CMS and TM among trained and untrained PE teachers through correlation analysis. The samples of this study were 72 PE teachers in Southern Thailand (40 trained and 32 untrained PE teachers respectively). Questionnaire was used as the instrument for data collection which comprises Classroom Management Strategies Questionnaire (CMSQ) and Autonomous Motivation for Teaching Questionnaire (AMTQ). The results evinced that trained PE teachers are better at CMS and TM compared to untrained PE teachers. It was also found that there is a positive relationship between CMS and TM for trained PE teachers. Meanwhile, there is no significant relationship between CMS and TM for untrained PE teachers. This study provides empirical evidence to confirm that teachers who teach physical education must be expert in the area. Moreover, proper CMS and teacher motivation should be enhanced concomitantly.
  • ... This is the focus of the supportive strategy which is, promoting positive behavior that will lead to less corrective interventions. Ormrod (2013) argues that supportive strategy in the classroom significantly contributes to the learning and development of students. Besides, supportive strategy which could re-energize the class can motivate students simply and effectively (Newcomer, 2009) ...
  • ... Hal ini senada dengan Ormrod (2003) yang menyatakan bahwa budaya merupakan hasil budi daya manusia yang dapat berupa pengetahuan, ketrampilan, aturan, tradisi, kepercayaan, tingkah laku, dan karya seni yang dihasilkan dan diteruskan suatu kelompok sosial ke generasi berikutnya. Di sisi lain Triandis (Samovar et al, 2010) menyatakan bahwa kebudayaan merupakan elemen subjektif dan objektif yang dibuat manusia yang di masa lau meningkatkan kemungkinan untuk bertahan hidup dan berakibat dalam kepuasan pelaku dalam ceruk ekologis, dan demikian tersebar di antara mereka yang dapat berkomunikasi satu sama lainnya, karena mereka mempunyai kesamaan bahasa dan mereka hidup dalam waktu dan tempat yang sama. ...
  • ... Higher perceived self-efficacy contributes significantly to acquiring the necessary motivation in science education and achieving the desired result. However, motivation itself can have several effects on how students learn and their attitudes towards science subjects (Ormrod, 2006). ...
    Article
    This research was based on the concern that students didn’t see the need for the acquisition of science skills and knowledge perceived as important in relation to different society issues and the world of work. The aim was to determine gymnasium students perceived self-efficacy towards working life skills as well as science curriculum, content-related topics. The sample was composed of grade 12 (N=1375) 18-19-yearold students. Data were obtained using a 4-point Likert scale questionnaire seeking to determine students’ perceived self-efficacy towards working life skills and topics in the science curriculum linked to disciplinary core ideas. In general, students perceived their self-efficacy to be above average towards most needed working life skills. However, it was much lower in areas related to problemsolving skills and understanding the nature of science. Results also indicated that the self-efficacy associated with purely Physics curriculum-related topics stood out as being much lower than for the other school science subject areas. Findings suggested there was a need to re-thinking the way science content was presented to students and to consider whether and how this could be restructured around core ideas in science in order to promote the development of problem-solving skills as an important aspect in enhancing working life skills. Keywords: core ideas, working life skills, self-efficacy, science curriculum topics, science education.
  • ... It means that people especially student are naturally feel anxious when they are threatened. (Ormrod, 2011) states that anxiety is a feeling of uneasiness and apprehension concerning a situation with an uncertain outcome. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Speaking skill is one of the most difficult aspects of language learning. Students find it difficult to express themselves in spoken language. This research is to know how far the anxiety students in learning speaking. Anxiety analysis is very important because it will affect the extent to which goals will be achieved. Researchers analyze level of anxiety in learning speaking used drill method and also used FLCAS ( Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale) questionnaire by Howritz et al (1986) for collecting data. The FLCAS data questionnaire consisting of 33 items scoring with Likert’s scale and analyzed manually used Oeting’s scale. The researchers take 20 students from X mipa 1 of SMA Pasundan Cikalongkulon Cianjur in the academic year 2017/2018. In conclusion the research showed that there is a significant and it is difference indicated that drill method was effective in reduced students’ anxiety in learning speaking.Keywords: Speaking, Drill method, Anxiety
  • ... Contrary to the judgment passed on Nigerian leaders, self efficacy deals with the competence of an individual to accept and execute a particular task and achieve the desired goals (Ormrod, 2006). Nigerian leaders lead Nigerians even when they are not competent, and they are not interested at achieving the goal of national development. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    The major objective of states is to provide a convincing development administration that will guaranty the political utility of their citizenry. This paper however, is a critical approach to analyzing the nature of leadership in Nigeria and the way corruption has become a beautifying cosmetic in Nigerian politics and administration. The paper analyses the various ways through which corruption is entrenched in Nigerian government and politics and its general implication for Nigeria's socio-political and economic continuity. By adopting literatures from library research, the paper is descriptive and analytical in nature, based on secondary methodological influence. Findings show that corruption in leadership is a major impediment to the survival of socio political and economic formations. The paper concludes that development is only obtainable in a healthy political environment that is devoid of corruption. The paper recommends a drastic interpretation of the law on corrupt government officials found guilty of corruption so as to sanitize the political atmosphere, among other things.
  • ... A self-contained class for visual impairment, for instance, is only contained students with visual problems with somewhat degree of visual equity differences. In the context of curriculum diversification, modification is emphasized more on the group rather than the individual basis of response to intervention (RTI), though the instruction mode can also be ( Ormrod, 2011;Woolfolk, 2013). Furthermore, when diversification is made on the individual needs, it is believed the curriculum would be much more fruitful regardless of the time consumed. ...
  • ... Love and self-esteem, as the students' basic needs, can be accommodated through TDSAS. TDSAS which emerges the students' positive affective color response (hereinafter referred to as SPACR) to create an effective, fun and conducive to learning and also improve students' confidence can be applied to preserve the students' feeling, to feel loved and appreciated (Ormrod, 2009). By using Brown and Levinson's speech strategy parameters (1987), it is discovered that TDSAS which emerges SPACR are (a) direct speech, (b) praising, (c) using terms of endearment or name, (d) avoiding using the words saya (I) and kamu (you), (e) involving speakers and interlocutors in activities, (f) using polite request, (g) containing jokes and humor, (h) considering the interlocutor's wishes, (i) seeking agreement, and (j) indirect speech. ...
    Article
    Love and self-esteem can be fulfiled by the teacher through teachers’ directive speech act strategy (TDSAS). Teachers need to use teachers’ directive speech act strategy to make the students feel loved and respected and emerge the students’ positive affective color response (SPACR) which creates a fun, effective and conducive learning process. Some verbal abuses made by the teachers affect the students’ psychology (inferiority, trauma, laziness, and has no motivation to come to school). This study aimed to portray the Indonesian language learning in junior high school using TDSAS-SPACR with a synectics model to improve the quality of the process and learning outcomes. Using the descriptive-qualitative method, the results showed that the TDSAS based learning which emerges SPACR creates an effective and fun Indonesian language learning in junior high school.
  • ... Horwitz et al. (1986) stated that anxiety is the feeling of apprehension, tension, worry, and nervousness dealing with an arousal of the automatic nervous system. In addition, Ormrod (2011) also said that anxiety can be defined as apprehensions and uneasiness feeling toward an uncertain result of a given condition. In conclusion, anxiety is every feeling of worry that happened because of the unsure result of a particular attempt. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    This study is aimed at finding out the level of speaking anxiety experienced by a group of pre-service English teachers at a university in Indonesia and investigating the factors contributing to their speaking anxiety. Using cluster random sampling, this mixed-method research took 30 pre-service English teachers from the same class as the research participants. The data were collected through questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The questionnaires were adapted from FLCAS (Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale) designed by Horwitz et al (1986). The result of the questionnaire shows that the students' speaking anxiety is overall in the mildly anxious level. It was identified that there were six students (20%) in the level of very anxious, seven students (23%) in the level of anxious, 14 students (47%) in the mildly anxious level, one student (3%) in the relaxed level, and two students (7%) in the very relaxed level. The interview data indicated that the anxiety was likely because of several interrelated factors: social, linguistic, and personal factors. The social factors include fear of making mistake, feeling under pressure dealing with people, afraid of negative evaluation by teachers, worrying of losing face; the linguistic factor relates to students' lack of English ability (grammatical issues, proper pronunciation, and vocabulary). While from the personal factor deal with issues such as low motivation and and family problems.
  • ... Intention can also be understood as a form of intrinsic motivation. The positive influence of this intention makes a person try things like pleasure, happiness, and joy [9]. Based on an explanation related to this intention it can be understood that intention is influenced by perception and also motivation [8]. ...
  • ... The instructional model is an effort to organize and facilitate learning to improve the ability of individuals to construct knowledge and develop creative thinking. Gredler (2011), Bybee (2015), Ormrod, at al., (2016), and Eggen & Kauchak (2012), explain that learning can be interpreted as a process of interaction between individuals and their learning environment to strengthen social, intellectual, and conceptual skills so that they are adaptive to global change. Therefore, the purpose of social studies is directed at developing knowledge, attitudes, and values through developing inquiry, problemsolving and social skills to prepare for global challenges. ...
  • ... In addition, very young learners are not capable of learning abstract things; they need concrete concepts that would relate to their immediate situation. Their learning style is mostly kinesthetic, therefore, it is necessary for them to touch and see in order to learn (Ormond, 2010;Widodo, 2005;Wright et al., 2007). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling (TPRS) aims to provide language learners with considerable amount of comprehensible input through stories for language and literacy development. Although it has already demonstrated high potential with adolescent and adult learners of English, its implementation within the context of very young learners and its impact on their language acquisition is an issue that remains to date underexplored. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the possible effects of TPRS on very young learners’ L2 receptive and productive vocabulary acquisition. Nineteen four-year-old kindergarten students in Turkish EFL context constituted a single treatment group of the study. The study had pretest-treatment-immediate posttest-and delayed posttest design. The target vocabulary was taught following the stages of TPRS and adapting them to the context of very young learners. Data collection included receptive and productive picture tests that were developed and administered in one-to-one sessions with each participating child. The results show that TPRS has a positive effect both on recall and retention of receptive and productive vocabulary. Receptive learning was discovered to benefit from the treatment more than productive learning. Additionally, some vocabulary items were found to be more challenging for children to acquire than the others mostly due to their low frequency. The study suggests that TPRS can be used to teach vocabulary to very young learners as it uses techniques that support their language acquisition. The study also provides guiding suggestions to adapt this method to the context of very young learners.
  • ... Students do not fully understand the benefits and risks faced by their behavior. Ormrod (2008) states clearly about the behavior of early adolescents that most of their social acceptance and physical appearance are far more important than academic competence. This can cause problems in the world of education. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Financial education is expected to provide with an underst nding of the importance of economic values to students economic behavior. This research is motivated by the low economic behavior of students, especially in financial management, such as a consumptive lifestyle without planning, borrowing high money without being able to pay it and other negative economic behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that influence the economic behavior of economic education college students in Palangka Raya, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. The scientific method used for this research is quantitative. The population of this research is all coleege students of economic education in Palangka Raya who are familiar with the internet, because the research instruments are distributed to respondents through Google form. The sample is ten times the number of indicators in this case totaling 150 college students. To analyze the fix or not the model used F regression test. To determine the significance of the t test used, and to determine the contribution of independent variables to the dependent used the R square test. Based on the results of data analysis, it is concluded that there is a positive and significant influence between economic education and economic literacy on economic behavior both partially and simultaneously. Economic education variables make a greater contribution to economic behavior. Economic education and economic literacy are factors that contribute to economic behavior by providing an u derstanding of the importance of knowing the benefits and financial risks that college students do.
  • ... The finding showed that there are no significant differences in pre-services teachers' attitudes toward DST due to teaching method since their attitudes were high before integrating DST. In this case, motivated learners are somewhat prefer to working at all assignment still the end, with regards to some conditions they may face such as interruption or frustration (Ormrod, 2014). ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    This study aims to identify the impact of digital storytelling (DST) on academic achievement of sixth grade students in English language and their motivation towards it in Jordan.DST plays an important role in the maintenance and progress of English language.The research uses a quasi-experimental method. The sample of the study consists of (50) male students were purposefully chosen from public schools at Jerash governorate. They were distributed into two groups: Experimental group which has (25) students learning English language through DST, and control group which has (25) students. They are taught the same content in traditional way. The findings of the study showed that there are statistically significant differences in students' academic achievement and students' motivation towards learning English language due to teaching method in favor of experimental group which DST strategy is the main method used in English language. Statistically significant differences were also found in students' motivation towards learning English language due to teaching method in favor of experimental group. In the light of the results, some recommendations were set like integrating DST in the teaching and learning English language.
  • ... The initial version of SRLS consist of 15 items with 4-Likerttype scales (from 1= strongly disagree until 4=strongly agree). These SRLS was self-developed according to several aspects consisting the three phases of self-regulated learning following (Kitsantas, 2013;Effeney, Carroll, & Bahr, 2013;Ormrod, 2003;Virtanen, Nevgi, & Niemi, 2015;Zimmerman, 2008). The three phases of selfregulated learning including the phase of planning, implementation, and evaluation were synthesized to construct the SRLS. ...
  • ... Dalam pelaksanaan proses pembelajaran yang akan berlangsung, guru perlu menyusun perangkat pembelajaran dengan baik. Perangkat pembelajaran adalah sekumpulan sumber belajar yang memungkinkan guru dan siswa melakukan kegiatan pembelajaran (Ormrod, 2003). Menurut Nwike, perangkat pembelajaran adalah alat bantu mengajar atau peralatan yang digunakan guru di dalam kelas untuk memfasilitasi pembelajaran dalam rangka mencapai tujuan yang diharapkan (Nwike & Catherine, 2013). ...
    Article
    AbstrakPenelitian ini merupakan penelitian dan pengembangan yang bertujuan menghasilkan produk perangkat pembelajaran matematika dengan pendekatan saintifik. Penelitian dilakukan di MTs Negeri 1 Bolaang Mongtondow Timur. Pada penelitian ini model yang dikembangkan adalah pengembangan Four-D yang mencakup 4 (empat) tahap, yaitu: (1) pendefinisian, (2) perancangan, (3) pengembangan, dan (4) penyebaran. Uji pengembangan produk hanya dilakukan pada materi persamaan dan pertidaksamaan linear satu vaiabel. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa produk yang telah dilakukan uji pengembangannya telah memenuhi kriteria antara lain, valid, praktis, dan efektif. Hasil uji pengembangan yang memenuhi kriteria valid berdasarkan persentase penilaian ahli yang mencapai 100%. Dalam penelitian ini output yang memenuhi kriteria praktis berdasarkan penilaian guru dan siswa adalah kategori sangat baik, serta berdasarkan hasil observasi keterlaksanaan pembelajaran. Produk memenuhi kriteria efektif berdasarkan hasil belajar siswa pada kompetensi sikap, pengetahuan, dan keterampilan. Persentase siswa yang mencapai kriteria ketuntasan minimal (KKM) untuk kompetensi sikap, pengetahuan, dan keterampilan melebihi 78%.Kata kunci: pembelajaran matematika, pendekatan saintifik AbstractThis study was a research and development which aimed to producing mathematics learning sets with a scientific approach. This study was conducted at Public MTs 1 of East Bolaang Mongtondow. The developed model in this study was the development of Four-D which includes 4 (four) stages, namely: (1) defining, (2) designing, (3) development, and (4) dissemination. Product development tests are only carried out on equation and inequation of linear material of single variable. The results of this study show that the products that have been tested for development have met the criteria, among others, are valid, practical, and effective. Development test results that meet valid criteria are based on the percentage of expert evaluations that reach 100%. In this study, the output that meets the practical criteria based on teacher and student assessment was a very good category, and based on the results of observations of the learning’s implementation. The products which are meet the effective criteria based on the student learning outcomes in competency attitudes, knowledge, and skills. The percentage of students who achieved the minimum completeness criteria (KKM) for competency attitudes, knowledge, and skills exceeded to 78%.Keywords: mathematical learning sets, scientific approach
  • ... Efikasi merupakan kecekapan bertindak balas dengan persekitaran.Manusia lebih cenderung melibatkan diri dalam tingkah laku tertentu apabila mereka percaya mereka mampu melaksanakannya dengan baik. Ini berlaku apabila mereka mempunyai efikasi kendiri yang tinggi (Bandura, 1997 dalamOrmrod, 2003). Nilai efikasi kendiri dapat mempengaruhi tingkah laku melalui pemilihan aktiviti, usaha dan kegigihan dan juga melalui pembelajaran dan pencapaian.Populasi kajian adalah seramai 154 MBK di dalam kelas Pendidikan Inklusif di 11 daerah di negeri Sabah iaitu Tenom (SMK Entabuan), Keningau (SMK Gunsanad, SMK Apin-Garam II). ...
    Conference Paper
    Full-text available
    Kajian ini adalah bertujuan untuk mengenalpasti tahap motivasi pembelajaran Murid Berkeperluan Khas (MBK) Pendidikan Inklusif. Kajian ini telah dilaksanakan di beberapa sekolah menengah di negeri Sabah yang mempunyai Program Pendidikan Khas Integrasi Bermasalah Pembelajaran dan telah melaksanakan Program Pendidikan Inklusif. Soal selidik yang diadaptasi daripada Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) telah digunakan untuk mengukur motivasi pembelajaran MBK Pendidikan Inklusif. Data kajian telah dianalisis menggunakan IBM SPSS Statistics 20 untuk menentukan tahap motivasi pembelajaran MBK. Kajian mendapati bahawa elemen motivasi pembelajaran iaitu motivasi ekstrinsik dan nilai tugasan berada di tahap tinggi, motivasi intrinsik, kawalan kepercayaan terhadap pembelajaran dan efikasi kendiri adalah di tahap sederhana, dan kegelisaan adalah di tahap yang rendah. Dapatan kajian ini adalah amat penting untuk digunakan oleh para guru Pendidikan Inklusif dalam usaha menyusun strategi untuk meningkatkan lagi tahap motivasi pembelajaran MBK Pendidikan Inklusif.
  • ... As a general critical background, pedagogical competences are part of professional competence for the teaching career. From the taxonomic perspective, we observe that there are different conceptions regarding the classification of pedagogical competences (Ormrod, 1998;Gherghinescu, 1999;Turner-Bisset, 2001;Diaconu, 2002;Gliga, 2003;Bankauskien et al., 2005;Rodzevi i t , 2006;Kozan Naumescu, 2008;Tadeeva, 2009;Ryegård et al., 2010, Madhavaram andLaverie, 2010). ...
    Book
    Full-text available
    This book focuses on identifying the possibilities of curriculum innovation for the development of language teachers’ pedagogicalcompetences. The initiating chapter presents the new trends in curricular innovation with special emphasis on the factors determining the designing and implementation of curricular innovation. As the study unites curricular innovation and pedagogical competence in a mutually determinant pair, chapter two presents the conceptual delimitations between skills, aptitudes, as well as the concepts of “competence” and “competency” also providing a reference framework of pedagogical competences which offers a diachronic perspective of how research in the field has evolved.
  • ... In modern education, motivating students is the most necessary factor, assuming that students' future is also important on top of evaluating test scores. Various theories of motivation are defined by many psychologists and their causes and processes are explained [2], [3]. This paper suggests motivational modeling for students in the education system using 'Reward and punishment systems' based on Victor Vroom's Expectancy theory. ...
  • ... Mental processes involve thinking, feeling motivation, paying attention, studying and remembering (Ormrod, 2003). Cognitive development occurs as a result of maturation of the learner influenced by environmental factors. ...
  • ... Previous research has focussed more on situational factors that relate to 'contextual' environment surrounding the individual than on 'cognitive' (person-related) factors (Ormrod 2008). Leadership attributes, cognitive abilities, behaviours and personality traits are some of the examples of person-related factors, whilst contextual factors emanate from the operating environment surrounding an individual. ...
    Article
    Full-text available
    Orientation: Poor intergenerational survival rate of family-owned agribusinesses is a matter of serious concern in family business literature. Ageing population of senior leaders and a lack of commitment from the next generation are often cited as the main contributing factors. Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between cognitive factors (self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions) and commitment of the next generation in family-owned agribusinesses. Motivation for the study: Family business literature is extensive regarding the phenomena of high failure rate amongst family-owned business, and agribusinesses are not immune to this phenomenon. However, previous research has focussed more on situational factors that relate to ‘contextual’ environment surrounding the individual, whilst little research has focussed on ‘cognitive’ (person-related) factors. Research design, approach and method: Following a positivistic paradigm, a cross-sectional design was followed using a quantitative self-administered questionnaire through multi-stage probability sampling, resulting in a sample of 125 next-generation individuals in family-owned agribusinesses. The data was subjected to an exploratory factor analysis and Pearson’s correlation test. Main findings: The results revealed that there was a significant relationship between self-efficacy, entrepreneurial intentions (person-related factors) and commitment of the next generation. Furthermore, the relationship between self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions was also found to be positively significant. Practical/managerial implications: A committed, willing and ready next generation is a prerequisite for effective succession in family businesses, given the expected exodus of a large cohort of senior leaders. Therefore, succession planning, especially from the successor’s side, needs effective management. Investment in career planning and development of the next generation is a step in the right direction. Contributions/value-add: Given the dearth of research exploring successor-related factors affecting succession, the current article adds to the literature by examining the relationship between person-related factors (self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions) and commitment (behavioural outcome) of the next generation within the realm of agribusiness development.
  • ... Social skills are defined as a set of complex behaviors that enable individuals to engage in mutually beneficial reciprocal positive social interaction relationships [2]. According to Ormrod [3], social skills are a person's ability to think and behave effectively with others in social situations. Combs and Slaby in Cartledge and Milburn [4] define social skills as an ability to interact with others in existing social contexts in various ways that can be valued and socially accepted, and also provide benefits for themselves, others, and both. ...
  • ... Kavramlar, birbiriyle ilişkilendirilebilen nesne veya olayları zihinsel grup veya ulamlara ayırma yoludur. Kavramlar düşüncelerin merkezinde yer alır ve bazı kuramcılar, kavramları "düşüncenin en küçük yapı taşları veya birimleri" olarak düşünürler (Ormrod, 2006). Kaptan (1998), kavramların yaşadığımız çevreye ilişkin meselelerin ifadesindeki karmaşıklığı azalttığını, insanlar arası iletişimi kolaylaştırdığını ve bilgilerin sistematik bir şekilde gruplanmasını sağladığını vurgular. ...
  • ... Self-efficacy is the measure of one's own competence to complete tasks and reach goals (Ormrod, 2006). Self-efficacy affects every area of human endeavour by determining the beliefs a person holds regarding his or her power to affect situations, thus strongly influencing both the power a person actually has to face challenges competently and the choices a person is most likely to make. ...
    Article
    The purpose of the study was to compare the difference between male and female inter-collegiate softball players of Manipur on self-efficacy. Forty (40) softball players (male = 20, female = 20) who represented in the inter-collegiate softball tournament held at Regional college, Imphal west district conducted under the aegis of Manipur University, Canchipur (India) in 2013 were recruited as the subjects. The age of the subjects ranged from 17 to 28 years. General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) developed by Schwarzer and Jerusalem (1995) was used for assessing the level of self-efficacy of the subjects of two experimental groups. 't' test was employed to analyze the data. Results of the study revealed insignificant difference between male and female inter-collegiate softball players of Manipur with stare to self-efficacy.
  • ... interactions between self-efficacy and selfconcept; and habits of attribution that contribute to, or detract from, self-efficacy (2) . (4) . ...
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    Self-efficacy is a person's confidence in his or her natural capacity to accomplish goals. Objectives: To find the influences of the following background variables in enhancing the self-efficacy of secondary school students by the yoga-based intervention. Methods: The investigators working the experimental method for the present investigation in which the single group design. Sample: The 40 Students from secondary school standards constitute the sample of the present study. The total sample selected through purposive sampling technique. The homogeneity was recognized verified. Tool: A questionnaire of test for self-efficacy of secondary school student’s level and Yoga based Intervention to be developed by the investigator. Analysis and discussion: In regard to the male students 10% have low level, 20% of them have moderate and 17.5% of them have high level of self-efficacy. In regard to the female students, 10% have a low level, 27.5% of them have moderate and 20% of them have a high level of self-efficacy. Findings: There is a significant difference between the mean scores of male and female students selected elements of self-efficacy attained through the yoga-based Intervention. This paper also provides an educational implication which helps educators undertake creativities for proper infusion of yoga-based intervention that further enhances the Self-Efficacy of secondary School students.
  • ... Başka bir ifade ile kavramlar, birbiriyle ilişkilendirilebilen nesne veya olayları grup veya kategorilere ayırarak anlamanın bir yoludur (Baysen, Güneyli ve Baysen, 2012). Yani düşüncenin veya anlamanın en küçük yapı taşları-birimleri olan kavramlar (Ormrod, 2006) yaşadığımız çevredeki karmaşıklığı azaltmakta, insanlar arası iletişimi kolaylaştırmakta ve bilgilerin sistematik bir şekilde gruplandırılmasını sağlamaktadır (Kaptan, 1998). Kavramlar yine diğer bazı kavramlarla açıklanabildiğinden bireyin düşünmesine ve düşünce ağını kurmasına da yardımcı olmaktadırlar (Beydoğan, 1996). ...
  • ... Self-efficacy is the measure of one's own competence to complete tasks and reach goals (Ormrod 2006). Self-efficacy affects every area of human endeavour by determining the beliefs a person holds regarding his or her power to affect situations, thus strongly influencing both the power a person actually has to face challenges competently and the choices a person is most likely to make. ...
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    The present investigation was conducted to compare the self-efficacy of male and female Taekwondo players. One hundred and four Taekwondo players (Male = 52 and Female = 52) who participated in the All India Intervarsity Taekwondo tournament held at Manipur University, Canchipur (India) in 2012 were considered as the subjects. Their age ranged from 17 to 27 years. General Self- Efficacy Scale (GSES) developed by Schwarzer and Jerusalem (1995) was used for assessing the level of self-efficacy of the subjects of two experimental groups. ‘t’ test was employed to analyze the data. Results of the study revealed no significant difference between male and female intervarsity taekwondo players in regard to self-efficacy.
  • Chapter
    Menschen unterscheiden sich in vielfacher Weise voneinander und es ergibt sich die Frage, wie sich solche Unterschiede erklären lassen. In diesem Kapitel wird beispielhaft die Frage bearbeitet, wie sich erklären lässt, dass manche Schülerinnen und Schüler in der Schule sehr erfolgreich sind und andere wiederum nicht. Dazu werden theoretische Konzepte von Intelligenz und Motivation vorgestellt. Beispielhaft werden einzelne empirische Befunde zum Zusammenhang von Intelligenz, Motivation und Schulleistung diskutiert.
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    CONFERENCE AIMS AND SCOPE: Affiliated with 1 Decembrie 1918 University of Alba Iulia, Romania, situated in Central Europe, at the crossroads between Romance, Slavic, German and Hungarian cultures and languages, the CIELCentre has been long activating in the field of language education, intercultural awareness-raising and active citizenship promotion. Its members, academics, practitioners and researchers alike understand linguistic and intercultural education as paramount to constructing a global citizenship of culturally competent and aware individuals who display cultural insights and a sense of belonging to the humanity at large. CLIE-2018 aims at investigating the intrinsic relationship between language and culture and the multifariousness of their interrelatedness, in particular from a pragma-semantic approach. The two-way interdependence and synergies between language and culture are determinants of the extent to which culture is included in meaning creation, influencing the speakers’ perceptions of culture as reflected in our exchanges about the world surrounding us. By delving into the semantics of a language we may reach an understanding of cultural meanings. Along the same lines, this could reveal the implicit suppositions which are connected to them and which are implicitly understood and shared by the community members, but not accessible to outsiders.
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