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Abstract

We propose a triadic model of social desires directed at appetence/aversion of affiliation with friends (A), being alone (B), and closeness to one's partner (C) that account for individual differences in subjectively experienced needs for proximity and distance in serious couple relationships. The model assumes that A, B, and C can be conceptualized at the individual level as correlated latent factors measured by appetence and aversion indicators with opposite factor loadings and low shared method variance and at the couple level assuming the same measurement model and identical (co)variances for men and women. The model was confirmed with confirmatory factor analyses in a sex-balanced internet sample of 476 individuals and a longitudinal sample of both partners of 578 heterosexual couples by assessing the ABC desires with brief appetence/aversion scales. In both samples, the desires showed expected unique associations with the Big Five personality traits, loneliness and relationship satisfaction, perceived available support by friends and partner, and attachment style toward the partner and high 1-year stability in the longitudinal sample. We suggest that the ABC model helps to integrate research on couples' distance regulation along the lines of communal and agentic motivation. Copyright © 2012 European Association of Personality Psychology

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... We aimed to demonstrate that the UMS intimacy scale is related to, without being redundant with, established personality constructs in the area of close relationships. Therefore, we assessed five scales related to close relationships: two dimensions of attachment style (attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety; Fraley et al., 2000), the desire for closeness to the partner and the desire to be alone (Hagemeyer, Neyer, Neberich, & Asendorpf, 2012), as well as a pictorial measure of closeness (Aron, Aron, & Smollan, 1992). Furthermore, we asked participants who were currently involved in a romantic relationship about their relationship satisfaction. ...
... This goal is attained by the denial of attachment needs, the avoidance of closeness and dependence in close relationships, as well as eforts to maximize emotional and physical distance. The desire to be alone has a goal that is similar to having distance from the partner (note, however, that in the latter construct, this is not because of an avoidance of the partner, but because being alone is a valued goal state in its own right; Hagemeyer et al., 2012). As these goals are quite contrary to the definition of the intimacy motive, we expected intimacy to be negatively correlated with both scales. ...
... owed good internal consistencies in the current study (αs > .88). Aron et al., 1992). This single-item scale displays seven pictures of two increasingly overlapping circles, which were labeled self and partner. All participants were asked about the perceived interconnectedness between themselves and their ideal (not their current) romantic partner.Hagemeyer et al., 2012). These scales measure the desire for closeness to one's intimate partner and the desire to be alone with eight items each on a Likert scale ranging from 1 (never) to 7 (always). Internal consistencies in the current study were > .86. ...
Article
Multiple inventories claiming to assess the same explicit motive (achievement, power, or affiliation) show only mediocre convergent validity. In three studies (N = 1685) the structure, nomological net, and content coverage of multiple existing motive scales was investigated with exploratory factor analyses. The analyses revealed four approach factors (achievement, power, affiliation, and intimacy) and a general avoidance factor with a facet structure. New scales (the Unified Motive Scales; UMS) were developed using IRT, reflecting these underlying dimensions. In comparison to existing questionnaires, the UMS have the highest measurement precision and provide short (6-item) and ultra-short (3-item) scales. In a fourth study (N = 96), the UMS demonstrated incremental validity over existing motive scales with respect to several outcome criteria.
... When alone, one can contemplate on personal issues, self-reflect, and develop oneself intellectually, spiritually, and emotionally (Galanaki, 2004;Goossens, & Marcoen, 1999;Larson, 1997;Storr, 1988). Accordingly, some people find being alone an attractive and a soughtafter experience (Hagemeyer, Neyer, Neberich, & Asendorpf, 2013). ...
... High-N individuals associated aloneness with loneliness (Long, Seburn, Averill, & More, 2003) and-in an experience sampling study-with increased stress (Matias et al., 2011). Accordingly, neuroticism was negatively associated with a desire to be alone (Hagemeyer et al.,2013;Teppers et al.,2013). ...
... The feeling of loneliness that high-N individuals experience while alone (Hagemeyer et al., 2013) stems in part from the fact that this condition thwarts their ability to gain social approval (Leary et al., 2013). This has significant implications for their motivation to exert self-control. ...
Article
This study explored how a mindset associated with being alone affects self-regulation among individuals varying in neuroticism. Neuroticism is associated with a dualistic approach to the social world—evaluation apprehension alongside need for approval. Consequently, in public contexts, neuroticism leads individuals to experience low pleasantness alongside high motivation. The impact of neuroticism on behavior alone is rarely studied. However, the absence of a social motivator (i.e., potential for approval) should bring neuroticism to be associated with low pleasantness alongside low motivation. Three studies supported these predictions using an alone/public social context mindset manipulation. Higher neuroticism was associated with lower declared willingness to exert effort (Study 1) and with lower actual effort expenditure (Studies 2a, 2b) in an alone mindset than in a public mindset. Additionally, across conditions, neuroticism was associated with low pleasantness. Thus, neuroticism reduces individuals’ willpower in the context of merely thinking about being alone.
... Explicit and implicit motives are important predictors of relationship functioning. They are associated with how people interact with their partners (Zygar et al., 2018;Zygar-Hoffmann et al., 2020b), how they perceive their partners (Pusch et al., 2020, how satisfied they are with their relationships (Hagemeyer and Neyer, 2012;Hagemeyer et al., 2013b;Zygar et al., 2018), and how long their relationships last (Hagemeyer et al., 2013a). ...
... Partner-related communal motives are defined as relatively stable evaluative dispositions for classes of relationship situations that share communal characteristics such as experiences of emotional and physical closeness to the partner, companionship, or feeling as part of a dyad (Hagemeyer and Neyer, 2012). Previous studies have shown that communal motives are positively associated with relationship quality (Hagemeyer et al., 2013a,b;Czikmantori et al., 2018;Zygar et al., 2018), relationship stability (Hagemeyer et al., 2013b), communal partner behavior (Zygar et al., 2018;Zygar-Hoffmann et al., 2020b), and positively biased partner perception (Pusch et al., 2020. However, the MIC model can be applied to other partner-related motives as well. ...
... In our analyses, we therefore considered both participants' explicit and implicit communal motive dispositions. As indicators of explicit and implicit communal motives, we assessed participants' explicit partner-related desires for closeness (Hagemeyer et al., 2013b) and implicit partner-related needs for communion (pnCommunion; Hagemeyer and Neyer, 2012), respectively. ...
Article
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This article presents an integrative conceptual model of motivational interdependence in couples, the MIC model. Based on theoretical tenets in motivation psychology, personality psychology, and research on interpersonal perception, the MIC model postulates that two partners' motive dispositions fundamentally interact in shaping their individual motivation and behavior. On a functional level, a partner's motivated behavior is conceptualized as an environmental cue that can contribute to an actor's motive expression and satisfaction. However, the partner's motivated behavior is considered to gain this motivational relevance only via the actor's subjective perception. Multilevel analyses of an extensive experience sampling study on partner-related communal motivation ( N = up to 60,803 surveys from 508 individuals nested in 258 couples) supported the MIC model. Participants, particularly those with strong communal motive dispositions, behaved more communally at moments when they perceived their partners to behave more communally. In addition, participants experienced momentary boosts in satisfaction when they behaved more communally and, at the same time, perceived their partners' behavior as similarly communal. Broader implications of the MIC model for research on romantic relationships are discussed.
... This distinction was corroborated in numerous studies (e.g. Abele & Wojciszke, 2007;Hagemeyer, Neyer, Neberich, & Asendorpf, 2013;Horowitz et al., 2006;Prager & Buhrmester, 1998). ...
... The interplay between independence and self-esteem might be due to the fulfilment of agentic needs allowing an individual to follow his or own interests in the relationship. (Hagemeyer et al., 2013;Patrick et al., 2007;Prager & Buhrmester, 1998). Being able to follow one's own interests might be important to maintain a self-evaluation as oneself as competent and agentic and to get things carried out without the supervision or distrust of the partner. ...
Article
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Previous research on the role of self-esteem in partner relationships indicates that it is both predictive of and predicted by variables such as relationship satisfaction. However, most of these studies were constrained to only relationship satisfaction, cross-sectional or individual data. In the present study, we examine the dynamic interplay between self-esteem and both broad (i.e. relationship satisfaction) and specific aspects of relationship quality (independence and connectedness) reflecting the fulfilment of agentic and communal needs in stable partner relationships from both an intrapersonal perspective and an interpersonal perspective. Study 1 assessed 186 individuals at three measurement occasions over 15 years and suggests a common developmental dynamic between self-esteem and relationship satisfaction, as indicated by initial correlations and correlated changes. In Study 2, actor and partner effects in stable couples (N = 2124 dyads) were examined over a period of three years. It was found that self-esteem and all three aspects of relationship quality are dynamically intertwined in such a way that both previous levels and changes in one domain predict later changes in the other domain. Together, the findings indicate that self-esteem is consequential for the development of a variety of relationship aspects but likewise influenced by these very aspects.
... This may be achieved by warm and kind interactions, for example, by actively engaging with each other or disclosing thoughts and feelings to each other. On an explicit level, this is captured by the partner-specific desire for closeness (Hagemeyer, Neyer, Neberich, & Asendorpf, 2013), and by the more global intimacy motive, which is characterized by the desire for experiencing interpersonal closeness in general (Schönbrodt & Gerstenberg, 2012). ...
... Explicit social desires (relationship-specific) -The partner-specific explicit social desire for closeness and desire for being alone were each assessed as the average of eight items of the ABC scale of social desires (Hagemeyer et al., 2013). Statements like "In the presence of my partner, I feel relaxed. ...
Article
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Motivational variables are considered fundamental factors influencing the occurrence of behavior. The current study compared different types of motivational variables (implicit and explicit motive dispositions, motivation as states and as aggregated person-level variables) in their ability to predict communal and agentic behavior reports in intimate relationships. 510 individuals completed measures of dispositional communion and agency motives and participated in a dyadic experience sampling study with five assessments per day across four weeks. They reported on their momentary communal and agentic motivation, as well as on their own and their partner’s behaviors. All examined types of motivational variables predicted certain behavior reports on the between-person or within-person level and had incremental effects beyond the other motivational variables in at least one motive domain. Directly replicating and conceptually extending prior research, the effects of motivational states and their aggregates were consistently found across behavioral outcomes, across self- and partner-reports and across the motive domains of communion and agency. Using the example of motivational states, the general value of assessing within-person variables for psychological phenomena in ESM-designs is discussed.
... It describes motivations as relatively constant set-points of feedback control systems. These motivational reference values define whether and how much of a particular category of experiences is usually needed to reach satisfaction – for example, how much time an individual wants to spend with his or her friends, how dependent he or she wants to be of his or her parents or even how much affiliation is desired with a product or brand (Hagemeyer et al. 2012). In order to reach a mental state of equilibrium, the individual continuously compares his or her current state of mind with an ideal situation. ...
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Sponsorship is considered to be one of the most effective marketing communication tools and has been extensively analyzed in marketing research. The study presented here focuses on a combination of explicit and implicit measurement methods with regard to a set of selected main sponsors of a major sporting event to assess the effectiveness of sponsoring activities. The results suggest an enhanced brand perception impact of sport sponsorship based on explicit and implicit information processing.
... Drawing on insights from the rich conceptual framework provided by PERSOC (Back et al., 2011), we distinguish three classes of variables: Individual dispositions (i.e., generalized tendencies within a person that are relatively stable), relationship dispositions (i.e., relatively stable [though less so than individual dispositions] tendencies expressed toward a specific relationship partner), and social interaction behaviors and perceptions that occur within social interaction units (i.e., temporally distinct events involving an interpersonal interaction; aggregated social interactions units across two weeks are presented in Figure 1). 2 Given their presumed generality and stability over time, we classified pathological traits (Hopwood, Morey, et al., 2013;Roberts & DelVecchio, 2000;Samuel et al., 2011) and interpersonal values (Hagemeyer, Neyer, Neberich, & Asendorpf, 2013) as individual dispositions in our model. ...
Article
Problems with intimacy constitute an important area of interpersonal dysfunction in those with personality pathology. Drawing on the interpersonal process model of intimacy, the present research used a longitudinal dyadic design of same-sex roommate pairs (n = 103) to address how certain pathological personality traits (i.e. Negative Affect, Detachment, and Antagonism) relate to the development of disclosure, perceived responsiveness, and closeness. We expected that participants' pathological traits would be linked to both their own and their roommate's intimacy development, and that the mechanisms underlying these links would include the endorsement of interpersonal values and/or the dispositional expression of interpersonal behaviour in the roommate relationship. Our findings demonstrate that interpersonal motives and/or behaviours primarily help to explain how individuals with higher levels of Detachment manifest difficulty with intimacy. Implications of our findings for research on personality pathology, normative traits, and intimacy are discussed. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Personality Psychology
... Indeed, John Cacioppo has consistently emphasized that while objective social isolation can lead to feelings of loneliness, it is the perceived isolation rather than objective isolation that is critical to well-being in humans. Even more, research has shown that spending a (limited) time in solitude is in fact something that most humans pursue without being negatively impactedon the contrary, it seems to be important for one's wellbeing (Hagemeyer, Neyer, Neberich, & Asendorpf, 2013). ...
Article
John Cacioppo has compared loneliness to hunger or thirst in that it signals that one needs to act and repair what is lacking. This paper reviews Cacioppo’s and others’ contributions to our understanding of neural mechanisms underlying social motivation in humans and in other social species. We focus particularly on the dopaminergic reward system and try to integrate evidence from animal models and human research. In rodents, objective social isolation leads to increased social motivation, mediated by the brains’ mesolimbic dopamine system. In humans, social rejection can lead to either increased or decreased social motivation, and is associated with activity in the insular cortex; while chronic loneliness is typically associated with decreased social motivation but has been associated with altered dopaminergic responses in the striatum. This mixed pattern of cross-species similarities and differences may arise from the substantially different methods used to study unmet social needs across species, and suggests the need for more direct and deliberate cross-species comparative research in this critically important domain.
... He found that people recognize the set of pulls toward connection and toward separation and that they see each as a form of "freedom": the freedom to be both independent and dependent simultaneously. Likewise, in their ABC model of social desires, Hagemeyer, Neyer, Neberich, and Asendorpf (2013) contend that people have three goals statesthe desires for affiliation (A), being alone (B), and closeness (C)and argue for the need to balance time together with time apart for relational health. In their discussion of the model, the authors describe the process of distance regulation and "finding the right balance between closeness and distance … [that is] crucial for relationship functioning and stability" (Hagemeyer et al., 2013, p. 442). ...
Article
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This essay reviews the extant literature on solitude – and its related concepts – and argues that, time alone, when done with volition, can be seen as an intentional act that may affect a range of interpersonal and relational processes, usually in ways that are seen as positive. It is, however, often linked in the larger literature with variables identified as problematic, such as loneliness, and seen injurious to relationships. I suggest a more benign view of time in solitude and discuss its potential importance to understanding and predicting an array of communicative processes, such as greater ability to be present and engaged in dialogue, to listen well, and to experience and express intimacy and affection. Overall, the essay looks at the paradoxical – but compelling – nature of separation on connection and the way that this conceptualization aligns with theories in our field, with the hope of presenting it as a way to enhance well-being and interpersonal communicative and relational quality.
... However, it is almost necessarily true that some kinds of interpersonal process must mediate the association between personality and friendship satisfaction. Therefore, we suspect that our lack of meditation effects is due to the complex nature of friendship satisfaction-there are likely many proximal causes of friendship satisfaction, and these proximal causes likely interact with and influence one another (Hagemeyer, Neyer, Neberich, & Asendorpf, 2013). As predicted by PERSOC theory, these causes of friendship satisfaction likely include: the traits of actors, actors' behaviours, partners' perceptions of those behaviours, partners' behaviours, actors' perceptions of partners' behaviours, and more. ...
Article
Who are the people who maintain satisfying friendships? And, what are the behaviours that might explain why those people achieve high friendship satisfaction? We examined the associations between personality (self-reports and peer-reports) and friendship satisfaction (self-reports) among 434 students. We also examined whether role personality (how people act with their friends) and quantity and quality of social interactions using ecological momentary assessment mediate the associations between personality and friendship satisfaction. Extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and (low) neuroticism were associated with higher levels of friendship satisfaction. These associations could not be accounted for by individual differences in role personality. In addition, our results suggest that quantity of time spent with friends and quality of friend interactions (depth of conversation, self-disclosure and lack of emotion suppression), although associated with friendship satisfaction, do not account for the associations between trait personality and friendship satisfaction. Future research should examine other potential interpersonal processes that explain why some people are more satisfied with their friendships than others and the consequences of friendship satisfaction (e.g. for well-being). Copyright © 2015 European Association of Personality Psychology
... Moreover, various other personality traits may similarly predict relationship satisfaction in couples (e.g. alexithymia: Foran & O'Leary, 2013; proximity or distance seeking: Hagemeyer, Neyer, Neberich & Asendorpf, 2013;self-esteem: Mund, Finn, Hagemeyer, Zimmermann & Neyer, 2015;and attachment: Sadikaj, Moskowitz & Zuroff, 2015). ...
Article
Past research has shown that personality traits predict relationship quality in romantic couples. However, very little research has investigated psychological processes that underlie the link between personality and relationship satisfaction. The present study focused on the mediating role of spontaneous emotion regulation and positive interpersonal behaviour. This study applied a dyadic design with 137 couples who completed self-report questionnaires assessing Big Five personality traits at baseline. Subsequently, couples were asked to discuss a current relationship conflict during a laboratory session. Emotion regulation and relationship satisfaction were assessed via self-report directly after the discussion. Relationship satisfaction was additionally assessed at 6-month follow-up. Interpersonal behaviour during the conflict discussion was videotaped and coded by independent raters. As expected, emotion regulation (expressive suppression, perspective taking and aggressive externalisation), positive interpersonal behaviour and state relationship satisfaction during the conflict discussion mediated the relation between personality and long-term relationship satisfaction. In sum, this study provides evidence that personality is linked to relationship satisfaction through intrapersonal and interpersonal processes during social interactions. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Personality Psychology
Article
Objective: Previous research has shown that motive congruence, as observed in convergingly high or low scores on implicit and explicit motive measures, promotes well-being and health. Extending this individual perspective to the realm of couple relationships, the present investigation examined intra- and interpersonal effects of communal motive (in)congruence on relationship satisfaction and stability. Method: The implicit partner-related need for communion, the explicit desire for closeness, and relationship satisfaction were assessed in a sample of 547 heterosexual couples aged 18 to 73 years. In a one-year follow-up study, information on relationship stability was obtained, and relationship satisfaction was reassessed. The researchers tested cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of motive (in)congruence by dyadic moderation analyses. Results: Individuals scoring congruently high on both motives reported the highest relationship satisfaction in concurrence with motive assessment and 1 year later. In addition, motive incongruence predicted an increased risk of relationship breakup over 1 year. Conclusions: The results highlight the significance of both implicit and explicit motives for couple relationships. Motive incongruence was confirmed as a dispositional risk factor that so far has not been considered in couple research. Future research directions addressing potential mediators of the observed effects and potential moderators of motive (in)congruence are discussed.
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In sociology as well as in psychology, autonomy and closeness are considered important for romantic relationships (Illouz, 2012). In psychology, a strong desire for autonomy is usually assumed to be related to dismissive attachment styles which are formed in the history of attachment of the person. In sociology, based on theory and qualitative results, it is argued that people differ in their needs for autonomy and closeness due to a differential internalization of the cultural discourses and the influence of societal circumstances. An interdisciplinary integration of both approaches will be discussed.
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Temperamental differences are associated with subsequent stressful life events, a phenomenon that has in part been attributed to evocation. However, we remain ignorant about the mechanisms that mediate this process. In the current paper, we test whether differences in 'perceived relationship affection' accounted for part of the prospective association between temperament and stressful social event evocation in three social domains, viz. parents, peers and romantic partners. Data were derived from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey, a large population cohort of Dutch adolescents (n = 1158). Parent-reported adolescent temperament and adolescent's perceived affection were assessed at age 11 years. Stressful social events that occurred between age 11 and 16 years were captured using the event history calendar. Results indicate that adolescents evoke subsequent stressful social events based on their temperament, and that this association is partially mediated by perceived affection. Importantly, we found evidence for both generic and domain-specific associations, which indicates that social domains are related yet distinct. Taken together, the findings suggest that a search for mediating variables may be a promising way to increase our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the social stress selection principle, and that perceived relationship affection is one of the candidates.
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Historically, personality psychology has not focused on the social realm, and social psychology has mostly neglected the influence of individual differences. This has, however, begun to change in the past two decades. Recent years have brought an explosion in creative research programmes on the social consequences of personality. In this paper, we offer a (highly subjective) view on how research on the social consequences of personality should move forward. We note that the existing literature is focused heavily on: traits (at the expense of other personality characteristics), a narrow set of social outcomes (e.g. romantic relationship satisfaction) and effects of personality on one's own outcomes (rather than taking a dyadic/interpersonal perspective). In addition, little attention has been paid to the complex dynamic processes that might account for the links between personality and social outcomes. Based on this, we outline six suggestions for future research on the social consequences of personality: (1) examine a wide range of personality variables and integrate findings across domains; (2) take a broader and more integrative view on social outcomes, including different relationship types, phases and transitions; (3) analyse personality effects on social outcomes from different social perspectives (e.g. self, other and dyad); (4) search for processes that explain the associations between personality and social outcomes; (5) collect rich, multi-method, longitudinal, behavioural datasets with large samples and (6) carefully evaluate the implications of personality effects on social outcomes. We invite researchers to embrace a more collaborative and slower scientific approach to answer the many open questions about the social consequences of personality. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Personality Psychology
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The present research addresses the interplay between agency motives and objective dyadic closeness with regard to the functioning of intimate couple relationships. Applying a Person X Situation approach, we hypothesized (a) that partners’ implicit and explicit agency motives predict their selection of dyadic living arrangements characterized by high or low objective closeness (coresidence or living-aparttogether), (b) that agency motives have more negative effects on relationship functioning in coresident couples, (c) that agency motives predict agentic motivational states in coresident couples, and (d) that agentic states predict day-to-day changes in relationship satisfaction under conditions of high objective closeness. We found support for these between- and within-couple hypotheses in cross-sectional and prospective analyses of an age-heterogeneous sample of 548 heterosexual couples, and in a 2-week diary study with a subsample of 106 couples. Most notably, agentic motive dispositions and motivational states related to relationship functioning more negatively under conditions of high objective closeness. The overall positive effect of objective closeness on relationship functioning was diminished by strong agentic motivation. Perspectives for future research on agency motives in couple relationships are discussed.
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Individuals can differ in the degree of closeness they desire in their romantic relationships: Some people may perceive their current level of closeness as just right, whereas others may feel not close enough or too close to their partners (referred to as negative and positive closeness discrepancy, respectively). This study ( N = 1,177 individuals from 748 couples) examined the implications of closeness discrepancies for subjective relationship quality (SRQ) using dyadic response surface analysis. The analyses found evidence for linear, but not broad, closeness discrepancy effects: SRQ was lower for individuals reporting more negative closeness discrepancies and, independent of this actor effect, for individuals with partners who reported more negative closeness discrepancies. These results suggest that low levels of closeness paired with a strong desire for closeness can impair both partners’ relational well-being.
Article
The present research addresses the interplay between agency motives and objective dyadic closeness with regard to the functioning of intimate couple relationships. Applying a Person × Situation approach, we hypothesized (a) that partners' implicit and explicit agency motives predict their selection of dyadic living arrangements characterized by high or low objective closeness (coresidence or living-apart-together), (b) that agency motives have more negative effects on relationship functioning in coresident couples, (c) that agency motives predict agentic motivational states in coresident couples, and (d) that agentic states predict day-to-day changes in relationship satisfaction under conditions of high objective closeness. We found support for these between- and within-couple hypotheses in cross-sectional and prospective analyses of an age-heterogeneous sample of 548 heterosexual couples, and in a 2-week diary study with a subsample of 106 couples. Most notably, agentic motive dispositions and motivational states related to relationship functioning more negatively under conditions of high objective closeness. The overall positive effect of objective closeness on relationship functioning was diminished by strong agentic motivation. Perspectives for future research on agency motives in couple relationships are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
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Objective: Employing a couple-centered approach to social motivation in intimate relationships, we developed a dyadic typology based on the ABC model of communal and agentic social desires. Method: Using latent profile analysis, 631 heterosexual couples (age women: M = 39.7, SD = 13.6; age men: M = 42.0, SD = 14.1) were categorized regarding both partners’ self-reported desires for closeness with partner, for affiliation with friends, and for being alone. Couple types were described using self-reported indicators of relationship functioning. Relationship stability was assessed after one year, and in stable couples, social desires were reassessed to examine continuity and change. Results: We identified four motivational couple types. Three profiles showed similar orientations between partners and were labelled the communion, closeness, and distance couple types. Additionally, the distanced-man type was characterized by a low desire for closeness and a high desire for being alone in men, but not women. The communion and closeness types showed better relationship functioning than the other types, and the distanced-man type showed an increased rate of relationship break-up. Conclusions: A couple-centered, typological approach provides a viable way of studying complex dyadic motivational constellations and their consequences. This is beneficial for researchers as well as practitioners.
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Early adulthood is a time of substantial personality change characterized by large inter-individual diversity. To investigate the role of age in this diversity, the present study examined whether emerging adults differ from an older group of young adults in their Big Five personality development. By means of multi-group latent change modelling, two groups of 16- to 19-year-olds (n = 3,555) and 26- to 29-year-olds (n = 2,621) were tracked over the course of four years and compared regarding four aspects of personality change: Mean-level change, rank-order change, inter-individual differences in change, and profile change. In addition, age-differential socialization effects associated with six first-time life events were investigated. Analyses revealed substantial age differences in all four aspects of change. As expected, emerging adults showed greater change and diversity in change than young adults. However, the six life events had no age-differential impact on change in single traits and Big Five profiles. Overall, the results indicate that age differences should be considered even in specific life stages to advance the understanding of personality development.
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Objective: This research presents evidence for an egocentric shift occurring among individuals high in neuroticism by the mere thought—and actual state—of being alone. Method: Four experiments and one experience sampling study (N = 719). In the experiments, neuroticism was measured, and participants were randomly primed to adopt either an alone or a 'with others' social context mind-set. The experiments measured different expressions of egocentrism. Study 1 measured perspective-taking, Study 2a was focused on social value orientation, Study 2b measured money allocation in a dictator game, and Study 3 measured self-reported and behavioral interpersonal trust. Trust was also the focus of Study 4, a 5-day experience sampling study. Results: In an alone mind-set, high (vs. low) neuroticism individuals were more likely to adopt an egocentric perspective in evaluating social stimuli (Study 1) and to adopt a selfish approach to money allocation (Studies 2a, 2b). Studies 3 and 4 addressed the source of the shift, showing that in an alone mind-set (Study 3) and in an actual alone state (Study 4), neuroticism was associated with reduced interpersonal trust. Conclusions: For high-neuroticism individuals, thinking about—and actually being—alone induces a sense that they only have themselves to rely on.
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Although rooted in reality, partner perceptions often reflect wishful thinking due to perceivers' needs. Dispositional needs, or motives, can differ between persons; however, little is known about their differential associations with everyday partner perception. The present study used data from a 4‐week experience sampling study (N = up to 60942 surveys from 510 individuals nested in 259 couples) to examine the effects of perceivers' partner‐related implicit and explicit communal motives on the perception of (i) global communal partner behaviour and (ii) specific communal and uncommunal partner behaviours. The results of truth and bias models of judgement and quasi‐signal detection analyses indicate that strong implicit communal approach motives and strong explicit communal motives are associated with the tendency to overestimate the partner's communal behaviour. Additionally, strong implicit communal approach motives were associated with the tendency to avoid perceptions of uncommunal partner behaviour. Neither implicit nor explicit communal motives had an effect on accuracy in the perception of particularly communal partner behaviour. The results highlight the relevance of both implicit and explicit communal motives for momentary partner perceptions and emphasise the benefits of dyadic microlongitudinal designs for a better understanding of the mechanisms through which individual differences manifest in couples' everyday lives. © 2019 The Authors. European Journal of Personality published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Association of Personality Psychology
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This preregistered meta‐analysis (k = 113, total n = 93 668) addressed how the Big Five dimensions of personality (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness) are related to loneliness. Robust variance estimation accounting for the dependency of effect sizes was used to compute meta‐analytic bivariate correlations between loneliness and personality. Extraversion (r = −.370), agreeableness (r = −.243), conscientiousness (r = −.202), and openness (r = −.107) were negatively related to loneliness. Neuroticism (r = .358) was positively related to loneliness. These associations differed meaningfully in strength depending on how loneliness was assessed. Additionally, meta‐analytic structural equation modelling was used to investigate the unique association between each personality trait and loneliness while controlling for the other four personality traits. All personality traits except openness remained statistically significantly associated with loneliness when controlling for the other personality traits. Our results show the importance of stable personality factors in explaining individual differences in loneliness. © 2020 European Association of Personality Psychology
Chapter
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During the last decades, dual process models concerning reflective and impulsive pathways to behavior have been applied in many psychological domains, including personality psychology. In this chapter, we review the literature on dual processes approaches and models for the conceptualization and assessment of two broad domains of personality, self-concepts and motives. We first distinguish explicit and implicit constructs as assessed with direct and indirect measures, respectively. We then focus on measures to assess implicit representations of self-concepts and motives, with special attention to reliability and validity. Some advanced issues will also be examined, specifically novel assessment methods and scoring systems for indirect measures, developmental aspects of implicit personality characteristics, and interpersonal extensions of dual process approaches to personality. To conclude, we share some reflections on controversial issues in dual-process personality research, that is the convergence (or lack thereof) among indirect measures and between indirect and direct measures and the debate on unitary versus dualistic theories.
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Can romantic partners accurately perceive each other’s communal motives, or are these perceptions biased by their own motivational hopes and fears? This study used data from N = 1,905 partnered participants to examine the extent to which partner perceptions of communal motives correspond to targets’ (accuracy) and perceivers’ (motivational bias) explicit and implicit communal motives. Our results indicate that explicit communal motives and implicit communal approach motives can be (a) accurately inferred and (b) positively bias communal motive perception. Furthermore, there was no evidence for moderation of either accuracy or motivational bias by relationship length. These findings point to the early visibility of both implicit and explicit motives in couples, as well as their persistent biasing effects on partner perception.
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Objective Considering the interdependence between close partners, the present study examined how the amount of one's alone time was related to both one's own and the partner's relationship satisfaction in married couples. It also tested how attachment style moderated the within- and cross-partner associations between the experience of solitude and marital satisfaction. Background Solitude reflects a status of being alone without any active social interactions. It can be related to either positive or negative affects depending on the circumstances. The role that solitude plays in close relationships is understudied in previous research. Method Using data from 105 married couples from mainland China, both actor and partner effects and the moderating effect of attachment style were tested using the moderated actor–partner interdependence model (MAPIM). Results Two cross-partner interactions between solitude and attachment style on husbands' marital satisfaction were identified. When wives reported high anxiety, the more husbands spent alone time, the lower was their reported marital satisfaction. When husbands reported high avoidance, the more wives spent time alone, the higher was their husbands reported marital satisfaction. No significant association between solitude and wives' marital satisfaction was found. Conclusions and Implications The results reveal the intricate role that solitude plays in marital relationships and highlight the importance to consider cross-partner effects when studying dyadic interactions.
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The investigation of within-person process models, often done in experience sampling designs, requires a reliable assessment of within-person change. In this paper, we focus on dyadic intensive longitudinal designs where both partners of a couple are assessed multiple times each day across several days. We introduce a statistical model for variance decomposition based on generalizability theory (extending P. E. Shrout & S. P. Lane, 2012), which can estimate the relative proportion of variability on four hierarchical levels: moments within a day, days, persons, and couples. Based on these variance estimates, four reliability coefficients are derived: between-couples, between-persons, within-persons/between-days, and within-persons/between-moments. We apply the model to two dyadic intensive experience sampling studies ( n 1 = 130 persons, 5 surveys each day for 14 days, ≥ 7508 unique surveys; n 2 = 508 persons, 5 surveys each day for 28 days, ≥ 47764 unique surveys). Five different scales in the domain of motivational processes and relationship quality were assessed with 2 to 5 items: State relationship satisfaction, communal motivation, and agentic motivation; the latter consists of two subscales, namely power and independence motivation. Largest variance components were on the level of persons, moments, couples, and days, where within-day variance was generally larger than between-day variance. Reliabilities ranged from .32 to .76 (couple level), .93 to .98 (person level), .61 to .88 (day level), and .28 to .72 (moment level). Scale intercorrelations reveal differential structures between and within persons, which has consequences for theory building and statistical modeling.
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Humans possess a need for social contact. Satisfaction of this need benefits well-being, whereas deprivation is detrimental. However, how much contact people desire is not universal, and evidence is mixed on individual differences in the association between contact and well-being. This preregistered longitudinal study (N = 190) examined changes in social contact and well-being (life satisfaction, depressivity/anxiety) during pervasive contact restrictions, which exceed lab-based social deprivation. We analyzed how changes in personal and indirect contact and well-being during the first COVID-19 lockdown varied with social traits (e.g., affiliation, extraversion). Results showed that affiliation motive, need to be alone, and social anxiety moderated the resumption of personal contact under loosened restrictions as well as associated changes in life satisfaction and depressivity/anxiety.
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Embedded in a theoretically founded process model (termed Dynamics of Motive Satisfaction, ‘DynaMoS’), the present study examined the links between the implicit dispositional communion motive, everyday motivational dynamics, and relationship outcomes in couples. Within‐subject processes are proposed to explain between‐subject associations of dispositional motives and relationship satisfaction. For an empirical test of the model, data on the dispositional partner‐related need for communion and global relationship satisfaction were obtained from 152 individuals in heterosexual relationships. In an extensive experience sampling spanning 2 weeks, a subsample of 130 individuals answered questions about their current motivational states, mood, state relationship satisfaction, and experiences with their partner five times a day. The results were largely consistent with the DynaMoS model: (1) individuals with a strong dispositional implicit communion motive reported more often to be in a communal motivational state; (2) communally motivated individuals were more likely to engage in subsequent instrumental behaviour; and (3) relationship experiences that potentially satisfy communion motivation led to more positive relationship outcomes when individuals were motivated before compared with when they were not. It is discussed how these results and the experience sampling method can foster our understanding of how dispositional characteristics translate into everyday processes and shape relationship outcomes. Copyright © 2018 European Association of Personality Psychology
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Eine deutsche Fassung der revidierten UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell et al., 1980) wurde einer repräsentativen gesamtdeutschen Stichprobe (N = 592) vorgelegt. Testkennwerte wie interne Konsistenz (ex= .89) und mittlerer Trennschärfenindex (ru = .51) sind zufriedenstellend und replizieren frühere Befunde deutscher Über­setzungen des Fragebogens. Westdeutsche Untersuchungsteilnehmer (M = 1.84) haben signifikant höhere Einsamkeitswerte als ostdeutsche (M = 1.58). Die Skala enthält drei Dimensionen, die signifikant zwischen Einsamen und weniger Einsamen differenzieren und die sich als „Einsamkeitsgefühle", ,,wahrgenommene emotionale Isolation" und „wahrgenommene soziale Isolation" interpretieren lassen. Vergleiche soziodemographischer Subgruppen liefern Belege zur Validität der Skala und ihrer Dimensionen. A German adaptation of the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell et al., 1980) was assessed in a representative sample of 592 subjects in East and West Germany. Psychometrie characteristics of the scale like internal consistency (ex= .89) and mean item-total score correlation (r;, = .51) were found to be satisfactory and repli­cate results of earlier research of German questionnaire translations. Participants from West Germany score significantly higher (M = 1.84) on loneliness than those from East Germany (M= 1.58). Factor analysis yieldes three dimensions of the scale, labeled and explained in terms of „feelings of loneliness", ,,perceived emotional iso­lation", and „perceived social isolation". All lhree factors discriminate significantly between the lonely and the not-so-lonely. Comparisons of sociodemographic sub­groups provide evidence supporting the validity of the scale and its dimensions.
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Our model outlines the cognitive operations, response strategies, and dynamics of the attachment system in adulthood. It also describes the goals of each attachment strategy and their psychological manifestations and consequences. Whereas the goals of security-based strategies are to form intimate relationships, to build a person's psychological resources, and to broaden his or her perspectives and capacities, the goal of secondary attachment strategies is to manage attachment-system activation and reduce or eliminate the pain caused by frustrated proximity-seeking attempts. Hyperactivating strategies keep the person focused on the search for love and security, and constantly on the alert for threats, separations, and betrayals. Deactivating strategies keep the attachment system in check, with serious consequences for cognitive and emotional openness. This framework serves as our "working model" for understanding the activation and functioning of the attachment system in adulthood. It also provides a framework for reviewing our research findings, which is the mission of the next section.
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Zusammenfassung. Personen unterscheiden sich in der Neigung, Situationen aufzusuchen, in denen sie alleine sind und diese zu geniesen. Zur Erfassung dieser interindividuellen Unterschiede in der Praferenz zum Alleinsein stellen wir eine deutsche Version der Preference for Solitude Skala (Burger, 1995; PfS-dt) und ein von uns entwickeltes Inventar zur Messung der Praferenz zum Alleinsein (IPA) vor. Fur beide Instrumente wurden die psychometrischen Eigenschaften in einer grosen Stichprobe (N = 1122) untersucht. Es zeigte sich, dass die PfS-dt und das IPA intern konsistent und faktoriell valide sind sowie eine gute Retestreliabilitat aufweisen (N = 80). Zusatzlich dazu liesen sich fur beide Inventare konvergente und diskriminante Zusammenhange zu anderen Personlichkeitsmerkmalen nachweisen. Beide Inventare waren auserdem in der Lage, uber die Big Five hinaus selbstberichtetes Verhalten zu pradizieren.
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Two studies were conducted to explore the following questions: (i) does intimacy, within the context of a couple relationship, contribute to individual need fulfillment?; (ii) does self-disclosure have beneficial effects on need fulfillment without being accompanied by intimacy's others dimensions: positive affective tone and partner listening and understanding?; and (iii) does intimacy's impact on need fulfillment mediate its relationship with physical and psychological well-being? For the first study, 154 commuter university students completed questionnaire measures of well-being and the Need Fulfillment Inventory (NFI), a new paper-and-pencil test that assesses the agentic and communal dimensions of need fulfillment. Results from study 1 showed positive correlations between both agentic and communal need fulfillment and well-being. For the second study, 133 cohabiting couples were asked to complete the NFI, two measures of relational intimacy, five measures of well-being, and to keep a daily record of their interactions for a week. Factor analyses of the daily record data revealed three dimensions of verbally intimate interaction: positive affective tone, daily self-disclosure, and listening and understanding. Results supported the notion that relational intimacy, assessed globally and as a characteristic of the couples' daily interactions, is positively associated with individual need fulfillment. Self-disclosure's impact on need fulfillment was found to vary as a function of the other dimensions of intimacy present in the interactions. The pattern of moderation between self-disclosure and other dimensions of intimacy was not exactly as predicted, however; sometimes, self-disclosure may soften the detrimental effects of negative interactions on need fulfillment. Finally, the mediational hypothesis was mostly supported, which indicates that intimacy's relationship to psychological well-being is most likely accounted for by its effects on individual need fulfillment. Need fulfillment did not fully mediate the relationship between intimacy and depressive symptoms.
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This research examines the association of intimacy goals and marital satisfaction and tests four potential mediators of the goals-satisfaction link. Forty-four married couples completed measures of their own intimacy goals, their perceptions of their spouse’s goals, patterning of marital interactions (e.g., social support, time spent together, number of activities engaged in together, mutual influence), and marital satisfaction. As predicted, both individuals’ own and their spouses’ pursuit of intimacy goals were associated with marital satisfaction. However, these associations between goals and satisfaction were eliminated when individuals’ perceptions of their spouses’ goals were included in the analysis, indicating that the link between intimacy goals and marital satisfaction was mediated by individuals’ perceptions of their spouses’ goals. Discussion focuses on the theoretical and applied implications of these findings.
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Perceived security of attachment to mother, father, same-sex peers, and opposite-sex peers, and perceived available support from members of the individual network of relationships were related to each other both cross-sectionally and longitudinally in a four-wave longitudinal study of 171 students. Security of attachment and available support were closely linked within particular relationships such as the relationship to mother, and modestly linked for categories of relationships such as same-sex peers; their consistency across relationships was much lower. Furthermore, longitudinal changes in attachment and support were correlated within relationships, but not between relationships. Thus, perceptions of attachment security and support availability reflected the fluctuating quality of the relationships. Consequences for research on attachment and support are discussed.
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Personality influences on social relationships and vice versa were longitudinally studied. Personality affected relationships, but not vice versa. After entry to university, 132 students participated for 18 month in a study in which the Big Five factors of personality, the subfactors Sociability and Shyness, and all significant social relationships were repeatedly assessed. A subsample kept diaries of all significant social interactions. After the initial correlation between personality and relationship quality was controlled for, Extraversion and its subfactors, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness predicted aspects of relationships such as number of peer relationships, conflict with peers, and falling in love. In contrast, relationship qualities did not predict personality traits, and changes in relationship qualities were unrelated to changes in personality traits. Consequences for dynamic-interactionistic views of personality and relationships are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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propose a model of the intimacy process the process begins when one person expresses personally revealing feelings of information to another it continues when the listener responds supportively and empathically for an interaction to become intimate the discloser must feel understood, validated, and cared for psychodynamic building blocks / building blocks from communication and exchange research / lay and psychometric conceptions of intimacy (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Living apart together (LAT) bezeichnet eine Form der Partnerschaft, bei der die beiden Partner in getrennten Haushalten wohnen, aber fest zusammenleben. Sie bleibt in den meisten sozialwissenschaftlichen Studien (z.B. Mikrozensus) unentdeckt, weil nur Partnerschaften innerhalb eines Haushalts untersucht werden. Das Sozio-oekonomische Panel (SOEP) bietet die einzigartige Möglichkeit, seit 1992 in Gesamtdeutschland LAT-Partnerschaften getrennt von Alleinleben und nichtehelicher Lebensgemeinschaft zu identifizieren. Die vorliegende Studie nutzt dies, um vier Hypothesen zu LAT zu testen: LAT hat historisch zugenommen; nimmt bis zum Ende der weiblichen Reproduktionsphase (40 Jahre) ab; ist danach eher eine eigenständige Lebensform ohne nachfolgendes Zusammenwohnen; und ist in allen Altersgruppen instabiler als Kohabitation und Ehe. Die Ergebnisse bestätigen diese vier Hypothesen. Living apart together (LAT) is a committed partnership between two partners living in different households. It is ignored in most social surveys (e.g. the German Mikrozensus) because these focus on partners sharing the same household. The German socio-economic panel (SOEP) provides the unique opportunity to study LAT partnerships separately from singledom and cohabitation since 1992. The current study used this opportunity to test four hypotheses about LAT: LAT increased historically; decreases until the end of the female reproductive period (age 40 years); is thereafter a life form of its own without transition into co-residence; and at all ages is less stable than cohabitation and marriage. The results confirmed all four hypotheses.
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This paper presents a hierarchical taxonomy of human goals, based on similarity judgments of 135 goals gleaned from the literature. Women and men in 3 age groups—17–30, 25–62, and 65 and older—sorted the goals into conceptually similar groups. These were cluster analyzed and a taxonomy of 30 goal clusters was developed for each age group separately and for the total sample. The clusters were conceptually meaningful and consistent across the 3 samples. The broadest distinction in each sample was between interpersonal or social goals and intrapersonal or individual goals, with interpersonal goals divided into family-related and more general social goals. Further, the 30 clusters were organized into meaningful higher order clusters. The role of such a taxonomy in promoting theory development and research is discussed, as is its relationship to other organizations of human goals and to the Big Five structure of personality.
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Researchers have made great strides in conceptualizing and assessing contextualized personality—how people’s personalities vary across different contexts (e.g., among friends, co-workers, and relationship partners). We investigated how global and contextualized personality traits are linked to relationship satisfaction. In Study 1, longitudinal associations between global and contextualized personality and relationship satisfaction were examined in a sample of adults in committed dating relationships. Study 2 investigated actor and partner effects of global and contextualized personality on relationship satisfaction in undergraduate couples. Study 3 used observer ratings of contextualized personality traits expressed in couples’ daily Instant Messages (IMs). These results demonstrate that contextualized personality—in particular neuroticism—is linked to the quality of both current and future romantic relationships.
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In a variety of situations in psychological research, it is desirable to be able to make statistical comparisons between correlation coefficients measured on the same individuals. For example, an experimenter may wish to assess whether two predictors correlate equally with a criterion variable. In another situation, the experimenter may wish to test the hypothesis that an entire matrix of correlations has remained stable over time. The present article reviews the literature on such tests, points out some statistics that should be avoided, and presents a variety of techniques that can be used safely with medium to large samples. Several illustrative numerical examples are provided.
Chapter
Systems theory provides a powerful method for the description of homeostatic systems, that is, systems in which feedback-controlled regulation processes occur. Since human goal-directed behavior is regulated by such processes, systems theory is also very useful for psychological research. One of the most elaborated psychological models based on systems theory is the Zurich Model of Social Motivation by Bischof. This model postulates the existence of three basic motives or needs: the needs for security, arousal, and autonomy. Each of these is treated in a specific homeostatic subsystem, which is represented as a negative feedback loop. The model assumes that the attempt to maintain the appropriate amount of security, arousal, and autonomy for the respective need results in specific regulations of the distance to social partners. Furthermore, it is postulated that those three needs, and thus the way of distance regulation, take a specific developmental course. These assumptions are supported by several studies in which the distance regulation behavior of the participants was observed and simulated by means of a parameter estimation.
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There are pervasive sex differences in psychological and physical well-being, many of which can be linked to the differential socialization of men and women. Numerous studies have linked psychological masculinity and femininity to well-being. In the present article, this literature is explained by focusing on the specific personality traits captured by conventional measures of masculinity and femininity: agency (focus on self and forming separations) and communion (focus on others and forming connections), respectively. Both agency and communion are required for optimal well-being (D. Bakan, 1966); when one exists in the absence of the other (unmitigated communion or unmitigated agency), however, negative health outcomes occur. Research that is consistent with this idea is presented, and the processes by which unmitigated agency and unmitigated communion affect well-being are explored. These processes involve control, social support, and health behavior.
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Three fundamental contradictions were examined in the stages of development identified retrospectively by 106 romantic relationship parties: autonomy-connection, openness-closedness, and predictability-novelty. The contradictions were reported to be present in approximately three-quarters of all identified stages. The openness closedness contradiction was more likely than the other two contradictions to be reported during the initial stage of development; autonomy connection and predictability-novelty contradictions were reported with increased frequency in subsequent developmental stages. Relationship parties reported that they managed the contradictions with six basic types of responses. These response forms were not reported with equal frequency across the contradictions and the stages of development. Current relationship satisfaction did not correlate significantly with the reported presence of the contradictions but did correlate with the ways in which the contradictions were managed.
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The article explores how partners in intimate relationships experience and construct the meaning of dyadic distance. It challenges the common notions that closeness and distance are two poles of a continuum and that distance can be defined as the absence of closeness. Analyses are based on detailed semistructured interviews that produce a conceptual model of dyadic distance as it relates to the overall perception of the marital relationship. The conceptual model evolved from the first-order meaning (participants' primary and immediate responses) and second-order meaning (authors' inductive conceptualization based on participant accounts of their experiences) of dyadic distance in intimate relationships.
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Despite considerable attention devoted to theory and research on close relationships, the construct of dyadic closeness has remained vague. This article attempts to clarify the concept of closeness in couple relationships and presents a conceptual model of “dyadic closeness.” Qualitative analysis of detailed interviews indicates that dyadic closeness is perceived as a whole, indivisible, and rewarding experience. It may be conceptualized by three major distinctions: A relatively stable relationship trait versus a fluctuating situational state; emotional versus physical closeness; and the constructed meanings of closeness versus its expressions.
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In order to examine the cross-cultural consistency of several patterns of couple communication, 363 participants from four different countries (Brazil, Italy, Taiwan, and the United States) completed self-report measures about communication and satisfaction in their romantic relationships. Across countries, constructive communication was positively associated with relationship satisfaction, whereas demand/withdraw communication was negatively associated with relationship satisfaction. Woman demand/man withdraw communication was significantly more likely than man demand/woman withdraw communication. Also, some evidence suggested women wanted greater closeness versus independence in their relationships than did men. Differences between partners in desire for closeness versus independence were associated with greater demand/withdraw communication. The possible bases for the demand/withdraw pattern of communication and its gender linkage are discussed.
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This article proposes that the concept of privacy preference has relevance for marital therapy. Because of the specific nature and uniqueness of privacy in intimate relationships, despite the existence of several general measures of privacy preferences, there is a need for a scale that is centered on aspects of privacy preferences of particular relevance to married or cohabiting couples. The article describes the Relational Privacy Preferences Scale (RPPS), which assesses individuals' privacy preferences in regard to Solitude, Reserve with Partner, Possessiveness, and Neighbor Avoidance, using items of specific relevance to marriage and cohabitation. The results of a field study assessing the RPPS show the scale to be reliable and to possess a sound factor structure. Data from a married or cohabiting subsample of the field sample reveal negative associations between Reserve with Partner and Solitude with several aspects of relationship satisfaction.
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Traditionally, marriage has been the social institution for couples that have been together for a long period. Some decades ago non-marital cohabitation began to appear in the western world as a new social institution. ‘Living apart together’– the LAT relationship – is a more recent phenomenon, which seems to have the potential of becoming the third stage in the process of the social transformation of intimacy. In contrast to couples in ‘commuting marriages’, who have one main household in common, couples living in LAT relationships have one household each. This article presents data on the frequency of LAT relationships in Sweden and Norway, and explores the variation which exists within LAT relationships. The article argues that the establishment of LAT relationships as a social institution requires the prior establishment of cohabitation as a social institution.
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A dialectic perspective illuminates the contradictory nature of autonomy and connection in romantic relationships and the various ways in which this contradiction is expressed over the course of a relationship. In an extension of past applications of a dialectic perspective, this study focuses on qualitative change in the experience of autonomy‐connection dialectic tensions. Descriptive histories of 10 premarital romantic relationships illustrate sequences of five different types of tensions, including concerns about getting involved and getting to know one's partner, dating others, trade‐offs between the relationship and other activities, fairness and tolerance, and commitment. These findings highlight the ways in which gradual quantitative changes in romantic connection may come about through a process of cumulative yet qualitatively different dialectic tensions between connection and autonomy.
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This research examines the validity of self-concept interpretations of scores from a new instrument for use with university-aged respondents. The Self Description Questionnaire III (SDQ III) was designed to measure 13 factors of self-concept, and these dimensions were identified with conventional and confirmatory factor analyses. In two different studies, the reliabilities of the 13 factors were high (median alpha = 0.89) and correlations among the factors were low (median r = 0.09). Correlations among a wide variety of validity criteria and the multiple dimensions of self-concept measured by the SDQ III formed a logical and theoretically consistent pattern of relationships. Academic achievement measures in language and mathematics were substantially correlated with self-concepts in the same areas but not with other self-concept factors. Ratings by significant others for all 13 SDQ HI scales were substantially correlated with the measures of corresponding self-concepts, but were not substantially correlated with the measures of noncorresponding self-concepts. These findings offer strong support for the construct validity of both self-concept and interpretations based upon the SDQ III.
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Presents an outline of the Zurich model of social motivation. This model is an extension of K. Lewin's field theory that has incorporated developments in systemic thinking and computer technology. Key concepts and analytic methods of this systems approach to social motivation are described, and the relationships between systems theory and field theory are discussed. (English abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes the development of the Relationship Closeness Inventory (RCI), which draws on the conceptualization of closeness as high interdependence between two people's activities proposed by Kelley et al. (1983). The current "closest" relationship of individuals ( N = 241) drawn from the college student population served as the basis for RCI development, with the closest relationship found to encompass several relationship types, including romantic, friend, and family relationships. The development and psychometric properties of the three RCI subscales (Frequency, Diversity, Strength), their scoring, and their combination to form an overall index of closeness are described. The RCI's test–retest reliability is reported and the association between RCI score and the longevity of the relationship is discussed. RCI scores for individuals' closest relationships are contrasted to those of not-close relationships, to a subjective closeness index, and to several measures of relationship affect, including Rubin's (1973) Liking and Loving scales. Finally, the ability of the RCI to predict relationship break up is contrasted to that of the Subjective Closeness Index, an index of the emotional tone of the relationship, and to relationship longevity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The psychology of motivation is a broad and loosely defined field. It covers everything from detailed investigations of the physiological mechanisms involved in animal drives to elaborate analyses of the unconscious motives behind abnormal or symptomatic acts in a person to factor analyses of the motives people assign to themselves to explain their behavior. Different textbooks and different courses have been organized around these different areas of investigation. In this book we will draw on all these sources of information and attempt to provide an integrated view of the field by narrowing somewhat the focus of attention. The book emphasizes how motives differ from other determinants of action and how they relate to other motivation-type variables such as emotions, incentives, values, causal explanations, and conscious and unconscious intents. It examines how motives are acquired, where they come from, and on what they are based. Biological sources of human motives are reviewed, and this review introduces the topic of natural incentives, or what is sometimes called intrinsic motivation. Some selectivity is necessary in reviewing the large field of individual differences in human motive strength. Social sources of differences in motive strength are also considered, including everything from the way parents rear their children to educational interventions designed to change peoples' motives. Such studies contribute not only practical information on how to develop motives, but also theoretical information on the nature of motives and how they differ from other characteristics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In 2 studies, the Inclusion of Other in the Self (IOS) Scale, a single-item, pictorial measure of closeness, demonstrated alternate-form and test–retest reliability; convergent validity with the Relationship Closeness Inventory (E. Berscheid et al, 1989), the R. J. Sternberg (1988) Intimacy Scale, and other measures; discriminant validity; minimal social desirability correlations; and predictive validity for whether romantic relationships were intact 3 mo later. Also identified and cross-validated were (1) a 2-factor closeness model (Feeling Close and Behaving Close) and (2) longevity–closeness correlations that were small for women vs moderately positive for men. Five supplementary studies showed convergent and construct validity with marital satisfaction and commitment and with a reaction-time (RT)-based cognitive measure of closeness in married couples; and with intimacy and attraction measures in stranger dyads following laboratory closeness-generating tasks. In 3 final studies most Ss interpreted IOS Scale diagrams as depicting interconnectedness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The studies incorporate the diathesis-stress model of mental disorder and attempt to evaluate the role of intrafamilial relationships within a model that also assumes a biological predisposition to these disorders . . . [Thus] these studies enable us to separate family patterns that antedate the onset of disorder from those that follow its appearance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
There are pervasive sex differences in psychological and physical well-being, many of which can be linked to the differential socialization of men and women. Numerous studies have linked psychological masculinity and femininity to well-being. In the present article, this literature is explained by focusing on the specific personality traits captured by conventional measures of masculinity and femininity: agency (focus on self and forming separations) and communion (focus on others and forming connections), respectively. Both agency and communion are required for optimal well-being (D. Bakan, 1966); when one exists in the absence of the other (unmitigated communion or unmitigated agency), however, negative health outcomes occur. Research that is consistent with this idea is presented, and the processes by which unmitigated agency and unmitigated communion affect well-being are explored. These processes involve control, social support, and health behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In psychological research, it is desirable to be able to make statistical comparisons between correlation coefficients measured on the same individuals. For example, an experimenter (E) may wish to assess whether 2 predictors correlate equally with a criterion variable. In another situation, the E may wish to test the hypothesis that an entire matrix of correlations has remained stable over time. The present article reviews the literature on such tests, points out some statistics that should be avoided, and presents a variety of techniques that can be used safely with medium to large samples. Several numerical examples are provided. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
examine interpartner agreement on interaction patterns / examine the association between conflict structure and interaction patterns / examine the association between relationship satisfaction and both conflict structure and interaction patterns (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
We used a variant of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and explicit reports to examine the assumption that attachment anxiety and avoidance are related to proximity and distance goals. Results confirmed that attachment avoidance was associated with a stronger implicit motivation for and positive evaluation of distance goals in attachment relationships. This was found both at the implicit and explicit levels and both in a threat and non-threat context. Attachment anxiety was associated with proximity goals only when measured explicitly, but not when goal activation was measured implicitly. Our findings highlight the importance of considering both implicit and explicit goal representations when studying motivational processes in the context of attachment, and suggest that the IAT can provide a useful tool for investigating implicit motivational constructs. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
ABSTRACT In three studies employing over 350 community adults and college students, participants wrote or told narratives of personally important scenes in their lives. The autobiographical accounts were coded for themes of agency and communion, the two general content dimensions in lives and life stories that have been identified by many theorists and researchers. The four agentic themes of self-mastery, status, achievement/responsibility, and empowerment were positively associated with Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) measures of achievement and power motivation, self-report scales of dominance and achievement, and personal strivings concerning being successful and feeling strong. Similarly, the four communal themes of love/friendship, dialogue, care/help, and community were positively associated with intimacy motivation, needs for affiliation and nurturance, and personal strivings concerned with warm and close relationships. The results suggest a thematic coherence in personality across the arenas of key autobiographical memories, social motives, and daily goals.
Article
The variety of interpersonal relationships in contemporary society necessitates the development of brief, reliable measures of satisfaction that are applicable to many types of close relationships. This article describes the development of such a measure. In Study I, the 7-item Relationship Assessment Scale (RAS) was administered to 125 subjects who reported themselves to be "in love." Analyses revealed a unifactorial scale structure, substantial factor loadings, and moderate intercorrelations among the items. The scale correlated significantly with measures of love, sexual attitudes, self-disclosure, commitment, and investment in a relationship. In Study II, the scale was administered to 57 couples in ongoing relationships. Analyses supported a single factor, alpha reliability of .86, and correlations with relevant relationship measures. The scale correlated .80 with a longer criterion measure, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (Spanier, 1976), and both scales were effective (with a subsample) in discriminating couples who stayed together from couples who broke up. The RAS is a brief, psychometrically sound, generic measure of relationship satisfaction.
Article
Difficulty with distance regulation is a central source of controversy in couples' relationships. This article describes how attachment theory can contribute to the understanding and treatment of closeness-distance struggles. Discussion focuses on (a) closeness-seeking as a feature of the attachment system, (b) individual differences in adult attachment styles, and (c) the working model that governs how salient interpersonal information is processed and is responded to both emotionally and behaviorally. These elements of the attachment system not only contribute to understanding closeness-distance disturbance but also provide access points for therapeutic intervention.
Article
Loneliness is a complex set of feelings encompassing reactions to the absence of intimate and social needs. Although transient for some individuals, loneliness can be a chronic state for others. We review the developmental, social, personality, clinical, and counseling psychology literatures on loneliness with an emphasis on recent empirical findings. Chronic feelings of loneliness appear to have roots in childhood and early attachment processes. Chronically lonely individuals are more likely to be high in negative affectivity, act in a socially withdrawn fashion, lack trust in self and others, feel little control over success or failure, and generally be dissatisfied with their relationships compared to nonlonely individuals. Loneliness has also been associated with a variety of individual differences including depression, hostility, pessimism, social withdrawal, alienation, shyness, and low positive affect; loneliness is also a concomitant of more severe disorders, such as clinical depression, borderline personality, and schizophrenia. Although loneliness affects a large number of individuals and is associated with numerous negative outcomes, relatively few investigations have examined the efficacy of treatments aimed at alleviating or preventing loneliness. Several investigations raise the possibility of treating loneliness, but the absence of appropriate comparison groups casts doubt on the efficacy of many of these treatments. Correlational studies also suggest that one close friend or romantic partner may be sufficient to buffer those at risk for loneliness. Research on causal processes is sparse, however, and more research is needed to delineate which factors are antecedents and which are consequences of loneliness.
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Past research suggests that solitude can have either a positive or a negative impact on a person′s well-being. How time away from others affects people may depend on the person′s general preference for solitude. We present a scale to measure individual differences in preference for solitude. Experiments 1 and 2 report on the development of the Preference for Solitude Scale and provide evidence of its reliability. Experiments 3 and 4 provide discriminant and convergent validity data for the scale. Experiments 5 and 6 use self-report data to demonstrate that scale scores predict the extent to which people spend time by themselves and with others. Experiment 7 uses scale scores to predict the amount of social interaction in a laboratory setting. Experiment 8 demonstrates that scale scores can predict the amount of time people spend alone beyond that predicted by introversion-extraversion. Taken together, the data indicate that the Preference for Solitude Scale assesses individual differences in the extent to which people prefer to spend time alone.