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The antimicrobial activity of honey, bee pollen loads and beeswax from Slovakia
Abstract and Figures
The aim of this study was to test the antimicrobial activity of propolis, bee pollen loads and beeswax samples collected in the year 2009 from two locations in Slovakia to pathogenic bacteria, microscopic fungi and yeasts. The antimi-crobial effect of the bee product samples were tested using the agar well diffusion method. For extraction, 99.9% and 70% methanol (aqueous, v/v) and 96% and 70% ethanol (aqueous, v/v) were used. Five different strains of bacteria, i.e. Listeria monocytogenes ccM 4699, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ccM 1960; Staphylococcus aureus ccM 3953; Salmonella enterica ccM 4420, Escherichia coli ccM 3988, three different strains of microscopic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and seven different strains of yeasts Candida krusei, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Geotrichum candidum, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, were tested. After 48 hours S. aureus was the bacterium most sensitive to the 70% ethanol extract of pollen, A. fumigatus was the most sensitive microscopic fungus (70% ethanol) and C. glabrata the most sensitive yeast (70% methanol). Microorganisms most sensitive to propolis extracts were L. monocytogenes, A. fumigatus (70% ethanol) and G. candidum (70% methanol). Most sensitive to beeswax extracts were E. coli, A. niger and C. tropicalis.
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