Commentary: Mediterranean Diet and Cognitive Function: Are We Approaching Clarity in This Area?
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although elevated plasma cholesterol levels represent a well-established and significant risk for developing atherosclerosis, there is a wide spectrum of cholesterol levels in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Most secondary prevention studies have generated convincing evidence that cholesterol reduction in patients with high cholesterol levels is associated with improved clinical outcome by reducing risk of further cardiovascular events. However, other risk factors may play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of coronary disease in the majority of patients with near-normal cholesterol values. The Cholesterol and Recurrent Events (CARE) study was designed to address whether the pharmacologic reduction of cholesterol levels with the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor, pravastatin, would reduce the sum of fatal coronary artery disease (CAD) and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) in patients who have survived an MI yet have a total cholesterol value < 240 mg/dl (< 6.2 mmol/liter). The other inclusion criteria for this study were age 21-75 years, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels of 115-174 mg/dl (3.0-4.5 mmol/liter), and fasting serum triglyceride levels < 350 mg/dl (< 4.0 mmol/liter). A total of 4,159 eligible consenting patients without other study exclusions were then randomly assigned to receive either pravastatin 40 mg daily or matching placebo in addition to their individualized conventional therapy. The trial was designed to have a median follow-up of 5 years. Study endpoints will be evaluated with respect to predefined subgroups according to baseline lipid values, age, gender, prior cardiovascular risk factors, and history.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)0Comments 62Citations
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate associations of the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) components and the MeDi score with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Participants (aged 70-89 years) were clinically evaluated to assess MCI and dementia, and completed a 128-item food frequency questionnaire. 163 of 1,233 nondemented persons had MCI. The odds ratio of MCI was reduced for high vegetable intake [0.66 (95% CI = 0.44-0.99), p = 0.05] and for high mono- plus polyunsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid ratio [0.52 (95% CI = 0.33-0.81), p = 0.007], adjusted for confounders. The risk of incident MCI or dementia was reduced in subjects with a high MeDi score [hazard ratio = 0.75 (95% CI = 0.46-1.21), p = 0.24]. Vegetables, unsaturated fats, and a high MeDi score may be beneficial to cognitive function.0Comments 53Citations
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk in a prospective study. Specifically, we analyzed reduced inflammation and improved metabolic profile as a potential medium through which the MeDi reduced the risk of AD. During a 4-year follow-up, 118 incident AD cases were identified among the 1219 non-demented elderly (age ≥ 65) subjects who provided dietary information and blood samples at baseline. We used high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) as an index of systemic inflammation, and fasting insulin and adiponectin as indexes of metabolic profile. We investigated whether there was a change in the association between MeDi and incident AD risk when the biomarkers were introduced into multivariable adjusted COX models. Better adherence to MeDi was associated with lower level of hsCRP (p =0.003), but not fasting insulin or adiponectin. Better adherence to MeDi was significantly associated with lower risk for AD: compared to those in the lowest tertile of MeDi, subjects in the highest tertile had a 34% less risk of developing AD (p-for-trend =0.04). Introduction of the hsCRP, fasting insulin, adiponectin, or combinations of them into the COX model did not change the magnitude of the association between MeDi and incident AD. Ultimately, the favorable association between better adherence to MeDi and lower risk of AD did not seem to be mediated by hsCRP, fasting insulin, or adiponectin. Other aspects of inflammatory and metabolic pathways not captured by these biomarkers, or non-inflammatory or non-metabolic pathways, may be relevant to the MeDi-AD association.0Comments 80Citations
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