Abstract, method, and results were written using a randomized dataset produced by Qualtrics to simulate what these sections will look like after data collection. These will be updated following the data collection. For the purpose of the simulation, we wrote things in past tense, but no pre-registration or data collection took place yet.]
Gratitude and indebtedness are common emotions in response to a favor, but are experienced differently depending on situations. Tsang (2006) suggested that gratitude for a favor depended on perceived helper intention, while indebtedness did not. Specifically, she proposed that a benevolent helper intention yielded higher gratitude from beneficiaries when compared to a selfish one, whereas helper intention did not influence the level of indebtedness induced. In a pre-registered experiment with a US Prolific student sample (N = 1000), we conducted a replication and extension of Studies 2 and 3 from Tsang (2006). Tsang found support for the impact of the helper’s intention on gratitude (Study 2: η2p = .2, 90% CI = [0.08, 0.32]; Study 3: η2p = .14, 95% CI = [0.03, 0.26]), but not for indebtedness (Study 2: η2p = .01, 90% CI = [0.00, 0.08]; Study 3: η2p = .14, 95% CI = [0.00, 0.03]). [The following findings are simulated random noise and will be updated after data collection:]. We [found/failed to find] support for the effect on gratitude (Study 2: η2p < .001, 90% CI = [0.00, 0.03]; Study 3: η2p < .001, 90% CI = [0.00, 0.01]), and [found/failed to find] support for effect on indebtedness (Study 2: η2p = .03, 90% CI = [0.00, 0.08]; Study 3: η2p = .03, 90% CI = [0.00, 0.05]). We concluded that … [conclusion].
Extending the replication, we examined the impact of perceived helpers’ intention on perceived expectations for reciprocity (d = -0.13, 95% CI = [-0.27, 0.03]), beneficiaries’ reciprocity tendency (d = -0.12, 95% CI = [-0.27, 0.03]), and associations of perceived reciprocity expectations with gratitude (r = .01, 95%CI = [-.05, 0.07]) and indebtedness (r < .001, 95%CI = [-0.05, 0.06]). All materials, data, and code were made available on: https://osf.io/ghfy4/