Article

The Effectiveness of Benefit Type and Price Endings in Green Advertising

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Abstract

This study assesses consumer perceptions of advertising messages for two proenvironmental products by examining the effectiveness of environmental versus personal benefit appeals and .99 versus .00 price endings. The authors borrow from Prospect Theory and Mental Accounting Theory to explain consumers' perceptions of psychological pricing and product attributes. In addition, the moderating role of environmental skepticism is assessed as it relates to the effectiveness of environmentally friendly advertisements. Results indicate that consumers feel that some products advertised with environmental appeals are more costly, but are not perceived as lower quality as compared with products advertised with personal benefits. Findings also indicate a price ending × appeal interaction for two different products, but the effects vary between the products. Finally, environmental skepticism is found to moderate perceptions of the message appeal. Implications are provided.

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... From the managerial perspective, green positioning reinforces brand relationship and increases competitiveness (Du et al., 2007), communication strategies decrease cost perceptions of environmentally friendly production and increase their benefits (Habel et al., 2016), and green advertising alter company perceptions (Royne et al., 2012). ...
... They are studied as both dependent and independent variables. Some studies explore relations between quality perceptions, attitudes towards the product, product image, satisfaction, performance, and product characteristics and/or composition (Kareklas et al., 2012;Royne et al., 2012). For instance, Royne et al. (2012) investigate the effects of advertising appeal on quality perceptions. ...
... Some studies explore relations between quality perceptions, attitudes towards the product, product image, satisfaction, performance, and product characteristics and/or composition (Kareklas et al., 2012;Royne et al., 2012). For instance, Royne et al. (2012) investigate the effects of advertising appeal on quality perceptions. The authors also explore a cognitive dimension and consumer's psychological profile as predictors of both attitudes towards the ad and perception of the company. ...
Article
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Purpose – Considerable research has been performed to understand green consumption behavior. Given the emergence of this discussion, this paper applies network analytical techniques to identify the main theoretical relationships regarding green consumption in the most relevant journals between 2000 and 2016. Design/methodology/approach – This paper applies a fit-for-purpose systematic review using network analysis, which includes a screening of 4,049 articles published in 39 journals in the business and marketing subjects, ranked by the Q1 extract of SCImago Journal & Country Rank, accessed between March and July, 2017. From 2000 to 2016, 216 articles were selected in 24 journals. The explored variables formed 21 categories. Findings – Five network groups emerged according to the background theories used by green consumption studies: “Consumers’ and Companies’ Characteristics and Actions,” “Consumer Intentions, Perceptions, and their Cognitive Mechanisms,” “Environmental Concern Effects,” “Attitudes towards Green Expertise,” and “Behavioral Control”. The findings showed what variables have a central relevance to the network, being essential to explain green consumption phenomenon, exploring relations and pointing out gaps for future studies. Practical implications – Based on the strongest connections between the network groups, practical implications are offered for marketers interested in developing actions promoting green consumption. Originality/value – This paper identifies the main categories related to green consumption in a network analysis, showing its antecedents and consequents grouped in five clusters. These results indicate that there are relationships still awaiting further investigation
... From the managerial perspective, green positioning reinforces brand relationship and increases competitiveness (Du et al., 2007), communication strategies decrease cost perceptions of environmentally friendly production and increase their benefits (Habel et al., 2016), and green advertising alter company perceptions (Royne et al., 2012). ...
... They are studied as both dependent and independent variables. Some studies explore relations between quality perceptions, attitudes toward the product, product image, satisfaction, performance and product characteristics and/or composition (Kareklas et al., 2012;Royne et al., 2012). For instance, Royne et al. (2012) investigate the effects of advertising appeal on quality perceptions. ...
... Some studies explore relations between quality perceptions, attitudes toward the product, product image, satisfaction, performance and product characteristics and/or composition (Kareklas et al., 2012;Royne et al., 2012). For instance, Royne et al. (2012) investigate the effects of advertising appeal on quality perceptions. The authors also explore a cognitive dimension and consumer's psychological profile as predictors of both attitudes toward the ad and perception of the company. ...
Conference Paper
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Considerable research has been performed to understand and promote the green and sustainable consumption behavior. Given the emergence of this discussion in the marketing literature, we used network analytical techniques in this research to identify the main theoretical relationships regarding the green consumption research, published in the most relevant journals between 2000 and 2016. This survey found 25 journals and 216 papers investigating the green consumption issue in the business area and marketing sub-area, ranked by the Q1 extract of SCImago Journal &Country Rank – SJR. The results indicated five main network groups, named as “Consumers’ and Business’ Characteristics and Actions”; “Consumer’s Intention, Perception, and Cognitive Mechanisms”; “Environmental Concern Effects”; “Attitudes towards Green Expertise” and “Behavioral Control”, according to the theories that have been applied in these studies. Theoretically, this paper contributes to identify the main constructs related to green consumption. We also found that there are relationships still waiting for further investigation. Based on the strongest connections of the network groups, practical implications are offered to public policy and marketers interested in developing consumers’ sustainable behavior.
... Hutton and Markley (1991) demonstrated that financial incentive programmes changed participants' behaviours from using their own cars to taking public transport, which is less harmful to environment than private cars. Royne et al. (2012) investigated the effectiveness of environmental versus personal benefit appeals and .99 versus .00 ...
... Overall, despite the efforts in promoting green behaviours, consumers' actual purchasing of environmental products is still not encouraging (Royne et al. 2012). Varadarajan (2014) highlighted that a quality and quantity gap in public goods such as public transportation can ...
... This is a comparative paper, and the study adopts a method from previous relevant research (i.e. Green & Peloza 2014;Royne et al. 2012). We used two appeal types (i.e., environmental benefits and health benefits) and home countries (Malaysia and Iran). ...
Article
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This study investigates the influences of various types of green message (self-benefit and other-benefit appeals) on consumers' green purchase intentions among Malaysians and Iranians. In particular, this study examines whether the type of appeal affects consumers' purchase intentions differently, and whether this effect is moderated by the consumer's home country. A sample of 117 postgraduate students was exposed to one of two printed hypothetical green messages promoting either self-benefit or other-benefit appeals. The results reveal that other-benefit appeal influences purchase intentions more than self-benefit appeal. Furthermore, green product purchase intention among Malaysian postgraduate participants is higher as compared to that of the Iranians. However, home country does not moderate the relationship between appeal type and purchase intentions. Both theoretical and practical contributions are discussed.
... More than 15 years later, in another special issue of the Journal of Advertising on green ads, a number of scholars repeated the notion of the skeptical green consumer (Bickart and Ruth 2012;Finisterra do Paço and Reis 2012;Fowler and Close 2012;Royne et al. 2012;Sheehan and Atkinson 2012). If we closely look at this literature, we find two facets of this claim. ...
... There is no doubt that the question of whether (green) consumers are skeptical toward green ads is a key issue for green marketing and advertising (Finisterra do Paço and Reis 2012; Royne et al. 2012). If the notion of the skeptical green consumer is true, then advertisers are indeed facing a serious dilemma (Zinkhan and Carlson 1995): They would need to rethink their green advertising campaigns in fundamental ways because green ads-combined with skeptical green consumers-may not lead to permanent market success. ...
... If the notion of the skeptical green consumer is true, then advertisers are indeed facing a serious dilemma (Zinkhan and Carlson 1995): They would need to rethink their green advertising campaigns in fundamental ways because green ads-combined with skeptical green consumers-may not lead to permanent market success. Surprisingly, many scholars have accepted the idea of the skeptical green consumer without systematically examining the factors that drive skepticism toward green ads (but see Royne et al. 2012). ...
Article
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This article revisits the widely believed notion of the skeptical green consumer, in other words, that green consumers tend to distrust green advertising. Study 1, a survey of U.S. consumers, found no positive relationship between green consumerism and general ad skepticism. However, green consumerism was negatively related to green advertising skepticism. Study 2, a survey of Austrian consumers, addressed the underlying mechanism of this negative relationship in a mediation analysis. It was shown that green consumers saw more informational utility in green ads than nongreen consumers did. This, in turn, decreased their green advertising skepticism. The emotional appeal of green ads, however, had no impact on green advertising skepticism. Findings suggest that the “dilemma for marketers who desire to target the green consumer” (Zinkhan and Carlson 1995, p. 5) is far less serious than previously thought.
... Huston and Kamdar (1996) reported that zero-ending prices are preferred by professional customers, and similarly Stiving (2000) found that high-end and high-priced stores, as well as high-quality and high-cost products, are preferably priced in zero-ending prices. Naipaul and Parsa (2001) found that high-end restaurants prefer pricing their menu items in zero-ending prices, and Royne et al. (2012) found that buyers prefer zero-ending prices when purchasing quality products. Nagle et al. (2006) demonstrated a preference by retailers to price costly products in roundending prices. ...
... Any product is subjectively purchased on a continuum of two types of consumption motivation, namely, pure functionality and pure pleasure (Strahilevitz and Myers, 1998). Past studies have reported that consumers prefer bargains when purchasing high utility products, while agreeing to pay higher prices for the high pleasure products (Royne et al., 2012;Wadhwa and Zhang, 2015). Integrating these past findings with price-image theory in the context of green product purchases, it is expected that buyers will prefer roundending prices when purchasing hedonic green goods but that they will prefer odd-ending prices when purchasing utility motivation green goods. ...
... The results of the third study supported our propositions that, with respect to hedonic purchases of green products, buyers prefer round prices, and with respect to utilitarian purchases of green products, buyers prefer odd-ending prices. These results are consistent with the findings of past studies that buyers expect to pay higher prices for hedonic products, i.e. those rich in the pleasure feature, whereas they expect to pay discount prices for products high in utilitarian characteristics (Royne et al., 2012;Wadhwa and Zhang, 2015). ...
Article
Purpose- The discount image associated with odd-ending prices have led to its extensive usage by retailers. The purpose of this study is to do relative assessment of the impacts and applications of nine-ending and round-ending prices for the purchase of green and non-green products at different price levels and purchase motivations. Design/methodology/approach- Three experiments were conducted. The first experiment was planned as a 2 (price endings: nine-ending vs. round-ending) x 2 (product appeal: green vs. non-green) between subjects study, the second experiment was planned as a 2 (price endings: nine-ending vs. round-ending) x 2 (price levels: low price vs. high price) x 2 (product appeals: green vs. non-green) between subjects study , and the third experiment examined the buyers’ preferences of price-endings for the purchase of green products having either utility (utilitarian) or pleasure (hedonic) motivations. Findings- This research highlights that consumers prefer zero ending prices for the green products and pleasure motivation products, but they prefer odd endings for the low priced and utility products. The results recognize the increasing reception of round-ending prices. This study contributes by providing a boundary condition for odd ending prices. Specifically, the study finds that effect of nine-ending becomes weaker with the increase in the price of the products. Research limitations/implications- The findings of the study have practical implications for managers as the results indicate that by pricing the green products and high-quality perception products in round digits, and pricing the low priced and utility perception products in odd digits would lead to increase in consumers’ purchase intentions. Moreover, pricing the products in round-ending would also help to reduce the perception of low quality and deter brand loyalty emanating from low price/discount image of a product. Originality/value- This research contributes to theoretical and practical aspects of psychological pricing literature. This is the first study of its kind for exploring and comparing the impact of price endings on different green and non-green product categories. The study also resolves a contradiction in the past literature on the use of nine-ending prices by providing boundary condition.
... Increasing consumers' awareness about environmental and ethical issues has been a key goal of "green apparel" and social marketing aimed at sustainability [8][9][10]. In this study, green apparel reflects this key concept of sustainability and refers to apparel that is (1) manufactured with ecofriendly materials and processed with minimal environmental impact and (2) ethically sourced to improve poverty and working conditions for laborers. ...
... Green advertising is advertising that discourses on the impact of a green product on the biophysical environment, promotes a green lifestyle, or shows corporate social responsibility [8,10]. To meet these criteria, firms can uniquely position advertising messages to elicit consumers' favorable perceptions of the benefit of a green product and its brand [8,10]. ...
... Green advertising is advertising that discourses on the impact of a green product on the biophysical environment, promotes a green lifestyle, or shows corporate social responsibility [8,10]. To meet these criteria, firms can uniquely position advertising messages to elicit consumers' favorable perceptions of the benefit of a green product and its brand [8,10]. In this study, we use two categories of green appeals to explain the complex mechanism of why an individual engages in sustainable purchases and to illustrate the conception of impure altruism [13]: the message orientation (altercentric versus egocentric) and the beneficiary type (earth versus human). ...
Article
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In this study, we identify impure altruism as a duality of altruistic and egoistic warmth. We examine how these feelings motivate consumers to buy green apparel in response to advertisements. We test the effectiveness of the message orientation and its interactivity with a beneficiary and propose modeling impure altruism as the reason why consumers purchase green apparel. The study uses a quasi-experiment to estimate a comparison effect among advertising stimuli. We conduct an online survey among US consumers that garnered 586 responses for the main data analysis. The results indicate that egocentric appeals increase perceived uniqueness and that human beneficiary appeals lead to higher communal harmony. The findings show that communal harmony and global wellbeing prompt altruistic warmth and that uniqueness and product quality encourage egoistic warmth. Notably, altruistic warmth contributes to egoistic warmth, which indicates the existence of impurely altruistic consumers. Both altruistic and egoistic warmth lead to the intention of purchasing green apparel. We recommend “feel-good” marketing strategies to publicize the benefits of a sustainable lifestyle. The study contributes to the theoretical development of sustainability and can serve as an extension of a discrete model of altruism and egoism on consumers’ sustainable behavior.
... Faced with increasing levels of environmental problems, such as animal extinction, ocean pollution, climate change, and air pollution, people tend to pay more and more attention to concerns relating to environmental issues [1,2]. This increasing environmental concern leads companies or institutes to reconsider the significant role of green advertising in the communication of their pro-environmental claims or environmental sensitivity [3]. ...
... In this way, sustainable advertising or green advertising worked as an effective tool for corporations or institutes to communicate environmental threats and impact individual and organizational behavior [3]. Since the 1990s, sustainability research has evolved from discussing the specific features or content of green advertising, such as promotion claims [18], trustworthiness [19,20], end price and benefit types [2], and eco-labeling [21], to examining the factors that influence green advertising, such as consumer attitudes [1], willingness to buy [22], and consumer involvement [21]. To specify, green advertising research has mainly concentrated on two areas: its substantive influence and associative influence on people [23]. ...
... This study provides the following theoretical contributions. Firstly, previous research on green advertising has emphasized the effects of environmental claims, perceived trustworthiness, end prices end, and label issues on environmental attitudes and environmental concerns [2,18,20,24]. This study endeavored to supplement and extend the literature on environmental concerns from a visual advertising perspective, highlighting the role of lettering case in people's fear perceptions, congruence, and consequent behavioral reactions concerning environmental threat advertising [87]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent green advertising research has focused on the effectiveness of different advertising claims and people’s interactions with the environment or environmental concerns, indicating the significant role of visual appeals in influencing people’s environmental attitudes. However, surprisingly, only a limited amount of research has addressed the effect of lettering case in green advertising on people’s perceptions and their consequent environmental concerns. This study tries to fill in this research gap by showing that uppercase (vs. lowercase) advertising taglines on environmental threats could improve people’s fear arousal, advertising congruence, environmental concern and the mediating role of fear arousal and congruence in this process. The managerial implications and limitations are also discussed in this study.
... From the managerial perspective, green positioning reinforces brand relationship and increases competitiveness (Du et al., 2007), communication strategies decrease cost perceptions of environmentally friendly production and increase their benefits (Habel et al., 2016), and green advertising alter company perceptions (Royne et al., 2012). ...
... They are studied as both dependent and independent variables. Some studies explore relations between quality perceptions, attitudes toward the product, product image, satisfaction, performance and product characteristics and/or composition (Kareklas et al., 2012;Royne et al., 2012). For instance, Royne et al. (2012) investigate the effects of advertising appeal on quality perceptions. ...
... Some studies explore relations between quality perceptions, attitudes toward the product, product image, satisfaction, performance and product characteristics and/or composition (Kareklas et al., 2012;Royne et al., 2012). For instance, Royne et al. (2012) investigate the effects of advertising appeal on quality perceptions. The authors also explore a cognitive dimension and consumer's psychological profile as predictors of both attitudes toward the ad and perception of the company. ...
Presentation
Considerable research has been performed to understand and promote the green and sustainable consumption behavior. Given the emergence of this discussion in the marketing literature, we used network analytical techniques in this research to identify the main theoretical relationships regarding the green consumption research, published in the most relevant journals between 2000 and 2016.
... Sabendo-se que os produtos e serviços ecologicamente corretos são bem aceitos no mercado, torna-se importante entender quais fatores ou combinação de fatores devem ser levados em consideração na promoção destes produtos e serviços, tais como a relação entre o produto ou serviço com o meio ambiente, a promoção do estilo de vida ecologicamente correto e a imagem corporativa ambientalmente responsável (Royne et al., 2012). Segundo Stanley e Lasonde (1996), a maioria das atitudes ecologicamente corretas é considerada mais custosa tanto financeiramente quanto em relação ao tempo empregado nela, portanto nem todos aqueles que têm uma consciência ecológica estão dispostos a comportamentos que não sejam baseados em benefícios e custos percebidos. ...
... Ainda que os consumidores afirmem que estão dispostos a pagar mais por produtos, mercadorias e serviços ecologicamente corretos (Royne et al., 2012), as atitudes dos participantes do mercado podem tornar os consumidores céticos em relação aos argumentos ecológicos e, por consequência, fazê-los evitar a aquisição desses produtos, mesmo quando existe nestes consumidores uma atitude pró-meio ambiente (Englis, & Phillips, 2013). ...
... Aparentemente, a preocupação ambiental é um dos principais fatores que leva à valorização dos produtos, mercadorias e serviços ecologicamente corretos, pois ela tem relação direta com a consciência ecológica e, consequentemente, com o comportamento de consumo ecologicamente consciente (Zabkar&Hosta, 2013). Por isso mesmo, esta relação entre atitudes e comportamentos tem sido explorada em vários contextos (Yahya et al., 2013), como, por exemplo, a percepção de que consumidores ecologicamente conscientes estão dispostos a pagar mais por energia renovável (Royne et al., 2012). Sendo assim, quando o consumidor ecologicamente consciente acredita que ele pode sim fazer algo para ajudar no controle da poluição do meio ambiente e que o seu comportamento pode ter um efeito positivo sobre este ambiente quando ele adquire produtos ecologicamente corretos, estes produtos, mercadorias e serviços passam a ser mais valorizados por este consumidor. ...
Article
O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar os fatores que estão associados à valorização dos produtos ecológicos ou de empresas ecológicas. Buscou-se, verificar se algum dos fatores testados (reciclagem, mudança de hábito, saúde, motivadores externos, preocupação ambiental) relacionava-se positivamente ao valor percebido pelo consumidor dos produtos ecologicamente corretos, utilizando uma escala formada de três outros estudos existentes na literatura. Os resultados sugeriram que a preocupação ambiental é um dos fatores mais relevantes para os respondentes e que tanto a preocupação ambiental quanto a saúde e a mudança de hábitos são fatores que estão associados positivamente ao valor, dado pelo consumidor, aos produtos, mercadorias e serviços que são ecologicamente corretos e às empresas que os levam ao mercado. Concluiu-se que a ausência de um ou mais destes fatores podem vir a dificultar o crescimento do consumo de produtos e empresas ecológicas, tornando estas ausências, barreiras a este crescimento.
... The external causes of consumer skepticism toward green advertising have been investigated in previous studies, including green messages (e. g., Schmuck et al., 2018;Xie and Kronrod, 2012;Zhang et al., 2020), green characteristics of the company (e.g., Leonidou and Skarmeas, 2017;Nyilasy et al., 2014), and green characteristics of the products (e. g., Royne et al., 2012). In terms of the content of green advertisements, misleading information and numerical precision can significantly impact customers' evaluations (Schmuck et al., 2018;Xie and Kronrod, 2012). ...
... Moreover, price is an important factor that can impact customers' perceptions of green demarketing advertisements (Royne et al., 2012). In the context of green marketing, because green services are embedded with environmental value, customers may prefer to pay more for green services (Namkung and Jang, 2017). ...
Article
Food overconsumption is increasingly a concern even as consumers are growing skeptical of companies’ green marketing techniques. Accordingly, green demarketing strategies, which aim to lower consumer demand, have become more prevalent in recent years. Using an online experiment, the current research investigates how green demarketing strategies (vs. green marketing strategy) affect consumers’ level of skepticism toward restaurants’ green practices and influence their dining intentions toward restaurants. Moreover, this study examines how different benefits (health vs. environment) associated with green practices and restaurants’ green reputations (high vs. low) influence the effect of green demarketing (vs. marketing) strategies. The results reveal that although green demarketing may not independently outperform green marketing, when green demarketing was practiced by restaurants with low green reputations to promote environment-associated benefits, consumers exhibited a similar or even lower levels of skepticism and higher dining intentions. This study also provides implications for effective marketing communication in the context of green demarketing.
... 지속가능성에 대한 사회적 요구 증가와 친환경 소비의 이슈 화로 점점 더 많은 소비자들이 적극적으로 환경친화적인 제품 을 찾고 있다 (Jang et al., 2012;Kong et al., 2016;Laroche et al., 2001;Phau & Ong, 2007;Royne et al., 2012). 이러 한 효과는 패션산업으로 확산되어 (Phau & Ong, 2007) 가격이 다소 높더라도 친환경 패션 제품을 구매할 의도가 있는 소비자 가 점차 늘어나고 있다 (Ko & Fashion Marketing Research Lab, 2015;Song, 2014). ...
... 이러 한 효과는 패션산업으로 확산되어 (Phau & Ong, 2007) 가격이 다소 높더라도 친환경 패션 제품을 구매할 의도가 있는 소비자 가 점차 늘어나고 있다 (Ko & Fashion Marketing Research Lab, 2015;Song, 2014). 그러나 친환경 소비에 대한 관심과 친환경 제품의 구매 행동 사이에는 갭이 존재하며 (Royne et al., 2012;Tucker et al., 2012), 이는 패션제품의 소비에 있어서도 예외는 아니어서 친환경 패션 시장의 규모는 아직까지 상대적으로 작 다 . 자사의 제품을 선호하는 소비자들을 설 득하기 위해 메시지를 효과적으로 커뮤니케이션하는 브랜드들 은 강력한 포지셔닝을 가지게 된다 (Phau & Ong, 2007 (Choi et al., 2013;Kim et al., 2014a). ...
Article
Fashion industry have been emphasizing on eco-friendly business to enhance their public image. Due to the lack of consumers` awareness and experience of eco fashion advertising, this have resulted in adverse outcomes. Therefore, it is required to develop eco fashion advertisement that meets the public interest of Koreans. This study aims to obtain practical implications which can be applied to further eco fashion advertising. The study examines the public opinion towards eco fashion using Twitter as big data analysis and the protracted implication was provided to consumers as consumer vocabulary to see the advertising effect of consumer vocabulary. In addition, this study focuses on the environmental claim types to identify the most effective advertisement in eco fashion. The results are as follow. Associative claim types had a more positive influence on advertising attitude than substantive claim types. Substantive claim types had a more positive influence on brand cognition than associative claim types. In addition, the moderating effects of consumer vocabulary on advertising attitude and brand cognition were supported in substantive claim types. Advertisement attitude shows positive effects to both brand cognition and brand attitude. It has been proved that brand cognition leads to positive influence towards brand attitude and brand attitude eventually increases consumers` urge to buy products. This study has implication when providing a guideline for eco fashion advertisements.
... For example, Hartmann and Ib añez (2009) studied the use of verbal and visual information in green advertising and reported that a combination of both elements was most effective; while a study in China (Xue 2013) suggested that visual appeals had a stronger impact on Chinese consumers than verbal environmental claims did. Green and Peloza (2014) found that green advertising that featured consumer benefits worked better in more private settings, while societal benefits appeals were more effective in settings where public accountability was highlighted. Environmental benefits in advertising were also found to be able to create favorable perception of product quality compared to personal benefits (Royne et al. 2012). Kareklas and colleagues (2012) argued that prevention-framed messages generated more favorable brand attitudes among participants who were primed to be independent, while promotion-framed messages were more persuasive among participants who were primed to be more interdependent. ...
Article
This study examined the effects of message framing (positive vs. negative) and appeal types (individualistic vs. collectivistic) in green advertising on Chinese consumers’ attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand, green trust (trust of green messages), and purchase intention. It was found that negative frames and collectivistic appeal generated more favorable advertising and brand attitude and a higher level of green trust and purchase intention. Interaction effects suggested that, for ads with collectivistic appeals, there was no significant difference in terms of message framing. However, when individualistic appeals were used, ads with negative message frames generated more favorable responses than ads with positive frames.
... Second, the data analysis showed the important role of green advertising in the airline industry because if passengers can evoke the sensation of being in nature when they are exposed to an airline brand, they are more likely to have a positive overall image about that airline. Many previous studies have also stressed the importance of green advertising [107][108][109][110], suggesting that utilizing the natural environment in advertising makes customers feel close to nature which in turn stimulates consumption. Thus, if airline managers develop and use effective advertisements focusing on natural environment such as fields, forests and mountains, passengers are more likely to have a good image about the airline. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, as natural environmental problems have become more serious, environmentally friendly airlines have been attracting attention from many practitioners and scholars. The purpose of this study was to apply the concept of psychological benefits of green brands in an environmentally friendly airline context. Based on the theoretical relationships between the conceptual constructs, a model was developed and then evaluated using data collected from 322 airline passengers in Korea. The results indicated that the three sub-dimensions of psychological benefits of green brands (i.e. warm glow, self-expressive benefits and nature experiences) help to enhance the overall image of an environmentally friendly airline. Furthermore, the overall image plays an important role in the formation of three outcome variables: intentions to use, word-of-mouth intentions and willingness to pay more. Lastly, gender moderates the relationship between overall image and intentions to use.
... Pesquisas recentes revisitaram a noção do ceticismo com relação ao consumidor, em outra edição especial do Journal of Advertising (Bickart & Ruth, 2012;Fowler III & Close, 2012;Paço & Reis, 2012;Royne, Martinez, Oakley & Fox, 2012;Sheehan & Atkinson, 2012). A partir dessa literatura foram encontradas duas facetas de reivindicação (Freire & Braga Júnior, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Cada vez mais consumidores têm buscado amenizar seus impactos nos problemas ambientais da sociedade. No entanto, a existência de um mercado de produtos verdes muitas vezes não se alinha às expectativas desses consumidores, os quais podem se tornar céticos às informações publicitárias ofertadas. Em meio a este contexto, o objetivo desta pesquisa é investigar o efeito do ceticismo às informações publicitárias na atitude e intenção de compra de produtos verdes. Para tanto, uma survey com 508 consumidores foi realizada. Por meio de uma modelagem de equações estruturais, o modelo testado foi constituído por dois blocos - (1) impacto do conhecimento ambiental e dos valores ambientais no ceticismo às informações publicitárias e (2) o efeito do ceticismo às informações publicitárias na atitude e intenção de compra. Os resultados indicam que valores ambientais não influenciam no ceticismo. Por sua vez, o ceticismo às informações publicitárias afeta negativamente na atitude ambiental, o que é insuficiente para gerar um efeito negativo na intenção de compra de produtos verdes, que se mostra positivo. A contribuição central está em testar o antecedente valores ambientais, bem como a inserção da atitude enquanto variável até então pouco estudada na área.
... Therefore, the motivation for the present research is to investigate specific message strategies for communicating green practices in a manner that overcomes consumer skepticism. Research on green advertising has focused on issues such as promoting socially-responsible consumption behaviors ; self-versus societalbenefit appeals (Green and Peloza, 2014); appeals to personal versus environmental benefits (Royne et al., 2013); appeals to social norms versus environmental benefits (Goldstein et al., 2008); emotional vs. functional appeals ; perception of informational utility in green ads among green consumers ; perception of claims about green initiatives as unclear, vague, or deceptive (Schmuck et al., 2018); and connections between brands and nature (Hartmann & Apaolaza-Ibáñez, 2009). ...
Article
Companies are going green, both to benefit the planet and to make their brands more appealing. But some green initiatives have a twofold nature: they require cooperative behaviors by consumers, but save costs for the company. In such situations, companies advertising green initiatives have to overcome a message credibility problem, because people suspect the initiatives are primarily designed to save company costs. This research examines different approaches for making green advertising more credible. Study 1 shows that a narrative (vs. non-narrative) message style is more credible and yields better green evaluations; further, these effects are amplified when the message has two-sided (vs. one-sided) claims. Study 2 confirms the positive effects of narrative (vs. non-narrative) messages and demonstrates the advantage of using messages with specific (vs. general) information about the green initiatives. Results also support the theorizing that the effects of the message variables on green evaluations are mediated by message credibility.
... Companies and NGOs collaborate for various reasons and might decide to communicate this collaboration to consumers or not (Dahan et al., 2010;den Hond et al., 2012;Stafford et al., 2000). In green co-branding, a company informs consumers about an NGO-business collaboration by connecting the NGO to its products; put differently, it sends a CSR message about a productfocused environmental initiative (Nyilasy et al., 2013;Royne et al., 2012;Varadarajan & Menon, 1988). While the company's aim in green co-branding is to capitalize on it (Medina et al., 2021), this aim is often not achieved and the message provokes negative reactions from consumers instead (Medina et al., 2021;Mendini et al., 2018;Nyilasy et al., 2013). ...
Article
This research investigates how two different types of nongovernmental organization (NGO)–business collaboration for green innovation impact consumers’ purchase intentions. The authors carried out three studies, whose findings show that consumers prefer collaborations in which NGOs are integrated into the product development process (NGO co-development) over those that involve corporate giving to NGOs (sales-contingent donations). They show that green credibility works as a mediator, which explains why these two types of collaboration influence consumers’ purchase intentions differently. They also identify aspirational talk about a company’s future ambitions as an important boundary condition. These findings are important for literature on corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication, co-development, and co-branding and contribute to the discussion of the role of business in society.
... More importantly, we uncover a mechanism through which we can understand how consumers' perceptions operate when they evaluate brand messages about a company's sustainability-related activities. Additionally, we contribute to a stream of research that explores how consumers evaluate CSR messaging (Gruber et al. 2015;Martínez-Fiestas et al. 2015;Royne et al. 2012;Schmeltz 2012). ...
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This research examines how and why consumers evaluate brand messages about corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities differently. Insights from secondary data suggest that brands may prioritize environmental activities over social activities, and vice versa, depending on the type of company. Using a field experiment and surveys, we explore whether consumers’ attitudes toward these brand decisions follow company priorities. We find that consumers perceive brands that sell goods and communicate messages about environmental sustainability activities more positively than services companies, while consumers perceive brands that provide services and communicate messages about social sustainability activities more positively than goods companies. We show that the tangibility of the brand’s offering also impacts brand attitudes in a similar way. These findings have important implications for brand managers as they communicate CSR activities and attempt to maximize sustainability investments across various causes.
... The aim of green advertising is to (a) inform consumers about the environmental aspects of a company's products and services (Pranee 2010), (b) create awareness of and positive attitudes toward environmentally friendly brands and businesses (D'souza and Taghian 2005), and (c) stimulate the demand for green products (Carlson et al. 1996). The growing importance of green advertising theoretically and practically is reflected in the mounting research that focuses on various topics including its conceptualization and nature (Banerjee, Gulas, and Iyer 1995;Kilbourne 1995;Zinkhan and Carlson 1995), assessments of the influence of consumer characteristics on its effectiveness (Finisterra do Paço and Reis 2012), as well as investigations of consumer response to specific ad components (Atkinson and Rosenthal 2014;Royne et al. 2012;Segev, Fernandes, and Wang 2015). ...
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This article investigates the changes in green advertising by conceptually replicating and extending Carlson, Grove, and Kangun's 1993 study. A content analysis of 433 unique ads from 18 magazine titles published in 2009 and 2010 demonstrates that advertisers attempted to address growing public concern for the environment and the demand for green products and services as emerge from the analyses of the ads' target, objective, and the executional elements. Contrary to Carlson, Grove, and Kangun's findings, the majority of environmental claims were deemed acceptable, implying a trend toward more trustworthy and reliable green advertising.
... Nan, Zhao, Yang, & Iles, 2015;Wen & Shen, 2016;Wyllie, Baxter, & Kulczynski, 2015): e.g. 'Quitting smoking will lengthen your life' and loss (negative) framing: 'Smoking will shorten your life.' Gainframed messages are more likely than loss-framed messages to encourage consumers to adopt positive behaviors, such as using sunscreen, stopping smoking, and exercising (Baek & King, 2015;Royne, Martinez, Oakley, & Fox, 2012). Message appeals may highlight health or social aspects of behaviors (Baek, Yoon, & Kim, 2015;Kim, Baek, Yoon, Oh, & Choi, 2017;Paek, 2008). ...
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Using two experiments, this study aims to investigate how politically liberal or conservative message recipients respond to anti-tobacco appeals. The results show that in Study 1, respondents were exposed to a message about price policy. In Study 2, they were exposed to a message about a warning policy. In both studies, liberal participants more favorably evaluated anti-tobacco messages emphasizing feasibility rather than desirability, whereas conservative participants more positively evaluated messages emphasizing desirability rather than feasibility. Implications for policymakers and marketers are discussed.
... Moreover, interest in green marketing and advertising is increasing among both advertising practitioners and scholars (Hartmann et al., 2015;Royne et al., 2012), and Taylor (2014; has called for new, more holistic approaches on research exploring environmental issues in advertising. Studying the implications of the media itself in channel selection is one avenue to answer this call. ...
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This study underscores the importance of considering a medium’s broader effects. Research demonstrates that a medium’s perceived eco-harmful impact affects communication effectiveness because a medium itself can act as a constituent of the message. The current study explores managers’ estimates of consumer eco-harmful perceptions of 10 paper- and electronic-based media. Managers tend to mis-estimate consumers’ eco-harmful media perceptions; these estimates are driven by managers’ eco-conscious attitudes. Further, advertising on more eco-harmful media is associated with irritating characteristics, while advertising on less eco-harmful media is associated with good and trustworthy characteristics. Managerial implications are given for communication effectiveness in contexts where environmental concerns are particularly relevant.
... A sizable body of the environmental communication literature has investigated the persuasive effects of different message frames (e.g. gain vs. loss) (e.g. Newman, Howlett, Burton, Kozup, & Tangari, 2012;Royne, Martinez, Oakley, & Fox, 2012). However, some scholars have pointed out that relatively little research has investigated potential boundary conditions (i.e. ...
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Applying the framework of Construal Level Theory (CLT), this study tested the effects of an environmental ad describing the distant-future (i.e., end of the 21st century) vs. near-future (i.e., next summer) consequences of climate change using a sample of college students in the U.S. and South Korea. Consistent with the proposed empirical model in this study, lower perceived temporal distance of climate change generally led to higher perceived relevance of the event and more positive attitude and greater intention toward the sustainable consumption suggested in the ad (i.e., using Energy Star qualified bulbs). However, the effects of temporal framing on the variables were moderated by the culture-specific ways in which the participants represented time and interpreted temporal information. In response to the distant-future frame, South Korean participants tended to report significantly shorter perceived temporal distance, thus presenting higher levels perceived relevance, stronger pro-environmental attitudes, and stronger behavioral intention than their U.S. counterparts. Overall, the findings of this study have meaningful implications for the external validity of CLT and for the development of effective climate change awareness campaigns targeting different audiences around the world.
... Such aspects, however, although remarkable in terms of responsible communication, are not always perceived as directly correlated to a firm's green commitment. Moreover, since consumer sensitivity to cost has a deep ability to affect their green behaviors and considerable studies demonstrated that consumer attitudes and buying behavior for green products may represent a paradox (Royne et al. 2012), it would be interesting to analyse consumer response to specific price strategies (i.e. psychological price strategies and so on) in green advertising. ...
Conference Paper
This paper investigates consumer perception with respect to green communication, not only referring to the ‘undertaking of responsibility’ with regard to what is communicated (the process of responsible communication). In particular, it focuses on the object of communication, in terms of responsible corporate processes or products and services, such as eco-sustainable, natural, green and so on. In this case the role of communication can be analysed and its efficacy on the audience. So, using an original interpretative model, print advertisements of four companies positioning themselves as “green” are examined. To verify the research hypothesis, empirical research is conducted, to see whether the green content of communication relative to eco-sustainable products can really induce consumers to buy. In conclusion, it is proposed that sustainable communication be reconceptualised, in terms of ‘response-ability’ in relation to the requirements of what is nowadays a niche market.
... It is possible that the most important limitation lies in the fact that this study focused only on two specific Greek products that are widely known to the public; even though product type has been identified as an important factor in green and social advertising research (Royne et al., 2012). ...
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Undoubtedly, consumers of green products have formed a market tribe that has strengthened its power in recent years. Apart from the ethical side of buying organic products, they are willing to pay more for a green product compared to a conventional one. In marketing literature, packaging is considered to be as a valuable feature of a product that may motivate consumers to proceed to a purchase. The purpose of the present study is to investigate how various packaging features (eco-labels, image, shape, colour) of organic agricultural products affect consumers’ eye reactions and as a result influence consumers’ perception, attitude and buying behaviour.
... As an essential component of green marketing strategies, green branding, especially positioning green brands, has several strategic advantages, such as appealing to consumers who make environmental friendliness a high priority, transmitting signals of environmental responsibility and ethical concerns to the public and who achieve market differentiation over competitors by delivering unique environmental value (Hartmann et al., 2005;Huang et al., 2014). Consequently, a well-implemented green brand positioning strategy offers corporations an opportunity to gain a competitive advantage under the current prevalence of environmentalism consumption (Grant, 2008;Royne et al., 2012). ...
Article
Purpose-This study aims to develop a comprehensive conceptual framework to investigate how green brand positioning strategies positively impact consumer response. It focusses on uncovering the causal mechanism in which such effect is mediated by brand stereotypes. Additionally, it outlines the moderating role of construal level in this formation process. Design/methodology/approach-Three experimental studies were conducted to examine the hypotheses. Study 1 tests the positive influence of green brand positioning on consumer response. Study 2 tests the dual mediating effect of warmth and competence in the relationship between green brand positioning and consumer response. Study 3 further examines the moderating role of construal level in the effects of green brand positioning on brand stereotypes. Findings-The findings reveal that green emotional positioning strategies are predominantly stereotyped as warm while green functional positioning strategies are predominantly stereotyped as competent. Both warm and competent mediate the effects of green brand positioning on consumer response. Furthermore, a congruency between green emotional positioning and high-level construal, as well as the match between green functional positioning and low-level construal, leads to more warmth and competence perception. Originality/value-This study contributes to green brand management literature by proposing a brand stereotype-based mechanism to explain how green brand positioning strategies trigger consumers' stereotyping process, leading to positive consumer response. This study also identifies the construal level as a moderating variable that impacts consumers' warmth and competence perceptions towards two kinds of green brand positioning strategies. Managerially, the findings of this study provide managerial ideas for developing green branding strategies.
... It is possible that the most important limitation lies in the fact that this study focused only on two specific Greek products that are widely known to the public; even though product type has been identified as an important factor in green and social advertising research (Royne et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Undoubtedly, consumers of green products have formed a market tribe that has strengthened its power in recent years. Apart from the ethical side of buying organic products, they are willing to pay more for a green product compared to a conventional one. In marketing literature, packaging is considered to be as a valuable feature of a product that may motivate consumers to proceed to a purchase. The purpose of the present study is to investigate how various packaging features (eco-labels, image, shape, colour) of organic agricultural products affect consumers’ eye reactions and as a result influence consumers’ perception, attitude and buying behaviour.
... Unfortunately, despite the expectations of great potential for social media in green advertising, little research has investigated how to increase green consumers' engagement with messages. The initial stream of research in the domain of green campaign strategies has focused on how to effectively reach and communicate with the green consumers (Green and Peloza, 2014;Iyer et al., 1994;Kangun et al., 1991;Kareklas et al., 2012;Royne et al., 2012;Schuhwerk and Lefkoff-Hagius, 1995). For example, Iyer et al. (1994) conducted a content analysis of 95 green TV advertisements and reported that most of the TV advertisements tried to position the firm or a household consumable as green. ...
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*** Purpose --- Given that many consumers are skeptical about environmentally based advertising campaigns, the purpose of this study is to propose an optimized message strategy to facilitate consumer engagement with green messages in social media contexts. *** Design/methodology/approach --- Four empirical studies are conducted using self-report questionnaires to test proposed hypotheses with a focus on the interplay between claim specificity and benefit appeals in green advertising on social media. *** Findings --- The current study examines the interaction effects of claim specificity and benefit appeals on consumer engagement in social media. Specifically, the results reveal that when the message claim is abstract, using other-benefit appeals produces more positive consumer engagement than using self-benefit appeals. Moreover, the results illustrate that self-enhancement motivates consumers to engage with green product advertising messages when the advertising appeal is abstract and the advertising message is associated with benefits for others. Finally, it is found that consumers’ self-construal level moderates the interaction effect of claim specificity and benefit appeals type on consumer engagement on social media. *** Practical implications --- This paper has practical implications to both social media managers and advertisers in the green product industry: a match with advertising claim specificity and construal level (i.e. social distance: self-benefit vs other-benefit) should be ensured to increase consumer engagement on social media. In addition, self-enhancement and self-construal should be considered for a better message strategy in social media contexts. *** Originality/value --- The findings make important contributions to the literature in that we extend the applications of construal level theory to social media contexts as a valid theoretical tool to identify optimized green message strategies. As such, it provides future researchers and practitioners in the domain of green campaigns with useful guidelines to boost more consumption of green products.
... So, this study has also examined the effects of consumer knowledge [defined as consumers' existing knowledge of green products and eco-labels (Alba and Hutchinson, 2000)] on information processing of green advertisements, as this can influence their processing of green advertising information (Hong and Sternthal, 2010;Rao and Monroe, 1988). Consumers often use their product-related environmental knowledge to evaluate advertising content (Royne et al., 2012). Green product information is also often conveyed in a highly specialized format (e.g. ...
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Purpose This study aims to examine the effects of three green information quality dimensions – persuasiveness, completeness and credibility – on green brand evaluation and whether this is mediated by green brand credibility. It also examines the moderating effects of eco-label credibility and consumer knowledge on green information quality dimensions and green brand credibility relationships. Design/methodology/approach Using a structured questionnaire on environmentally-friendly electrical goods/electronics, cosmetic and apparel product advertisements, involving an elaboration task, this study collected usable data from 1,282 Indian consumers across 50 cities. It also undertook an assessment for three different product groups using structural equation modelling to examine proposed hypotheses and assessed moderated mediation using the Hays process model. Findings The study indicates that: green brand credibility mediates the effects of green information quality dimensions on green brand evaluation; consumer knowledge moderates the effects of persuasiveness and completeness on green brand credibility and eco-label credibility moderates the effects of persuasiveness and credibility on green brand credibility. Research limitations/implications In green information processing, this study supports the relevance of the elaboration likelihood model and the mediation effect of green brand credibility. It also presents evidence that credible eco-labels enhance green information processing. While the results are broadly consistent across the three product categories, the results may only generalizable to the environmentally-aware urban populations. Practical implications Help brand managers to design advertisements that add brand credibility in environmentally-aware urban markets. Originality/value It helps to define green information quality and the interacting effects of eco-label credibility and consumer knowledge in green information processing.
... Recent research on green advertising has employed rich theoretical frameworks, including regulatory focus (Kareklas, Carlson, and Muehling 2013), prospect theory (Royne et al. 2012), persuasion knowledge (Bickart and Ruth 2013), message framing (Chang, Zheng, and Xie 2015), and message assertiveness (Baek, Yoon, and Kim 2015), threat appeals and cognitive efficacy (Hartmann et al. 2014). It has also focused heavily on managerial implications of the findings, such as Hartmann et al.'s findings suggesting that appropriate threat appeals can increase responsiveness to environmental appeals and change behavioral intentions. ...
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This paper argues that as people are become more concerned about the environment, the demands for green products also have increased. Green products usually define as products that are environmental friendly and can be recycled. However, different people may have different opinions towards the meaning of green products. People are purchasing more green products because they have start taking consideration for impacts that may cause to the environment. As a consequence, appearances of green products have created a new market known as green market. It is the market where selling and purchasing of green products taking place. Moreover, this paper also argues that whether it is an advantages or disadvantages for green products in market. Besides that, this paper also explains the reasons that consumer willingness to buy or not to buy green products. Furthermore, this paper then discusses the reasons that made the sellers willing to sell green products in market. Lastly, this paper also explains why all this aspects are important for green products because it may occur the situation where people misunderstanding the appearances of green products and misuse it. As a result, the purpose of appearances of green products in market may not achieve.
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This paper provides a synthesis and critical assessment of the sustainability marketing literature, from the period 1998–2013, building on a previous assessment from 1971 to 1998. It details research within major marketing journals and critically assesses this research in relation to the on-going conversation which focuses on marketing’s relationship with the natural environment. Differences in the content and depth of sustainability coverage in marketing journals are considered. Potential avenues for future sustainability marketing research are proposed, with a particular call for theoretical and managerial reflections which tackle broader systemic and institutional issues within the discipline.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss the need for appropriate green marketing communication strategies to close the gap between consumers’ strong environmental concerns and weak engagement in sustainable behaviors. In doing so, our overarching goal is to provide new direction for creating targeted marketing communication strategies that will more effectively motivate consumer purchasing of green products and services. Design/methodology/approach The authors use a survey approach to collect data and regression analysis to test our hypotheses. Findings The findings suggest that demographic variables (gender, ethnicity and age) as well as concern for waste, concern for health and concern for environmental technology influence five different categories of sustainable behaviors. Research limitations/implications The results suggest that future studies should consider multiple dimensions of environmental concern because each dimension has a different impact on sustainable behaviors. Practical implications The findings contribute to the continued development of a green consumer profile and highlight the need for marketers to carefully select appropriate dimensions of environmental concern to emphasize in their communication strategies. Results also reinforce the need to consider demographics in targeted communications. Originality/value This study considers the impact of different dimensions of environmental concern and demographic variables on different types of sustainable behaviors.
Research in the area of environmentally friendly purchasing behavior reports inconsistent findings. It is also unclear which factors determine real buying behavior. Therefore, the present study develops a model which identifies major factors forming self-reported purchasing behavior (SRB). A structural equation approach is used to integrate these measures and to test if they are able to predict actual purchasing behavior. Data was obtained from a nationwide panel (n=1760) and included survey data and retail scanner data for seven different product categories in the sector of goods for daily needs. Results show that consumers care for the environment and mirror environmental attitudes in their purchasing behavior (self-reported). Especially norms and willingness to pay are strong predictors of SRB. However, SRB is not transferred to actual purchasing behavior. Therefore, the findings corroborate the gap between stated and actual behavior. Implications for marketing are derived to encourage consumers to purchase environmentally friendly products. In the end, this not only produces benefits for the environment, but also creates opportunities for businesses.
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The aim of the research was to define the size of the Hungarian LOHAS (Lifestyle of Health and Sustainability) consumer group by analyzing its lifestyle based on sustainable values. To achieve this goal, a representative questionnaire-based survey was carried out involving 1000 individuals in Hungary. During the value-orientated research, 25 lifestyle statements were drawn up. According to the results, five value-based segments could be distinguished. The largest cluster, the young trend followers group, reflects the characteristics of the LOHAS consumers' lifestyle to the greatest extent. However, this segment cannot entirely be regarded as a consumer group devoted to LOHAS values, which is why a further segmentation of this group was necessary. As a result of this further segmentation, the third sub-cluster, which emphasizes the ethical (competence) statements the most, can be identified with the LOHAS consumer group, which makes up 8.7% of the Hungarian population. Further research is necessary to find out whether the situation regarding value orientation in Hungary is similar to that in other Eastern European countries whose social and cultural backgrounds are very similar. Revealing the values of the Lifestyle of Health and Sustainability segment contributes to the extension of the literature.
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Este estudo buscou por meio de experimentos verificar os impactos decorrentes da utilização do dígito “9” no formato de preços (na modalidade de áudio) sobre a percepção das pessoas. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida em 3 experimentos. Em cada um dos experimentos, os respondentes foram divididos em dois grupos, cada um com uma oferta em áudio e com formato de preço diferente (com e sem o dígito nove na oferta). As amostras eram semelhantes entre si. Como instrumento de análise foi utilizado o teste-t student. De um modo geral, os resultados do teste t evidenciaram que a utilização do dígito “9” no formato do preço pode impactar a percepção dos clientes quanto à avaliação do preço, à avaliação da oferta, à intenção de compra, à avaliação da propaganda, à indicação da loja, à avaliação das relações de custo versus benefício e à avaliação do formato da propaganda. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.19094/contextus.v15i1.845
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Greenwashing is a major advertising issue that has negative implications for consumers, the green product market, and the environment. Consumers cannot distinguish between acceptable and deceptive environmental claims, a belief that the findings of this research confirms. This underscores the need to educate consumers about environmental claims. Findings from five studies demonstrate that a literacy intervention combining textual and visual elements that distinguish acceptable from deceptive green claims helps consumers spot deception. In turn, consumers use this knowledge when responding to product messages. Implications for theory, policy makers, advertisers, and consumers are discussed.
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Concerns related to the environment are evident in the increasingly ecologically conscious marketplace. Using various statistical analyses, investigats the demographic, psychological and behavioral profiles of consumers who are willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products. Finds that this segment of consumers were more likely to be females, married and with at least one child living at home. They reported that today’s ecological problems are severe, that corporations do not act responsibly toward the environment and that behaving in an ecologically favorable fashion is important and not inconvenient. They place a high importance on security and warm relationships with others, and they often consider ecological issues when making a purchase. Managerial implications for green marketers and suggestions for future research are discussed.
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Evidence from past research and insights from an exploratory investigation are combined in a conceptual model that defines and relates price, perceived quality, and perceived value. Propositions about the concepts and their relationships are presented, then supported with evidence from the literature. Discussion centers on directions for research and implications for managing price, quality, and value.
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The term greenwashing is normally used as a pejorative, referring to the practice of construing an activity as more environmentally friendly than it really is. In that, it likens its precursor term whitewashing used to signify money laundering (i.e., the creation of value based on using resources that were illegally gained). Greenwashing references the concept of “whitewashing” (superficially painting over unsightly blemishes so as the object appears more valuable than it actually is), extended to the nonenvironmental activities of an organization. A charge that greenwashing is taking place involves individuals and organizations who question whether information regarding an activity's environmental friendliness is truthful. Typically, the charge is published with the intention of drawing public awareness to the responsible organization.
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A survey explores factors that lead to consumers' ambivalent attitudes about green products and buying green products. An experiment further tests the moderating influence of this ambivalence on consumer responses to green advertising that suggests the advertisers exert different levels of green efforts (low, moderate, high). A proposed model predicts that high-effort claims induce greater levels of discomfort among ambivalent participants, which encourage them to engage in motivated processing in which they discount the believability of the ad, as well as that of the green claims. As a result, evaluations of the product become more negative. The experimental findings confirm these predictions.
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As organizations seek to communicate with consumers who are concerned about the environment, advertisements containing environmental claims are becoming more prominent. While much has been written about environmental advertising, this phenomenon has seldom been examined systematically. This paper presents an empirical study which combines two classification schemes to create a matrix that identifies different types of environmental claims and the likelihood that such claims will be judged as misleading and/or deceptive. Results suggest that those claims which extol the environmental benefits of products and those that are designed to enhance the environmental image of an organization are most prone to be considered misleading and/or deceptive. Methods for improving environmental advertising are suggested.
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The authors construct a psychographic profile of the green consumer in terms of variables directly related to purchase behavior, such as price consciousness and general care in shopping, interest in new products, and brand loyalty. Additionally, they address attitudes toward advertising and media preferences. Data from 3264 respondents to the DDB Needham Life Style Study were analyzed. The results show the green consumer to be an opinion leader and a careful shopper who seeks information on products, including information from advertising, but also suggest that the green consumer is rather skeptical of advertising. The implications are that green consumers may be receptive to green marketing and advertising, but marketers should take care not to alienate them by using ambiguous or misleading messages.
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While the effect of nine-ending prices on purchases has been well documented, studies that examine the impact of this pricing technique in the context of advertisements are rare. This paper examines the joint effect of the pricing technique and message frames on the advertisement efficacy. Since a nine-ending price is compatible with gain-framed messages due to its gain image, we propose that nine-ending pricing strengthens the effectiveness of gain-framed messages (versus loss-framed messages) on the overall advertisement efficacy. The results of two experiments provide support for this hypothesis.
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Purpose- The purpose of this study is to determine which digital marketing strategies are preferred by Millennials and are effective in influencing their behavior. There is potential growth and value in using digital marketing aimed at Millennials, but the marketing strategies must be perceived positively by this online generation. Design/methodology/approach- Data were collected over a three-year period (2009 to 2011) by surveying Millennials at a prominent southwest US university. Findings- Results indicate that Millennials have a definite preference for certain forms of online advertising. There are digital marketing strategies that are considerably more effective in grabbing the attention of Millennials, motivating repeat visits to a web site, and encouraging Millennials to write online reviews. Practical implications- By taking into consideration the preferences of Millennials, the effectiveness of online communications and digital marketing aimed at this market segment can be increased. Recommendations are made regarding types of online advertising to use, how companies should design their web sites, how to motivate repeat visits to web sites, and how to encourage Millennials to write online reviews. Millennials are reading and being influenced by online reviews. Originality/value- Even though online advertising is the fastest growing advertising medium, only a small percentage of total advertising expenditures are currently being devoted to the internet. There is potential growth and value in using digital marketing aimed at Millennials, but the marketing strategies must be perceived positively by this generation.
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Global industrialization and the subsequent dwindling of many natural resources have become elements for product differentiation in marketing. Environmental certification programs are increasingly being recognized as significant market-based tools for linking manufacturing and consumer purchases. This research examines the relationships between intrinsic environmental motivations and the willingness-to-pay a premium for environmentally certified wood products. A conceptual model is proposed that captures the effects of perceptions, awareness and price on consumer willingness to purchase and pay a premium for environmentally certified forest products. The data suggest that there are positive correlations between the willingness-to-pay and the independent variables in the model, environmental consciousness, certification involvement and perceived importance of certification. A cluster of US consumers was identified that has a proclivity to purchase certified wood products and may be a logical target market.
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This paper provides a theoretical explanation for why firms behave as though they use round prices to signal quality. By replacing the linear demand curve in Bagwell and Riordan's (1991) price as a signal of quality model with a kinked demand curve, and analyzing what price endings firms are most likely to use, the following observations can be made: (1) Firms that are using high prices to signal quality are more likely to set those prices at round numbers, and (2) price-endings themselves are not necessarily signals of quality. A simulation was conducted to demonstrate that these findings generally hold true even in the presence of demand spikes at 9-ending prices (e.g., Schindler and Kibarian 1996). Finally, empirical evidence is provided to demonstrate that firms tend to use more round prices for higherquality products, and that this relationship is even stronger for product categories where consumers are less able to detect the true level of quality prior to purchase.
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Examines the determinants that influence consumers’ intention to buy environmentally friendly products. Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour (TPB) provides the conceptual framework of the research and the appropriateness of the theory and is tested in two distinct market conditions (UK and Greece). Although the findings offer considerable support for the robustness of the TPB in explaining intention in both samples, there is some indication that the theory is more appropriate in well established markets that are characterised by clearly formulated behavioural patterns (i.e. the model fitting elements of the UK sample are superior to the corresponding ones obtained from the Greek sample). The results are consistent with previous research on moral behaviour.
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Concerns related to the environment are evident in the increasingly ecologically conscious marketplace. Using various statistical analyses, investigats the demographic, psychological and behavioral profiles of consumers who are willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products. Finds that this segment of consumers were more likely to be females, married and with at least one child living at home. They reported that today’s ecological problems are severe, that corporations do not act responsibly toward the environment and that behaving in an ecologically favorable fashion is important and not inconvenient. They place a high importance on security and warm relationships with others, and they often consider ecological issues when making a purchase. Managerial implications for green marketers and suggestions for future research are discussed.
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Environmental concern has been an important topic for more than 40 years and has recently become even more critical with today's concerns about creating a sustainable and healthy environment. This research examines factors affecting an individual's willingness to pay more for an environmentally friendly product. Our results show that willingness to pay more differs across demographic groups. We also find that individuals who rate concern for waste as highly important are willing to spend more money on an eco-friendly product. Consequently, our findings provide insight into the development of appropriate educational strategies for different consumer groups to encourage consumers to purchase eco-friendly products, with a goal of creating a healthier environment for current and future generations.
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The author presents a conceptual model of brand equity from the perspective of the individual consumer. Customer-based brand equity is defined as the differential effect of brand knowledge on consumer response to the marketing of the brand. A brand is said to have positive (negative) customer-based brand equity when consumers react more (less) favorably to an element of the marketing mix for the brand than they do to the same marketing mix element when it is attributed to a fictitiously named or unnamed version of the product or service. Brand knowledge is conceptualized according to an associative network memory model in terms of two components, brand awareness and brand image (i.e., a set of brand associations). Customer-based brand equity occurs when the consumer is familiar with the brand and holds some favorable, strong, and unique brand associations in memory. Issues in building, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity are discussed, as well as areas for future research.
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The FTC is still in the process of reviewing public comments for its "Green Guides," and likely will issue a final guidance later this year. In the interim, industry members should begin reviewing the environmental claims now, as we would expect to see some enforcement activity once the revised "Green Guides" are finalized.
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The author presents a conceptual model of brand equity from the perspective of the individual consumer. Customer-based brand equity is defined as the differential effect of brand knowledge on consumer response to the marketing of the brand. A brand is said to have positive (negative) customer-based brand equity when consumers react more (less) favorably to an element of the marketing mix for the brand than they do to the same marketing mix element when it is attributed to a fictitiously named or unnamed version of the product or service. Brand knowledge is conceptualized according to an associative network memory model in terms of two components, brand awareness and brand image (i. e., a set of brand associations). Customer-based brand equity occurs when the consumer is familiar with the brand and holds some favorable, strong, and unique brand associations in memory. Issues in building, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity are discussed, as well as areas for future research.
Article
Whereas some firms embrace and successfully exploit pro-social consumer influence strategies (e. g., environmental positionings, cause-related promotions), other firms tend to downplay their effectiveness and are reluctant to pursue such strategies. The author's research findings reveal that important moderators, namely consumer trust in the marketing source and attributions of consumer responsibility, must be activated for pro-social positioning strategies to work. Moreover, the levels of the moderating variables appear to be critical in determining whether a pro-social positioning strategy achieves the intended effect or backfires, thereby jeopardizing product equity and market share.
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Past research has examined the effect of level of involvement (high vs. low) on subjects' reactions to persuasive communications. The authors suggest that high involvement can be differentiated into two types (cognitive vs. affective). By manipulating involvement level and type (low involvement, cognitive involvement, affective involvement), they show that the three different forms of involvement have different effects on how brand attitudes are formed. They also examine how music, as a peripheral persuasion cue, affects the process of brand attitude formation. The results indicate that the effect of music on brand attitude depends on the type and level of involvement. Music had a facilitative effect on brand attitude for subjects in the low involvement condition and a distracting effect for those in the cognitive involvement condition; its effect for those in the affective involvement condition was not clear. Alternative explanations of these results are offered and implications for advertising research are discussed.
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In a controlled experiment, use of the 99 rather than the 00 price ending (e.g., using $49.99 rather than $50.00) affects the impression created by a price advertisement. The 99 ending increases the likelihood that viewers judge an advertised price as relatively low and as representing a discount. However, in addition to these price-image effects, the 99 ending has negative effects on quality image in the ads sponsored by higher quality retailers. These results suggest that the choice of rightmost digits is an important executional variable in price advertising.
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The authors discuss several issues in the timing, construction, and analysis of manipulation and confounding checks in marketing experiments. A review of 34 experiments involving latent independent variables reported in the "Journal of Marketing Research" over the past decade suggests that most researchers are familiar with the concept of manipulation checks but few systematically evaluate potential sources of confounding in experimental manipulations. Three alternative approaches for assessing the construct validity of experimental manipulations also are discussed.
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The use of student samples in logistics research is a controversial issue that often invokes vigorous debate among scholars. Critics of the practice claim that students are not able to realistically describe logistics phenomena and do not represent a generalizable cross-section of practicing managers. These claims are valid for survey studies or qualitative methods that have traditionally dominated logistics research. However, in behavioral experiments that are focused on maximizing precision and control, student samples are often justified because of homogeneous sampling requirements and boundary conditions that include students within a theoretical framework. The objectives of this forward looking article are to explain when and why student samples are often appropriate in logistics research, generate additional discussion about the topic, and ultimately facilitate the growth of behavioral experimentation in logistics research.
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Through the cooperation of a direct-mail women's clothing retailer, we were able to conduct a well-controlled experiment testing the sales effect of using retail prices that end in the digits 99 rather than 00 (e.g., $29.99 rather than $30.00). The results indicated that the use of 99 endings led to increased consumer purchasing. This finding demonstrates the importance of the manager's decision concerning a price 's rightmost digits. © 1996 New York University. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.
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This study examines the effect of one content and two contextual advertising manipulations on several measures of attitude toward the ad (Aad). Results indicate that such antecedent variables, each of which requires some degree of cognitive processing of information, can impact Aad in excess of their effects on perceptions of the value of the deal. Results also show that Aad is a significant predictor of attitude toward the deal after covarying out the experimental manipulations and perceptions of the value of the deal. Findings suggest that separate measures of cognitive and affective dimensions of Aad may be more appropriate than the single composite measures which have typically been employed by Aad researchers.
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Increasingly, marketing academics advocate the use of multiple-item measures. However, use of multiple-item measures is costly, especially for service researchers. This article investigates the incremental information of each additional item in a multiple-item scale. By applying a framework derived from the forecasting literature on correlated experts, the authors show that, even with very modest error term correlations between items, the incremental information from each additional item is extremely small. This study’s “information” (as opposed to “reliability”) approach indicates that even the second or third item contributes little to the information obtained from the first item. Furthermore, the authors present evidence that added items actually aggravate respondent behavior, inflating across-item error term correlation and undermining respondent reliability. Researchers may want to consider the issue of item information in addition to reliability. This article discusses ways in which researchers can construct scales that maximize the amount of information scale items offer without compromising measurement reliability.
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Environmental appeals are becoming increasingly common in advertising, but all green ads are not created equal. The authors report the results of a content analysis designed to uncover the underlying structure of green advertising. A convenience sample of 95 green TV ads and 173 green print ads were content-analyzed. Multidimensional analysis indicates that the structure of green advertising can be captured in three dimensions: sponsor type (for-profit or nonprofit), ad focus (whether the ad focuses on the advertiser or the consumer), and depth of ad (shallow, moderate, or deep depending on the extent of environmental information mentioned). A majority of advertisers in the sample attempted to project a green corporate image rather than focusing on the environmental benefits of their product or service.
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The use of “just-below” pricing (such as pricing an item at $6.99 or $6.95, rather than $7.00) has been common in some segments of the hospitality industry (such as quick-service and mid-scale dining). The results of a detailed survey of the price-ending beliefs of hospitality managers show that many believe that just-below prices connote good value and round-number prices connote high quality. Furthermore, the majority of these managers believe that consumers tend to drop off or otherwise give insufficient consideration to a price’s rightmost digits. Although one might expect this drop-off belief among those managers who use just-below price endings, it is found also in a majority of those managers who do not use just-below price endings. The survey results suggest that managers who decline the benefits of a consumer drop-off tendency do so because they also believe in one or more possible negative consequences of using just-below price endings. These include the beliefs that just-below endings (1) impair perceptions of high quality, (2) work against an upscale image, (3) give an impression of not being fully honest or straightforward, and (4) involve inconvenience in calculating or communicating the price or in making change.
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A 9-item Likert-type scale was developed to measure consumer skepticism toward advertising Skepticism toward advertising, defined as the general tendency toward disbelief of advertising claims, was hypothesized to be a basic marketplace belief that vanes across individuals and is related to general persuasability. A nomological network was proposed, unidimensionality and internal consistency of the scale were established, and a series of studies were conducted to establish the scale's validity and to investigate the effects of ad skepticism.
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Explored in this study is the role of digit preference as a response style that helps explain the problems of recall and nonresponse bias in self‐report surveys of recreation participation. Digit preference is a tendency to guess participation by rounding estimates to values that end in zero or five. Recall bias was assessed by comparing three separate recall periods: extended, intermediate, and short. Nonresponse bias was assessed by conducting telephone interviews with subjects who had not responded to the initial requests. The dependent variable was the total number of days fished per month from April to June 1989. Analysis of variance and chi‐Square were used to explore the relationships among the three sources of bias. A significant Recall × Nonresponse × Digit Preference interaction was found. Results suggest that bias traditionally attributable to recall and nonresponse may be a function of digit preference. Ways of controlling for the effects of the three sources of bias on recreation participation estimates are discussed.
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Although prior research has addressed the influence of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on perceived customer responses, it is not clear whether CSR affects market value of the firm. This study develops and tests a conceptual framework, which predicts that (1) customer satisfaction partially mediates the relationship between CSR and firm market value (i.e., Tobin’s q and stock return), (2) corporate abilities (innovativeness capability and product quality) moderate the financial returns to CSR, and (3) these moderated relationships are mediated by customer satisfaction. Based on a large-scale secondary data set, the results show support for this framework. Notably, the authors find that in firms with low innovativeness capability, CSR actually reduces customer satisfaction levels and, through the lowered satisfaction, harms market value. The uncovered mediated and asymmetrically moderated results offer important implications for marketing theory and practice.
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This article proposes an integrated product classification scheme. It is argued that, in view of the 1985 definition of marketing, one classification for all products-goods, services, and ideas-is sufficient. This classification adds "preference" products to the conventional convenience, shopping, and specialty categories. These categories are defined in terms of the effort and risk dimensions of price-as perceived by both organizational and ultimate consumers.
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Purpose – This article aims to provide a comparison between the patterns of brand loyalty of five consumer groups – three groups of Millennials and two groups of Generation X consumers. To avoid reductionist generalizations, the study takes into account several market-related situations – considering three types of products and two types of services, and investigates also the differences between the customer loyalty profile in two European Union countries with a different level of economic development: France and Romania. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected and analyzed in three main phases: first, secondary data have been analyzed to identify and formulate the research framework; second, a series of focus groups have been conducted with French and Romanian consumers; and third, 500 questionnaires have been applied in each of the two investigated countries. Findings – The findings demonstrate the significant effect of the life-stage model, the Millennials and Generation X consumers included in similar life-stage groups displaying a highly similar pattern of brand loyalty behavior, and close preferences regarding the elements used for brand evaluation. On the other hand, the findings show important variations induced by the market-related situations, and by the different level of economic development of the two investigated countries. Practical implications – The findings of this study demonstrate the complexity of the brand loyalty effect and provide valuable insights into the brand loyalty behavior of five consumer groups both for academics and marketers. Originality/value – This study demonstrates that the effect of consumer life-stage on the brand loyalty behavior of various consumer groups is stronger than the inter-generational effect. This effect is demonstrated both for product and service brands, considering several market situations.
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The Journal of Consumer Research receives manuscripts on an almost daily basis in which researchers have dichotomized a continuous independent variable. From the Journal of Consumer Research's perspective, the relatively small investment in appropriately analyzing and presenting data involving a continuous independent variable is certainly justified compared to the costs of not doing so. I hope this editorial illustrates how easy it can be to present analyses that are performed appropriately. I hope that this editorial will help hasten a death to dichotomizing continuous independent variables-its day, I hope, is behind us. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Investigated response bias, in the form of "response peaks," in 228 adults who participated in a lottery-regulated hunt. Ss demonstrated a significant digit preference for values ending in 0 or 5 in the self report of number of days hunted per year and number of years hunted. Ss who exhibited a digit preference were significantly more variable and reported significantly higher mean values for number of days and years hunted. Response peaks appear to exist in leisure science. Because decisions relevant to planning and management of leisure service systems rely on self-reported data, validity may be enhanced by focusing on ways to reduce intersubject variability and by attending to issues relevant to experimental protocol. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)