Chapter

Agressie als emotionele disregulatie of doelgericht gedrag

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Full-text available
Article
The General Affective Aggression Model (GAAM) posits that variables that increase aggression do so by increasing aggressive affect, aggressive cognition, or arousal. The effects of trait hostility, pain, and cognitive cues on state hostility (Experiment 1), on lexical decisions for aggressive and control words (Experiment 2), on escape motives (Experiment 3), and on aggressive behavior (Experiment 4) are presented. Consistent with GAAM, trait hostility increased both flight and fight motives, presumably due to affective reactions. Pain also increased hostile affect but increased aggression only when aggressive thoughts were made highly accessible (i.e., after viewing gun pictures). Theoretical implications are discussed.
Full-text available
Article
This study extended prior work showing abnormal affect–startle modulation in psychopaths. Male prisoners viewed specific categories of pleasant (erotic or thrilling) and unpleasant (victim or direct threat) slide pictures, along with neutral pictures. Acoustic startle probes were presented early (300 and 800 ms) and late (1,800, 3,000, and 4,500 ms) in the viewing interval. At later times, nonpsychopaths showed moderate and strong reflex potentiation for victim and threat scenes, respectively. For psychopaths, startle was inhibited during victim scenes and only weakly potentiated during threat. Psychopaths also showed more reliable blink inhibition across pleasant contents than nonpsychopaths and greater heart rate orienting to affective pictures overall. These results indicate a heightened aversion threshold in psychopaths. In addition, deficient reflex modulation at early times suggested a weakness in initial stimulus evaluation among psychopaths. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Full-text available
Article
Research on human aggression has progressed to a point at which a unifying framework is needed. Major domain-limited theories of aggression include cognitive neoassociation, social learning, social interaction, script, and excitation transfer theories. Using the general aggression model (GAM), this review posits cognition, affect, and arousal to mediate the effects of situational and personological variables on aggression. The review also organizes recent theories of the development and persistence of aggressive personality. Personality is conceptualized as a set of stable knowledge structures that individuals use to interpret events in their social world and to guide their behavior. In addition to organizing what is already known about human aggression, this review, using the GAM framework, also serves the heuristic function of suggesting what research is needed to fill in theoretical gaps and can be used to create and test interventions for reducing aggression.
Full-text available
Article
Psychopathy is a severe personality disorder often leading to violent and disruptive antisocial behavior. Efficient and proper social behavior crucially relies on monitoring of one's own as well as others' actions, but the link between antisocial behavior in psychopathy and action monitoring in a social context has never been investigated. Event-related potentials were used to disentangle monitoring of one's own and others' correct and incorrect actions in psychopathic subjects (n = 18) and matched healthy control subjects (n = 18). The error-related negativity (ERN) was investigated following own and other's responses in a social flanker task. Although both groups showed similar event-related potentials in response to own actions, amplitudes after the observation of others' action-outcome were greatly reduced in psychopathy. More specifically, the latter was not unique to observed errors, because the psychopathic group also showed reduced brain potentials after the observation of correct responses. In contrast, earlier processing of observed actions in the motor system, as indicated by the lateralized readiness potential, was unimpaired. Monitoring of own behavior is not affected in psychopathy, whereas processing of the outcome of others' actions is disturbed. Specifically, although psychopathic individuals do not have a problem with initial processing of the actions of others, they have problems with deeper analyses of the consequences of the observed action, possibility related to the reward value of the action. These results suggest that aspects of action monitoring in psychopathy are disturbed in social contexts and possibly play a central role in the acquisition of abnormal social behavior.
Full-text available
Article
This study examines the prevalence, stability, and development of physical aggression, as reported by mothers and fathers, in a sample of children initially recruited at 12, 24, and 36 months (N 5 2,253) and in a subsample followed up 1 year later (n 5 271) in a cross-sequential design. Physical aggression occurred in 12-month-olds, but significantly more often in 24-and 36-month-olds. The rates of physically aggressive behaviors increased in the 2nd year of life, and declined from the 3rd birthday onward. Stabilities were moderate for 12-month-olds and high for 24-and 36-month-olds. At the ages of 24 and 36 months, boys were more aggressive than girls. The results confirm and extend R.E. Tremblay's (2004) hypothesis about the early development of physical aggression.
Full-text available
Article
We tested the hypothesis that the response mobilization that normally accompanies imagery of emotional situations is deficient in psychopaths. Cardiac, electrodermal, and facial muscle responses of 54 prisoners, assigned to low- and high-psychopathy groups using R. D. Hare's (1991) Psychopathy Checklist--Revised, were recorded while subjects imagined fearful and neutral scenes in a cued sentence-processing task. Groups did not differ on self-ratings of fearfulness, imagery ability, or imagery experience. Low-psychopathy subjects showed larger physiological reactions during fearful imagery than high-psychopathy subjects. Extreme scores on the antisocial behavior factor of psychopathy predicted imagery response deficits. Results are consistent with the idea that semantic and emotional processes are dissociated in psychopaths.
Full-text available
Article
The amygdala is thought to be an important neural structure underlying the "fight-or-flight" response, but information on its role in humans is scarce. The clinical and psychophysiological effects of amygdalar destruction were studied in 2 patients who underwent bilateral amygdalotomy for intractable aggression. After surgery, both patients showed a reduction in autonomic arousal levels to stressful stimuli and in the number of aggressive outbursts, although both patients continued to have difficulty controlling aggression. The "taming effect" reported after bilateral amygdalar destruction may be due to the amygdala's inadequate processing of perceived threat stimuli that would normally produce a fight-or-flight response.
Full-text available
Article
This paper considers neurocognitive models of aggression and relates them to explanations of the antisocial personality disorders. Two forms of aggression are distinguished: reactive aggression elicited in response to frustration/threat and goal directed, instrumental aggression. It is argued that different forms of neurocognitive model are necessary to explain the emergence of these different forms of aggression. Impairments in executive emotional systems (the somatic marker system or the social response reversal system) are related to reactive aggression shown by patients with "acquired sociopathy" due to orbitofrontal cortex lesions. Impairment in the capacity to form associations between emotional unconditioned stimuli, particularly distress cues, and conditioned stimuli (the violence inhibition mechanism model) is related to the instrumental aggression shown by persons with developmental psychopathy.
Full-text available
Article
Four models of psychopathy (frontal lobe dysfunction, response set modulation, fear dysfunction, and violence inhibition mechanism hypotheses) are reviewed from the perspective of cognitive neuroscience. Each model is considered both with respect to the psychopathy data and, more importantly, for the present purposes, with respect to the broader cognitive neuroscience fields to which the model refers (e.g., models of attention with respect to the response set modulation account and models of emotion with respect to the fear dysfunction and violence inhibition mechanism models). The paper concludes with an articulation of the more recent integrated emotion systems model, an account inspired both by recent findings in affective cognitive neuroscience as well as in the study of psychopathy. Some directions for future work are considered.
Full-text available
Article
Three experiments examined the effects of rewarding and punishing violent actions in video games on later aggression-related variables. Participants played one of three versions of the same race-car video game: (a) a version in which all violence was rewarded, (b) a version in which all violence was punished, and (c) a nonviolent version. Participants were then measured for aggressive affect (Experiment 1), aggressive cognition (Experiment 2), and aggressive behavior (Experiment 3). Rewarding violent game actions increased hostile emotion, aggressive thinking, and aggressive behavior. Punishing violent actions increased hostile emotion, but did not increase aggressive thinking or aggressive behavior. Results suggest that games that reward violent actions can increase aggressive behavior by increasing aggressive thinking.
Full-text available
Article
Psychopathy is associated with abnormalities in attention and orienting. However, few studies have examined the neural systems underlying these processes. To address this issue, the authors recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) while 80 incarcerated men, classified as psychopathic or nonpsychopathic via the Hare Psychopathy Checklist--Revised (R. D. Hare, 1991, 2003), completed an auditory oddball task. Consistent with hypotheses, processing of targets elicited larger frontocentral negativities (N550) in psychopaths than in nonpsychopaths. Psychopaths also showed an enlarged N2 and reduced P3 during target detection. Similar ERP modulations have been reported in patients with amygdala and temporal lobe damage. The data are interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that psychopathy may be related to dysfunction of the paralimbic system--a system that includes parts of the temporal and frontal lobes.
Full-text available
Article
This study examined the construct validity of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) by examining the relations between NPD and measures of psychologic distress and functional impairment both concurrently and prospectively across 2 samples. In particular, the goal was to address whether NPD typically "meets" criterion C of the DSM-IV definition of Personality Disorder, which requires that the symptoms lead to clinically significant distress or impairment in functioning. Sample 1 (n = 152) was composed of individuals receiving psychiatric treatment, whereas sample 2 (n = 151) was composed of both psychiatric patients (46%) and individuals from the community. Narcissistic personality disorder was linked to ratings of depression, anxiety, and several measures of impairment both concurrently and at 6-month follow-up. However, the relations between NPD and psychologic distress were (a) small, especially in concurrent measurements, and (b) largely mediated by impaired functioning. Narcissistic personality disorder was most strongly related to causing pain and suffering to others, and this relationship was significant even when other Cluster B personality disorders were controlled. These findings suggest that NPD is a maladaptive personality style which primarily causes dysfunction and distress in interpersonal domains. The behavior of narcissistic individuals ultimately leads to problems and distress for the narcissistic individuals and for those with whom they interact.
Full-text available
Article
Unchecked aggression and violence exact a significant toll on human societies. Aggression is an umbrella term for behaviours that are intended to inflict harm. These behaviours evolved as adaptations to deal with competition, but when expressed out of context, they can have destructive consequences. Uncontrolled aggression has several components, such as impaired recognition of social cues and enhanced impulsivity. Molecular approaches to the study of aggression have revealed biological signals that mediate the components of aggressive behaviour. These signals may provide targets for therapeutic intervention for individuals with extreme aggressive outbursts. This Review summarizes the complex interactions between genes, biological signals, neural circuits and the environment that influence the development and expression of aggressive behaviour.
Article
Objective: This study aimed to determine the population impact of patients with severe mental illness on violent crime. Method: Sweden possesses high-quality national registers for all hospital admissions and criminal convictions. All individuals discharged from the hospital with ICD diagnoses of schizophrenia and other psychoses (N=98,082) were linked to the crime register to determine the population-attributable risk of patients with severe mental illness to violent crime. The attributable risk was calculated by gender, three age bands (15-24, 25-39, and 40 years and over), and offense type. Results: Over a 13-year period, there were 45 violent crimes committed per 1,000 inhabitants. Of these, 2.4 were attributable to patients with severe mental illness. This corresponds to a population-attributable risk fraction of 5.2%. This attributable risk fraction was higher in women than men across all age bands. In women ages 25-39, it was 14.0%, and in women over 40, it was 19.0%. The attributable risk fractions were lowest in those ages 15-24 (2.3% for male patients and 2.9% for female patients). Conclusions: The population impact of patients with severe mental illness on violent crime, estimated by calculating the population-attributable risk, varies by gender and age. Overall, the population-attributable risk fraction of patients was 5%, suggesting that patients with severe mental illness commit one in 20 violent crimes.
Article
The long-term consequences of early prefrontal cortex lesions occurring before 16 months were investigated in two adults. As is the case when such damage occurs in adulthood, the two early-onset patients had severely impaired social behavior despite normal basic cognitive abilities, and showed insensitivity to future consequences of decisions, defective autonomic responses to punishment contingencies and failure to respond to behavioral interventions. Unlike adult-onset patients, however, the two patients had defective social and moral reasoning, suggesting that the acquisition of complex social conventions and moral rules had been impaired. Thus early-onset prefrontal damage resulted in a syndrome resembling psychopathy.
Article
Background Severe mental illness is associated with increased risk of aggressive behaviour, crime and victimisation. Mental health policy does not acknowledge this evidence. The number of forensic beds has risen dramatically. Aims To examine the prevalence of aggressive behaviour, victimisation and criminality among people receiving in-patient treatment for severe mental illness in an inner-city area. Method Self-reports of aggressive behaviour and victimisation and criminal records were collected for 205 in-patients with severe mental illness. Results In the preceding 6 months 49% of the men and 39% of the women had engaged in aggressive behaviour and 57% of the men and 48% of the women had been victims of assault; 47% of the men and 17% of the women had been convicted of at least one violent crime. Conclusions Aggressive behaviour and victimisation are common among severely mentally ill people requiring hospitalisation in the inner city. Rates of violentcrime are higher than in the general population.
Article
Hare (1978) has suggested that psychopaths may possess particularly effective coping mechanisms in the presence of impending aversive stimulation. These mechanisms may serve to attenuate anxiety so that the psychopath's behavior is less easily controlled by aversive consequences. To test this hypothesis, the heart rate (HR) and skin conductance level (SCL) of psychopaths and nonpsychopaths were compared across two countdown tasks. In Tasks 1, subjects heard a 120-db. tone following the countdown. In Task 2, subjects prevented the tone externally by pressing a button immediately following the countdown. The typical response pattern of psychopaths was present in Task 1, where they demonstrated increases in HR but relatively no increase in SCL. This response pattern dissipated, however, in Task 2 when the need to “cope” internally was removed. These results confirm the hypothesis that psychopaths may employ an effective coping response in anticipation of aversive stimuli.
Article
This chapter is followed by a commentary by Jane E. Ledingham, "Social Cognition and Aggression." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Studies addressing the relationship between neurotransmitter functioning and violent crime are reviewed. A rich literature exists to support the notion that monoamine (i.e., serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine) neurotransmitter functioning is related to human aggressive behaviour. Results from these studies provide, at best, indirect evidence that neurotransmitter abnormalities are involved in violent criminal behavior. Few studies have specifically addressed the role of neurotransmitter functioning in violent crime. To illustrate how current knowledge in this area has been applied in forensic settings, a case study in which neurotransmitter functioning was introduced as evidence to support an insanity defense is presented. Potential problems associated with such defenses are discussed. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The relationship between mental illness and violence has a significant effect on mental health policy, clinical practice, and public opinion about the dangerousness of people with psychiatric disorders. To use a longitudinal data set representative of the US population to clarify whether or how severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression lead to violent behavior. Data on mental disorder and violence were collected as part of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a 2-wave face-to-face survey conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. A total of 34 653 subjects completed NESARC waves 1 (2001-2003) and 2 (2004-2005) interviews. Wave 1 data on severe mental illness and risk factors were analyzed to predict wave 2 data on violent behavior. Reported violent acts committed between waves 1 and 2. Bivariate analyses showed that the incidence of violence was higher for people with severe mental illness, but only significantly so for those with co-occurring substance abuse and/or dependence. Multivariate analyses revealed that severe mental illness alone did not predict future violence; it was associated instead with historical (past violence, juvenile detention, physical abuse, parental arrest record), clinical (substance abuse, perceived threats), dispositional (age, sex, income), and contextual (recent divorce, unemployment, victimization) factors. Most of these factors were endorsed more often by subjects with severe mental illness. Because severe mental illness did not independently predict future violent behavior, these findings challenge perceptions that mental illness is a leading cause of violence in the general population. Still, people with mental illness did report violence more often, largely because they showed other factors associated with violence. Consequently, understanding the link between violent acts and mental disorder requires consideration of its association with other variables such as substance abuse, environmental stressors, and history of violence.
Article
This meta-analytic review of 148 studies on child and adolescent direct and indirect aggression examined the magnitude of gender differences, intercorrelations between forms, and associations with maladjustment. Results confirmed prior findings of gender differences (favoring boys) in direct aggression and trivial gender differences in indirect aggression. Results also indicated a substantial intercorrelation (r = .76) between these forms. Despite this high intercorrelation, the 2 forms showed unique associations with maladjustment: Direct aggression is more strongly related to externalizing problems, poor peer relations, and low prosocial behavior, and indirect aggression is related to internalizing problems and higher prosocial behavior. Moderation of these effect sizes by method of assessment, age, gender, and several additional variables were systematically investigated.
Article
Previous narrative reviews of the relation between antisocial behavior (ASB) and neuropsychological tests of executive functioning (EF) have raised numerous methodological concerns and produced equivocal conclusions. By using meta-analytic procedures, this study attempts to remedy many of these concerns and quantifies the relation between ASB and performance on six reasonably well validated measures of EF. Thirty-nine studies yielding a total of 4,589 participants were included in the analysis. Overall, antisocial groups performed .62 standard deviations worse on EF tests than comparison groups; this effect size is in the medium to large range. Significant variation within this effect size estimate was found, some of which was accounted for by differences in the operationalizations of ASB (e.g., psychopathy vs. criminality) and measures of EF. Evidence for the specificity of EF deficits relative to deficits on other neuropsychological tasks was inconsistent. Unresolved conceptual problems regarding the association between ASB and EF tests, including the problem of localizing EF tests to specific brain regions, are discussed.
Article
To establish the link between frontal lobe dysfunction and violent and criminal behaviour, based on a review of relevant literature. Articles relating evidence of frontal lobe dysfunction with violence or crime were collected through a MEDLINE search using the keyword "frontal lobe" combined with the terms "aggression," "violence," "crime," "antisocial personality disorder," "psychopathy," "impulse control disorders", and "episodic dyscontrol." Reference lists were then searched for additional articles. High rates of neuropsychiatric abnormalities reported in persons with violent and criminal behaviour suggest an association between aggressive dyscontrol and brain injury, especially involving the frontal lobes. The studies reviewed support an association between frontal lobe dysfunction and increased aggressive and antisocial behaviour. Focal orbitofrontal injury is specifically associated with increased aggression. Deficits in frontal executive function may increase the likelihood of future aggression, but no study has reliably demonstrated a characteristic pattern of frontal network dysfunction predictive of violent crime. Clinically significant focal frontal lobe dysfunction is associated with aggressive dyscontrol, but the increased risk of violence seems less than is widely presumed. Evidence is strongest for an association between focal prefrontal damage and an impulsive subtype of aggressive behaviour.
Article
To understand a psychiatric disorder we need to know why the pathology causes the behavioural disturbance, the neural structures implicated in the pathology and the cause of the dysfunction in the neural structures. With regard to psychopathy, we have clear indications regarding why the pathology
Article
As compared with 15 normal controls, " 'primary' sociopaths showed significantly less 'anxiety' on a questionnaire device, less GSR reactivity to a 'conditioned' stimulus associated with shock, and less avoidance of punished responses on a test of avoidance learning. The 'neurotic' sociopaths scored significantly higher on the Taylor Anxiety Scale and on the Welsh Anxiety Index." Cleckley's descriptive criteria were used. 24 references. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
This article considers potential roles of orbital frontal cortex in the modulation of antisocial behavior. Two forms of aggression are distinguished: reactive aggression elicited in response to frustration/threat and goal directed, instrumental aggression. It is suggested that orbital frontal cortex is directly involved in the modulation of reactive aggression. It is argued that orbital frontal cortex does not "inhibit" reactive aggression but rather may both increase or decrease its probability as a function of social cues present in the environment. Early dysfunction in this function of orbital frontal cortex may be linked to the development of Borderline Personality Disorder. Instrumental aggression is linked to a fundamental failure in moral socialization. However, the available data suggest that the amygdala, but not orbital frontal cortex, is required for functions such as aversive conditioning and passive avoidance learning that are necessary for moral socialization. Psychopathic individuals who present with significant instrumental aggression, are impaired in aversive conditioning and passive avoidance learning and show evidence of amygdala dysfunction. Orbital frontal cortex and the amygdala are involved in response reversal where instrumental responses must be reversed following contingency change. Impairments in response reversal are also seen in psychopathic individuals. However, it remains unclear whether impairment in response reversal per se is associated with antisocial behavior.
Article
The biological basis of psychopathy remains to be fully elucidated. Evidence suggests a genetic contribution and dysfunction of the serotonin system. The objective of this article is to review the contribution of the neuroimaging of the last decade to our understanding of psychopathy. A literature search was conducted using PubMed and the words psychopath, antisocial personality disorder, dissocial personality disorder, violence, image and imaging. In addition, the reference lists of the identified papers, and recent textbooks, were perused for additional sources. Five structural and 15 functional neuroimaging studies were selected and examined. Structural studies have reported decreased prefrontal grey matter, decreased posterior hippocampal volume and increased callosal white matter, but to this point, these have not been replicated. Functional studies suggest reduced perfusion and metabolism in the frontal and temporal lobes. Abnormalities of function have been reported, predominantly in frontal and temporal lobe structures during classical conditioning and response inhibition tasks, and in the processing of emotional words and pictures. Functional neuroimaging strongly suggests dysfunction of particular frontal and temporal lobe structures in psychopathy. However, there are difficulties in selecting homogeneous index cases and appropriate control groups. Further studies are necessary. Responses depend on genetic endowment, early life experience, the sociocultural context and the significance of any stimulus to the individual.
Article
We review here aggression-related human psychopathologies and propose that human aggressiveness is mainly due to three major factors: (i) brain dysfunction affecting aggression-controlling brain centers (e.g. in certain types of brain lesions, epilepsy, Alzheimer disease, etc.); (ii) hypoarousal associated with chronically low plasma glucocorticoids, which foster violence by diminishing emotional barriers that limit such behaviors (e.g. in conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder); (iii) hyperarousal which leads to irritability and outbursts (e.g. in depression, intermittent explosive disorder, chronic fatigue, etc.). Different disorders are associated with different types of aggressiveness; e.g. hypoarousal is often associated with instrumental aggression, whereas hyperarousal is associated with uncontrollable outbursts. Many psychological disorders have been simulated in laboratory models, which were used to assess aggressiveness. Little effort was invested, however, in assessing the abnormal dimension of such aggressiveness. We present here three models that appear especially suitable to assess abnormal aspects of rodent aggression: (i) abnormal attack targeting (head, throat, and belly) that is induced by hypoarousal in rats and models violence in hypoarousal-driven human aggression (ii) 'escalated' aggression (increased aggressive response due to frustration or instigation), which models irritability and hyperarousal-driven aggressiveness; and (iii) context-independent attacks induced by hypothalamic stimulation or genetic manipulations. These three models address different aspects of abnormal aggressiveness, and can become extremely useful in three areas: in evaluating and assessing models of human psychopathologies, in studying transgenic animals, and in developing new treatment strategies. Research based on these or similar models do not address aggressiveness in quantitative terms, but follows the development of abnormal aspects, and the possibilities of their specific treatment.
Article
In animals, strong evidence exists for an association between testosterone and aggression. In humans, and particularly in children and adolescents, findings have been less consistent. Previous research has suggested that this may partly be due to moderating effects of other factors, e.g., hormones. This study aims to investigate the moderating effect of cortisol on the relationship between testosterone and subtypes of aggression in delinquent male adolescents. Participants were 103 boys (mean age 13.7) referred to a delinquency diversion program. Testosterone and cortisol levels were determined from saliva samples collected during resting conditions and related to self-report scores on overt and covert aggression. Linear regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between cortisol and testosterone in relation to overt aggression, with a significant positive relationship between testosterone and overt aggression in subjects with low cortisol levels but not in subjects with high cortisol levels. Using the same model for covert aggression, no significant effects of testosterone, cortisol, or testosterone x cortisol interaction were found. These results indicate a moderating effect of cortisol on the relationship between testosterone and overt aggression in delinquent male adolescents. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
Article
Converging evidence from animal and human lesion studies implicates the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in emotional regulation and aggressive behavior. However, it remains unknown if functional deficits exist in these specific brain regions in clinical populations in which the cardinal symptom is impulsive aggression. We have previously shown that subjects diagnosed with intermittent explosive disorder (IED), a psychiatric disorder characterized by reactive aggressive behavior, perform poorly on facial emotion recognition tasks. In this study we employed a social-emotional probe of amygdala-OFC function in individuals with impulsive aggression. Ten unmedicated subjects with IED and 10 healthy, matched comparison subjects (HC) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while viewing blocks of emotionally salient faces. We compared amygdala and OFC reactivity to faces between IED and HC subjects, and examined the relationship between the extent of activation in these regions and extent of prior history of aggressive behavior. Relative to controls, individuals with IED exhibited exaggerated amygdala reactivity and diminished OFC activation to faces expressing anger. Extent of amygdala and OFC activation to angry faces were differentially related to prior aggressive behavior across subjects. Unlike controls, aggressive subjects failed to demonstrate amygdala-OFC coupling during responses to angry faces. These findings provide evidence of amygdala-OFC dysfunction in response to an ecologically-valid social threat signal (processing angry faces) in individuals with a history of impulsive aggressive behavior, and further substantiate a link between a dysfunctional cortico-limbic network and aggression.
Article
With the increasing popularity in the use of brain imaging on antisocial individuals, an increasing number of brain imaging studies have revealed structural and functional impairments in antisocial, psychopathic, and violent individuals. This review summarizes key findings from brain imaging studies on antisocial/aggressive behavior. Key regions commonly found to be impaired in antisocial populations include the prefrontal cortex (particularly orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), superior temporal gyrus, amygdala-hippocampal complex, and anterior cingulate cortex. Key functions of these regions are reviewed to provide a better understanding on how deficits in these regions may predispose to antisocial behavior. Objections to the use of imaging findings in a legal context are outlined, and alternative perspectives raised. It is argued that brain dysfunction is a risk factor for antisocial behavior and that it is likely that imaging will play an increasing (albeit limited) role in legal decision-making.
Impaired avoidance of social threat in individuals with psychopathy moderated by empathy
  • A K L Borries
  • I A C Volman
  • E R A Bruijn
  • De
  • B H Bulten
  • R J Verkes
  • K Roelofs
Borries, A.K.L. von, Volman, I.A.C., Bruijn, E.R.A. de, Bulten, B.H., Verkes, R.J. & Roelofs, K. (2012). Impaired avoidance of social threat in individuals with psychopathy moderated by empathy. Psychiatry Review, epub ahead of print.
Human aggression: Theoretical and empirical reviews
  • R G Geen
  • E I Donnerstein
Geen, R.G. & Donnerstein, E.I. (red.) (1990). Human aggression: Theoretical and empirical reviews (tweede editie). Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
The psychopath: Emotion and the brain
  • R J R Blair
  • D Mitchell
  • K Blair
Blair, R.J.R., Mitchell, D. & Blair, K. (2005). The psychopath: Emotion and the brain. Oxford: Blackwell.
Reactive and proactive aggression in children: A review of theory, fi ndings and the relevance for child and adolescent psychiatry
  • M Kempes
  • W Mattys
  • H Vries
  • H Engeland
  • Van
Kempes, M., Mattys, W., Vries, H. de & Engeland, H. van (2005). Reactive and proactive aggression in children: A review of theory, fi ndings and the relevance for child and adolescent psychiatry. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 14, 11-19.